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PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 1 ISSAT
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
The various ma...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 2 ISSAT
1.1 NEED FOR AUTOMATION
Automation ca...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 3 ISSAT
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
R.Magutee...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 4 ISSAT
In advanced shaping machine the verti...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 5 ISSAT
sensed by the microcontroller to star...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 6 ISSAT
multiple machines often results in mu...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 7 ISSAT
It is not unusual for the total of al...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 8 ISSAT
 Thread Rolling on a planetary syste...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 9 ISSAT
CHAPTER 3
DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENTS
D...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 10 ISSAT
An induction motor is sometimes call...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 11 ISSAT
seen by the rotor (the slip speed) t...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 12 ISSAT
3.4 TYPES OF ROTOR
There are differe...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 13 ISSAT
Fig.3.2 Drill Bit Nomenclature
Drill...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 14 ISSAT
have inserts of cemented carbide to ...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 15 ISSAT
important to notice that the amount ...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 16 ISSAT
The reason the cam acts as a lever i...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 17 ISSAT
3.8.1 Characteristics and Properties...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 18 ISSAT
2. Phosphate ester based synthetic h...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 19 ISSAT
Common viscosity of hydraulic oils i...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 20 ISSAT
4. Always keep the jack in vertical ...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 21 ISSAT
the pitch surface and the axis. The ...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 22 ISSAT
which the load is carried by rolling...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 23 ISSAT
3.10.1 Ball bearings
Fig. 3.6 Ball B...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 24 ISSAT
3.10.3 Thrust ball bearings
Fig.3.8 ...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 25 ISSAT
bearings are used in many car hubs, ...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 26 ISSAT
For holding parts that cannot be cla...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 27 ISSAT
push or pull stroke. In normal use, ...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 28 ISSAT
CHAPTER 4
DESIGN AND DRAWING
The mec...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 29 ISSAT
4.2 DRAWING FOR MOTORIZED MULTI PURP...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 30 ISSAT
FABRICATED MOTORIZED MULTIPURPOSE MA...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 31 ISSAT
4.3 CALCULATIONS
1. Drilling Speed
N...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 32 ISSAT
CHAPTER 5
WORKING PRINCIPLE
Here the...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 33 ISSAT
CHAPTER 6
MERITS & DEMERIT
6.1 MERIT...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 34 ISSAT
CHAPTER 7
APPLICATION
 Used in smal...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 35 ISSAT
CHAPTER 8
LIST OF MATERIALS
The vari...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 36 ISSAT
8.2 MANUFACTURING CASE
Sometimes the...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 37 ISSAT
Table 8.1 Cost of Particulars
Sl.No....
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 38 ISSAT
CHAPTER 9
COST ESTIMATION
1. LABOUR ...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 39 ISSAT
CHAPTER 10
FUTURE IMPLEMENTATION
 W...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 40 ISSAT
CHAPTER 11
CONCLUSION
This project i...
PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 41 ISSAT
REFERANCE
[1] R Maguteeswaran1,M Din...
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  1. 1. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 1 ISSAT CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The various machining process in manufacturing industries are carried out by separate machining machine. It need more space requirement and time with high expenses. But the fabrication of multi operation machine, which contains three operations in a single machine. The operations are namely drilling, slotting and shaping. It is a new concept specially meant to reduce the work time and save the cost. Instead of using a slotting machine we are using the special arrangements for slotting operation in the drilling machine same for the shaping operation also, so we can save the investment cost of exceed slotting and shaping machine in the industries. The machine operates through drilling machine with the bevel gear and cam mechanism arrangements. Hence exactly we can carry out three operations in this machine, namely drilling, slotting and shaping. It is a simple in construction and easy to operate. Driller, Bevel gear, Drill bit, Chuck, Cam mechanism, bearings, slotting tool, Hacksaw and guide are the main parts used in this machine. The various machining process in manufacturing industries are carried out by separate machining machine. It need more space requirement and time with high expenses. But the fabrication of multi operation machine, which contains three operations in a single machine. The operations are namely drilling, slotting and shaping. It is a new concept specially meant to reduce the work time and save the cost. Instead of using a slotting machine we are using the special arrangements for slotting operation in the drilling machine same for the shaping operation also, so we can save the investment cost of exceed slotting and shaping machine in the industries. The machine operates through drilling machine with the bevel gear and cam mechanism arrangements. Hence exactly we can carry out three operations in this machine, namely drilling, slotting and shaping. It is a simple in construction and easy to operate. Driller, Bevel gear, Drill bit, Chuck, Cam mechanism, bearings, slotting tool, Hacksaw and guide are the main parts used in this machine. In this project we are fabricate the multi operating machine using for the different application. These projects we are using motor and gear arrangement to operate the machine are any multiple type various machining process variable operation. Some needs of automation are described below.
