Sanitation, Setup & Knife Skills

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  • Food High protein sources are most common for bacteria to thrive Acidity/Alkalinity (ph) Neutral ph is best for most bacteria Time 4 hours total time in TDZ 2 stage cooling process 2 hours from 140 – 70 4 hours from 70 – 40 Temperature TDZ Foods must be re-heated to 165*F Oxygen Air Moisture The higher the water activity the greater the chance of bacterial growth
  • Temperature danger zone- Max time allowed is 4 hours HACCP- System of monitoring and record keeping that ensures proper documentation of food safety concerns are addressed. Goal is to prevent Food borne illness. Cross Contamination- Transfer of bacteria to food from food, equipment, people and utensils. Sources of Contamination- Hands, coughs, sneezes, equipment, utensils, air, water, vermin, insects, etc.
  • Proper methods to thawing food In the refrigerator. Safest method and allows the food to remain out of the temperature danger zone. Also the best method for quality because slow thawing helps prevent cellular breakdown in the product being thawed. In cold running potable water. If the entire product can be thawed within a two hour time limit. In the microwave if product will then be immediately cooked.
  • Roasting- Dry heat method. Mirepoix, baste on occasion, temperature-approx. 350F Grilling- Heat source below the product. Radiant heat. Broiling- Heat source located above the product. Radiant heat.Gas-180,000 BTU, Electric-15 Kw Advantages of broiling- very high heat, ideal for browning, intense flavor. Sauté- To jump. Minimal oil, hot pan, controlled, high heat. Fry- Deep fry- completely submerged in oil. 350-375F. Shallow fry- not completely submerged. Pan fry- less than ½ covered in oil. Standard Breading procedure- wet, dry, wet, dry. Enemies of Fat- Heat, water, time, Braising- Combination cooking method. Large pieces of meat. Sear, deglaze, cover 2/3 with liquid, cover, fork tender. Stewing- Similar to braising. Smaller pieces of meat, more liquid, longer cooking time. Searing does not retain the juices!!
  • Boiling- Rapid convection movement Simmering- Reduced convection movement,depouillage process,
  • Sanitation, Setup & Knife Skills

