Successfully reported this slideshow.

Basic overview of information technology and uses

5

Share

Upcoming SlideShare
Basic IT knowledge
Basic IT knowledge
Loading in …3
×
1 of 27
1 of 27

More Related Content

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 14 day trial from Scribd

See all

Basic overview of information technology and uses

  1. 1. Basic Overview of Information Technology and uses in Medicine and Dentistry Dr Ebtissam Al-Madi
  2. 2. Basic Overview of Information Technology and uses in Medicine and Dentistry 1. Types of Computers 2. Data Storage in Computers 3. Computer Hardware and Software 4. Computer Networks 5. Software Engineering 6. Challenges to Biomedical Computing Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 2 182 DEN
  3. 3. Informatics is not about technology • Technology is essential for acquisition and use of the focus: information • Decisions about technology impact how information is managed • Focus should be user-centered, not technology centered • “Old” technology is not necessarily bad if it still meets needs and is supportable • “New” technology can introduce new problems Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information 3 Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 182
  4. 4. Types of computers • Most powerful – Mainframes – largest and most expensive computers that serve many users – Supercomputers – powerful computers designed for massive processing and computation • Servers – Computers that serve many users and handle many transactions – Any computer from a PC to a mainframe can act as a server Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 4 182 DEN
  5. 5. Batman Laptop  • Personal computers (PCs) – Desktop and laptop and Apple Macintosh computers – Continue to increase in power, especially when on computer networks – Have essentially become a commodity – Intel shipped its one billionth computer chip in 2003 (Intel, 2003) • Tablet computers – Screen and power of laptop computer but even more portable – Touted as beneficial in health care but penetration remains modest (Malkary, 2004) Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information 5 Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 182
  6. 6. “Computers” are getting smaller • Personal digital assistants (PDAs) – Hand-held computers with high portability – Most popular platforms are Palm OS and Windows forHandhelds (Windows Mobile) – Primary form of input is mostly hand-writing recognition – Increasingly have wireless network capability – Highly popular among clinicians but limited by screen size, • Cell phones – Increasingly have cameras, Internet access, etc. – Value outweighs possible risk in health care settings Waiting for it  Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information 6 Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 182
  7. 7. How powerful are computers getting? • Everything from speed to size to cost per unit of power doubles every 18 Months. (Moore, 1965; Intel, 2004) Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information 7 Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 182
  8. 8. Data Storage in Computers Virtually all modern computers are digital, as opposed to analog • Digital means that – Most fundamental unit is discrete – Unit is the binary digit or bit, which can assume the values 0 or 1 – Or off/on, false/true, etc.. – A byte is a sequence of 8 bits (and can take on 28 or 256 values) • In contrast, analog systems have values on continuous scale • Examples of digital vs. analog – Timekeeping – Calculators vs. slide rules – Audio – LPs vs. CDs Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 8 182 DEN
  9. 9. Digital concepts – data representation • Bit sequences are used to represent numbers, text, images, and program instructions • All these sequences are stored in memory and architecture determines which is which. • Integer numbers are represented by straight sequences of bits. • Text is represented by codes (Unicode) • Images are represented by pixels Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 9 182 DEN
  10. 10. Is a picture worth a thousand words? Compare storage sizes Text Image • For text, each • A high-quality character is one display of a page byte requires about 1,200 • A single page may by 800 pixels, taking have an average of up (in B&W) around 50 characters per 120,000 bytes line over its 60 lines, • Adding 8-bit color taking up about would increase the 3,000 bytes size to nearly one million bytes Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 10 182 DEN
  11. 11. Digital points of reference • Chest x-ray 1200 x 800 pixels= 960,000 bytes • Average-sized text book=1-5 megabytes • Library of Congress= 20 terabytes Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information 11 Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 182
  12. 12. Sizes of storage media CD Floppy disks Flash DVD Hard Mainframe & Disk Memory Disks Disks Server Hard Disk 1,440 K 640- 1-20 4.2 GB 100s Terabyte ++ 700 MB GB GB Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 12 182 DEN
  13. 13. Computer Hardware and Software Hardware Software • Physical parts of • Instructions for Computer computer – Central processing – Operating system unit – Applications (CPU) – Programming – Memory languages and – Auxiliary storage development tools – Input and output devices Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information 13 Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 182
  14. 14. Auxiliary storage Active Archival • Active storage is • Archival storage is used for information information needed needed all the time less urgently, e.g., backup or older information Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information 14 Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 182