  2. 2. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 2 ISSAT 1.1 NEED FOR AUTOMATION Automation can be achieved through computers, hydraulics, pneumatics, robotics, etc., of these sources, pneumatics form an attractive medium for low cost automation.The main advantages of all pneumatic systems are economy and simplicity. Automation plays an important role in mass production. Nowadays almost all the manufacturing process is being atomized in order to deliver the products at a faster rate. The manufacturing operation is being atomized for the following reasons.  To reduce man power  To reduce the work load  To reduce the production time  To reduce the fatigue of workers
  3. 3. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 3 ISSAT CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW R.Maguteeswaran1, M.Dineshkumar, R.Dineshkumar, K.Karthi, R.Sabariselvan. “Fabrication of multi process machine”. International journal of research in Aeronautical and mechanical engineering. The multi process machine is used to do the multi operations like Drilling, Cutting, Slotting at a time and which is used to save the time and space requirement of an industry. The main concept of machine is to do the operations like slotting and shaping by the use of drilling operation using cam arrangement. Here the bevel gear arrangement is used for carrying out the operations. Bevel gear is used to perpendicular (90) power transmission. One of the bevel gear is connected with the motor and another one with the drill chuck hence when the motor is rotated the drill chuck also rotates. The motor pulley shaft is connected to a cam arrangement on the other side. Cam arrangement converts rotary motion into reciprocating motion and the reciprocating motion is used for the slotting and shaping operation. The slotting toll and shaping tool are guided by a horizontal guide bush. The up down table is mounted on a hydraulic bottle jack piston rod hence when the bottle jack handle is pumped the table height can be adjusted according to the requirement when the after the process is completed the pressure should be released through pressure relief valve to make the table come down. A vice is mounted on the table to hold the work piece. M. Anil Prakash, Nalla Japhia Sudarsan, K. Pavan Kumar and K.Ch.Sekhar. “Advanced shaper”,International Monthly Refereed Journal of Research In Management & Technology. Vol II july 13 A shaping machine (usually called shaper) is mainly used for producing flat surfaces, which may be horizontal, vertical or inclined. Sometimes irregular or curved surfaces are also produced by shapers. In existing shaping machines the stroke length can be varied depends upon the changing the distance between centre of the bull gear and pivot pin. It means the pivot pin will move away or towards the centre of the bull gear.
  4. 4. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 4 ISSAT In advanced shaping machine the vertical slots are provide on one side of the shaping machine. The slots can be used to move vertically (either upwards or downwards) the bull gear position. It makes us easy to change the bull gear position. It means centre of the bull gear position can be moved away or towards the pivot pin. When the bull gear is move downwards or towards the pivot pin, stroke length can be increased or vice versa. In advanced shaping machine the stroke length can be varied in two types, one is to change the distance between centre of the bull gear and crank pin and another is to change the vertical distance between centre of the bull gear and pivot pin. So in an advanced shaping machine, without changing the diameter of the bull gear and height of shaping machine, we can increase the stroke length greatly. D.V.Sabariananda1, V.Siddhartha1, B.Sushil Krishnana1, T.Mohanraj. “Design and Fabrication of Automated Hacksaw Machine”. Second National Conference on Trends in Automotive Parts Systems and Applications (TAPSA-2014). Volume 3, Special Issue 2, April 2014. The objective of this work is to automate the conventional power hacksaw machine in order to achieve high productivity of work-pieces than the power hacksaw machine using Microcontroller. The automated machine acquires two inputs from the user namely the number of pieces to be cut and the length of each piece that is required to be cut. The inputs are given by the user with the help of a keypad and an LCD display, which will help the user to verify the data given by him. The operator need not measure the length of the work-piece that is to be cut and to load and unload the work-piece from the chuck each time after a piece has been cut. After acquiring the two inputs from the user, the machine automatically feeds the given length of work-piece in to a chuck and starts to cut till the given number of work-pieces has been cut. The machine feeds the work-piece with the help of a conveyor, which is driven by a DC motor and an IR sensor ensures that the feeding stops when the specified length has been reached. A pneumatic cylinder is used for holding the work- piece when cutting operation is done. An AC motor is used to bring about the reciprocating motion required for cutting the work-pieces. There is a self-weight attached with the reciprocating mechanism to provide the necessary downward force required for penetration of hacksaw blade in to the work-piece. When a single piece has been cut, a limit switch will get triggered by the self-weight mechanism, which is