    1. 1. Sanitation & Setup & Knife Cuts
    2. 2. Classroom Policy <ul><ul><li>Proper uniform and grooming is required daily. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absenteeism and tardiness will be handled according to school policy as outlined in the student handbook. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A professional attitude and positive demeanor should be expressed at all times. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is mandatory to attend the class meal period. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no smoking while class is in session. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No outside food or beverages are allowed in class. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unless documented food allergy prohibits, students are required to participate in all product tasting. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Ten Commandments for a Chef 1. Practice punctuality every day of employment . 2. Practice perfect sanitation under any and all circumstances . 3 .Practice patience and politeness. 4. Practice the art of continuing your education. 5. Practice teamwork at ALL times. 6. Practice accepting responsibility. 7. Practice creating atmosphere free of argumentation and tension. 8. Practice conservation of energy, materials, and foodstuff. 9. Practice the production of high quality products . 10. Practice honesty and straightforwardness.
    4. 4. HACCP ( H azard A nalysis C ritical C ontrol P oint) <ul><li>HACCP- Seven Principle Steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Identify hazards and assess their severity and risks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Determine critical control points (CCP) in food preparation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Determine critical control limits (CCL) for each CCP identified. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Monitor critical control points and records data. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5. Establish effective record keeping system to document HACCP system. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Establish procedures to verify that HACCP system is working. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Take corrective action whenever monitoring indicates a critical limit is exceeded. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Mise En Place Everything in Place <ul><li>A state in which you are ready to begin work and: </li></ul><ul><li>The Recipe was Read and Understood. </li></ul><ul><li>All Your Ingredients are Available. </li></ul><ul><li>You Have all Tools and Smallwear Needed . </li></ul>
    6. 6. Work Station <ul><li>Cutting Board </li></ul><ul><li>Wet Towel Underneath </li></ul><ul><li>Unpeeled Vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Peelings / Scraps </li></ul><ul><li>Wash, Peel, Wash </li></ul><ul><li>Peeled Vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Finished </li></ul><ul><li>Cut Vegetables </li></ul>
    7. 7. Safety and Sanitation <ul><li>Kitchen Safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean spills immediately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep work area clean and dry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damp towel under cutting board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assume all pots are hot, use dry towels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry only what you can handle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not leave sharp items in the sink </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Sanitation <ul><li>Conditions for Bacterial Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acidity/Alkalinity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Sanitation <ul><li>Temperature Danger Zone (TDZ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>41 °F - 140°F </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of Food Contamination </li></ul>
    10. 10. Sanitation <ul><li>Thaw frozen foods safely </li></ul><ul><li>Hold food at proper temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Reheat to proper temperatures </li></ul>
    11. 11. Kitchen Safety <ul><li>Clean spills immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Keep work area clean and dry </li></ul><ul><li>Use a damp towel under the cutting board </li></ul><ul><li>Assume all pots are hot, use dry towels </li></ul><ul><li>Carry only what you can handle </li></ul><ul><li>Never place knives or other sharp items in the sink </li></ul>
    12. 12. Knives <ul><li>French knife </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paring knife </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Garnish, decorative, peeling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vegetable peeler </li></ul><ul><li>Boning knife </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separating muscle from bone or other muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honing </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Knives <ul><li>Parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting edge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back/Spine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bolster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tang </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heel </li></ul><ul><li>Rivets </li></ul>
    14. 14. Knife Alloys <ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to sharpen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pits, rusts, stains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High Carbon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairly easy to sharpen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tends not to rust </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stainless Steel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to sharpen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Durable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Super Stainless Steel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very hard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Craftsmanship, balance & comfort often reduced </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Heat Transfer <ul><li>Conduction : Direct exchange of heat by food touching a hot surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Convection : The exchange of heat through a liquid or gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation : Heat transferred by waves of energy </li></ul>
    16. 16. Vegetable Cuts <ul><li>Brunoise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/8” Dice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Macedoine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>¼” Dice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parmentier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>½” Dice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Julienne </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/8” x 1/8” x 1½- 2” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mirepoix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough chop of mixture of vegetables. Size depends on use. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17.
    18. 18. Proper Feet Placement
    19. 19.
    20. 20.
    21. 21.
    22. 22.
    23. 23. Weights and Measures <ul><li>Measures (Volume) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume is the space that something takes up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 gallon = 4 qt = 8 pt = 16 c = 128 fl. oz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 quart = 2 pt = 4 c = 32 oz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 pint = 2 c = 16 fl. oz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 cup = 8 fl. oz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 tablespoon = 3 tsp </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 fl. oz = 2 T = 6 tsp </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. CONVECTION - INDIRECT HEAT IN MOTION OVEN (FAN) BOILING / SIMMERING CONDUCTION – DIRECT STOVE TOP SAUTE RADIATION – INDIRECT RADIANT HEAT BROILER GRILL MICROWAVE Transfer of Heat
    25. 25. MOIST HEAT BOILING - SIMMERING - STEAMING DRY HEAT BAKING - ROASTING - SEARING SAUTEEING COMBINATION ( MOIST & DRY ) STEWING - BRAISING Cooking Methods
    26. 26. Cooking Methods Dry Dry with oil Moist Combination Roast Sauté Poach (150-185) Braise Bake Shallow Fry Simmer (185-200) Stew Grill Pan Fry Boil (212) Broil Deep Fat Fry Steam (212+)
    27. 27. Cooking Methods <ul><li>Moist Cooking Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>212 °F at sea level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simmering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>185 °F to 200°F at sea level </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><li>CONDUCTION / CONVECTION TRANSFER OF HEAT </li></ul><ul><li>MOIST COOKING METHOD ( LIQUID MEDIUM) </li></ul><ul><li>FEW FOOD PRODUCTS REQUIRE BOILING </li></ul><ul><li>A RAPID CONVECTION MOVEMENT TAKES PLACE DURING THE BOILING PROCESS. AS A RESULT, PRODUCTS MORE RESILIENT TO SUCH MOVEMENT ARE COOKED BY THIS METHOD. </li></ul>Bouillir - To Boil 212 ° F (Sea Level)
    29. 29. <ul><li>BOUILLIR - TO BOIL : continuation </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCT IS USUALLY COMPLETELY SUBMERGED IN THE LIQUID. </li></ul><ul><li>WATER, MILK, STOCK, AND COURT-BOUILLON ARE THE MOST COMMON LIQUIDS USED AS A MEDIUM. </li></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>CONDUCTION / CONVECTION </li></ul><ul><li>MOIST HEAT COOKING METHOD </li></ul><ul><li>SLOW MOVEMENT OF LIQUID </li></ul><ul><li>ADVANTAGES OVER BOILING </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LESS SHRINKING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LESS EVAPORATION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LESS BREAKUP OF FRAGILE FOOD, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e.-FISH </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Mijoter – To Simmer 185 ° F - 200 °F (Sea Level)

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