  15. 15. Input and output devices Input devices • Most common device is the keyboard • Mouse and trackpad • Pen input • Voice input Output devices • Monitor and printer • Computer speech Input devices Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 15 182 DEN
  16. 16. Computer software – operating systems • Provide file, display, • Some operating networking, etc., systems services to users and – Windows programmers – Macintosh OS • Users get file – Unix management, set-up – Open-source Linux and maintenance, – Novell Netware utilities – PalmOS, Windows for • Programmers get Handhelds (Windows standard interface to Mobile) various services such as file access, display, network connection, etc. Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information 16 Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 182
  17. 17. Programming languages • Computer programs run in • C, C++ – used in most machine language, the modern applications code of bits that gives • MUMPS – used in many instructions for moving early medical applications and manipulating data • Basic – used to be • “High level” computer common in PCs languages operate at a • Visual Basic used across higher level of abstraction, Microsoft applications hiding the complexity of moving and manipulating • Perl, Python, and others – data “scripting” languages for Unix and Web • Java – attempt to create standard language for Web applications Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information 17 Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 182
  18. 18. Open-source software Open source software in health care • Freely available and is • General managed by some sort – www.sourceforge.net of standardizing entity • Medical • Examples: Linux, – Veterans Administration mySQL, openEHR system Vista – http://www1.va.gov/CPR Sdemo/ – OpenEHR – www.openehr.org – www.freemedsoftware.or g – www.linuxmednews.org Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information 18 Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 182
  19. 19. Computer networks • Before Internet era, computers were either – Standalone (in the case of PCs) – Hard-wired terminals connected to the central unit (in the case of mainframes) • Most rapidly evolving and expanding technology today is the computer network Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information 19 Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 182
  20. 20. The Internet • Worldwide computer network bound together by TCP/IP • Not a single network, but many “internetworks” • Every device on the Internet has an Internet Protocol (IP) address • Internet-related terms – Intranet – Network local to organization that uses Internet technology – Extranet – Network limited to associates of an organization – Virtual private network (VPN) – the “new” WAN, allows distant network to appear local Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information 20 Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 182
  21. 21. Software applications on the Internet • Electronic mail • World Wide Web • Instant messaging • Application service provider (ASP) applications – store application and data remotely • PC is a terminal: – Advantage – connect from anywhere on network, up to- date version, data integrity – Disadvantage – constrained by network bandwidth and availability Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information 21 Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 182
  22. 22. • Internet and broadband use is higher among – Rich vs. poor – Younger vs. older – Developed vs. developing countries – Urban vs. rural – Caucasian and Asian vs. other ethnic groups • Use growing proportionately among various ethnic and age groups Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information 22 Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 182
  23. 23. Networking Health • Nothing about health applications is unique, i.e., we don’t need a separate “health Internet,” but current infrastructure is inadequate for many applications and priorities • “Availability” of networks is more important than “bandwidth” for most clinical applications – Can be compromised by the failure of individual components – Overload of system – Hostile attacks (hacking, viruses) Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information 23 Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 182
  24. 24. Important issues for system design • Quality and style of interface – Must be clear and consistent • Convenience and accessibility – Devices where needed and in adequate numbers • Speed and response time – Essential for busy clinicians • Reliability – Crucial as we become more dependent on them • Security – Essential as amount of data and connectivity grows • Integration – Interoperability of systems and data essential Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information 24 Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 182
  25. 25. Challenges to Biomedical Computing • Software reliability and safety • Software bugs • General system security • Spam email • Passwords • Persistent data • Intellectual property and patents Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information 25 Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 182
  26. 26. This weeks assignments 1. View this lecture online for review. 2. Read article: http://www.grassrootsdesign.com/intro/ This learner's guide is a long term project inspired by twelve years of teaching computers. The guide is being developed and updated as time permits. 3. Participate in week 3 discussion. 4. Answer Quiz week 3. View Read Discuss Quiz Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information 26 Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 182
  27. 27. • Please Post on discussion board as a new thread or email me at: ealmadi@ksu.edu.sa • Good Luck Dr Ebtissam AL-Madi Al-Madi EM. Basic Overview of Information Technology. Concept of Health Informatics 27 182 DEN

×