  5. 5. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 5 ISSAT sensed by the microcontroller to start the cyclic operation again provided if the specified number of work-pieces has not been cut. Gautam Jodh , Piyush Sirsat , Nagnath Kakde , Sandeep Lutade. “Design of low Cost CNC Drilling Machine”. International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 2, Issue 2, Feb-Mar 2014. A drilling machine is a device for making holes in components. The manuall operated type of drilling machine creates problems such as low accuracy, high setup time, low productivity, etc. A CNC machine overcomes all these problems but the main disadvantage of a CNC drilling machine is the high initial cost and requirement of skilled labour for operating the machine. Hence, there arises a need for a low cost CNC machine which can not only drill holes with high accuracy and low machining time but also have low initial cost. The need for skilled operator is eliminated by providing a software with a more user friendly graphical user interface. The observations about operator utilization, a rather controversial and complex subject. If you would like to comment, please e-mail me and explain how your own experiences compare with what I say. I’ll relate the responses I get in an upcoming column. Columns From: 1/1/2008 Modern Machine Shop, Mike Lynch Many companies use one operator to run more than one CNC machine. Indeed, I’d bet the majority of companies in the United States use at least some of their operators in this manner. Several factors contribute to the wisdom of having one operator run two or more CNC machines. Some of the most important considerations include lot sizes; cycle times; setup times; machine costs versus operator costs; urgency of getting jobs done; and even availability of skilled operators in your area In many cases, I disagree with the decision to use one operator to run multiple machines—at least from a cost standpoint. I’ve been in many companies in which using operators in this fashion actually costs more than having a separate operator run each machine. I suspect that at least part of the reason some companies have one operator running multiple machines are that management just can’t stand to see someone idle. While this may be an important concern, a hasty decision to have one operator run
  6. 6. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 6 ISSAT multiple machines often results in much lower overall machine output. Again, this may cost more than having a separate operator run each machine. My discussions will be limited to comparing costs from having a separate operator for each machine, as opposed to one operator for two machines. This means, of course, that you must know your costs. The only costs in this equation are machine cost and operator cost. 2.1 MACHINE COST For this purpose, machine cost is the hourly rate a company pays to use the machine (not the cost your company charges for the machine’s use). At the very least, it is the monthly payment a company makes (loan/lease) divided by the number of hours per month the machine is in use. There is usually much more involved with determining machine cost than just the monthly payment. Cost of upkeep, which includes preventive maintenance, lubricants, coolant and even crash repair, should be included in your machine-cost calculation. Some companies also include the cost of floor space the machine requires. Note that I’m not including tooling of any kind in the machine cost. We need only the amount of money your company must pay per hour for the machine’s use. (By the way, if no one in your company can tell you the cost of each machine, find out why.) Machine cost should be an important factor in determining the amount of profit your company makes for each job you do or the product you sell. For accounting purposes, some companies apply a blanket rate to the machines they own. For these companies, every machine the company owns—be it a $5,000 knee mill or a $200,000 CNC machine—has the same cost per hour. This may be good for approximating purposes, but it won’t be accurate enough for making wise decisions related to operator utilization. 2.2 OPERATOR COST Again, we’re looking for a cost per hour. This cost will, of course, include the operator’s wages. But like machine cost, there is more involved with determining operator cost. All benefits the operator receives (insurance, employment taxes and retirement-fund contributions) are among the costs you must consider.
  7. 7. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 7 ISSAT It is not unusual for the total of all benefits to equal or exceed the operator’s hourly wage. For our examples, we’ll simply double the operator’s hourly wage for the operator cost. 2.3 QUICK COMPARISON The more the operator’s cost, the more advantageous it will be to have one operator run two or more machines. The more each machine’s cost, the less advantageous it will be to have one operator run two or more machines. In many companies I’ve visited, a manager can point out every penny that goes into what an operator costs (again, wages plus benefits). One company I visited even includes the cost of the parking space the operator uses to park his or her car. However, when it comes to machine costs, they are not nearly so knowledgeable and diligent. Again, having an accurate value for both operator and machine cost is of paramount importance to making wise operator-utilization decisions. Inflated operator costs and/or devalued machine costs lead to poor operator-utilization decisions. It will appear that using one operator for two or more machines is more cost-effective than it really is. Though I may be getting ahead of myself a bit, note that the maximum cost benefit you can expect per hour is the cost of one operator. Think about it. When you have one operator running two machines instead of a separate operator for each machine, the most you can gain per hour is the hourly cost of one operator. The VAS-T machines incorporate secondary operations with traditional thread rolling and bending. Machines are capable of performing the following operations:  Wire feeding and straightening by Videx’s reciprocating straightener.  Cutting to precise length, using a positive stop with a short cut sensor.  Secondary Operations Including; Chamfer Cutting, Cross Drilling, End Drilling, Flattening, Stamping, Marking, Grooving, or even Assembly of pins, washers, or flux balls, etc.
  8. 8. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 8 ISSAT  Thread Rolling on a planetary system, using the “Controlled Start Technique”.  Bending optional) using the “Slide Die Bender” adjustable throughout the machine range. The VAS-T line is used for production of a wide range of parts such as B7 Studs, Weld Studs, Long blanks for long Headed Bolts, Bicycle Shafts with rounded ends, Pre-pointed Bolts, Blanks for High Tensile Steel and Stainless Steel Threaded Rods. The chips from the turning process are separated and diverted into a bin outside the machine. The machines are equipped with a Quick-Change System, which allows effective manufacturing of short production batches, using less skilled operators. The VAS-T line has the capacity to combine any number and any combination of operations in one machine. Expected production rates are 30-60 PPM, depending upon the type of secondary operations.
  9. 9. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 9 ISSAT CHAPTER 3 DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENTS Different equipments are used in fabrication of multipurpose machine, and they are described below 3.1 INDUCTION MOTOR (IM) An induction motor (IM) is a type of alternating current motor where power is supplied to the rotating device by means of electromagnetic induction. It is also called asynchronous motor. An electric motor converts electrical power to mechanical power in its rotor (rotating part). There are several ways to supply power to the rotor. In a DC motor this power is supplied to the armature directly from a DC source, while in an induction motor this power is induced in the rotating device. Fig.3.1 Motor
  10. 10. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 10 ISSAT An induction motor is sometimes called a rotating transformer because the stator (stationary part) is essentially the primary side of the transformer and the rotor (rotating part) is the secondary side. Induction motors are widely used, especially polyphase induction motors, which are frequently used in industrial drives. Induction motors are now the preferred choice for industrial motors due to their rugged construction, absence of brushes (which are required in most DC motors) and thanks to modern power electronics the ability to control the speed of the motor. 3.2 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION AND COMPARISON TO SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS The basic difference between an induction motor and a synchronous AC motor is that in the latter a current is supplied onto the rotor. This then creates a magnetic field which, through magnetic interaction, links to the rotating magnetic field in the stator which in turn causes the rotor to turn. It is called synchronous because at steady state the speed of the rotor is the same as the speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator. By way of contrast, the induction motor does not have any direct supply onto the rotor; instead, a secondary current is induced in the rotor. To achieve this, stator windings are arranged around the rotor so that when energized with a polyphase supply they create a rotating magnetic field pattern which sweeps past the rotor. This changing magnetic field pattern induces current in the rotor conductors. These currents interact with the rotating magnetic field created by the stator and in effect cause a rotational motion on the rotor. However, for these currents to be induced, the speed of the physical rotor and the speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator must be different, or else the magnetic field will not be moving relative to the rotor conductors and no currents will be induced. If by some chance this happens, the rotor typically slows slightly until a current is re-induced and then the rotor continues as before. This difference between the speed of the rotor and speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator is called slip. It is unit less and is the ratio between the relative speed of the magnetic field as
  11. 11. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 11 ISSAT seen by the rotor (the slip speed) to the speed of the rotating stator field. Due to this an induction motor is sometimes referred to as an asynchronous machine. 3.3 CONSTRUCTION The stator consists of wound 'poles' that carry the supply current to induce a magnetic field that penetrates the rotor. In a very simple motor, there would be a single projecting piece of the stator (a salient pole) for each pole, with windings around it; in fact, to optimize the distribution of the magnetic field, the windings are distributed in many slots located around the stator, but the magnetic field still has the same number of north-south alternations. The number of 'poles' can vary between motor types but the poles are always in pairs (i.e. 2, 4, 6, etc.). Induction motors are most commonly built to run on single-phase or three- phase power, but two-phase motors also exist. In theory, two-phase and more than three phase induction motors are possible; many single-phase motors having two windings and requiring a capacitor can actually be viewed as two-phase motors, since the capacitor generates a second power phase 90 degrees from the single-phase supply and feeds it to a separate motor winding. Single-phase power is more widely available in residential buildings, but cannot produce a rotating field in the motor (the field merely oscillates back and forth), so single-phase induction motors must incorporate some kind of starting mechanism to produce a rotating field. They would, using the simplified analogy of salient poles, have one salient pole per pole number; a four-pole motor would have four salient poles. Three-phase motors have three salient poles per pole number, so a four-pole motor would have twelve salient poles. This allows the motor to produce a rotating field, allowing the motor to start with no extra equipment and run more efficiently than a similar single-phase motor.
  12. 12. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 12 ISSAT 3.4 TYPES OF ROTOR There are different types of rotor are avalabile for the opereations called slip ring rotor, solid core rotor 3.4.1 Squirrel-Cage Rotor The most common rotor is a squirrel-cage rotor. It is made up of bars of either solid copper (most common) or aluminum that span the length of the rotor, and are connected through a ring at each end. The rotor bars in squirrel-cage induction motors are not straight, but have some skew to reduce noise and harmonics. 3.4.2 Slip Ring Rotor A slip ring rotor replaces the bars of the squirrel-cage rotor with windings that are connected to slip rings. When these slip rings are shorted, the rotor behaves similarly to a squirrel-cage rotor; they can also be connected to resistors to produce a high-resistance rotor circuit, which can be beneficial in starting 3.4.3 Solid Core Rotor A rotor can be made from solid mild steel. The induced current causes the rotation. 3.5 DRILLING MACHINE Drilling is a machine process by which a hole is produced or enlarged by a drill. Drill is a revolving tool. It is usually the most effective and economic method of producing hole in solid materials. The hole is produced either by giving movement to the rotating drill or moving the work axially against the rotating drill. Drilling machine is more suitable than lathe and vertical milling machine. Drilling machine can also be used for boring, reaming, tapping and spot facing. It is specific type of end cutting tool called drill. It is used for drilling holes. It carries the cutting edge at the flat end or at the end of flute.
  13. 13. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 13 ISSAT Fig.3.2 Drill Bit Nomenclature Drilling tool is a cylindrical end-cutting tool used to originate or enlarge circular holes in solid material. Usually, drills are rotated by a drilling machine and fed into stationary work, but on other types of machines a stationary drill may be fed into rotating work or drill and work may rotate in opposite directions. To form the two cutting edges and to permit the admission of a coolant and the ejection of chips, two longitudinal or helical grooves or flutes are provided. The point, or tip, of a drill is usually conical in shape, and it has cutting edges where the flutes end. The angle formed by the tapering sides of the point determines how large a chip is taken off with each rotation of the drill. The degree of twist of the helical flutes also affects the drill’s cutting and chip- removal properties. For general-purpose twist drills the helix angle is about 32°. The angle formed by the two sides of the tapering point is 118° for standard drills, while for drilling tough metals, a flatter point with a 135° angle is recommended. The peripheral portion of the drill body not cut away by the flutes is called the land, and to reduce friction and prevent the land from rubbing against the sides of the hole, most of the land is cut away, leaving a narrow ridge called the margin that follows the edge of the side of the flute that forms the cutting edge. The fluted part, or body, of a drill is either hardened high-carbon steel or high-speed steel; other drills
  14. 14. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 14 ISSAT have inserts of cemented carbide to form cutting edges or are made from sintered- carbide rods. The shanks of twist drills are either straight or tapered and when not integral with the body are made from low-carbon steel and welded to the body. Straight-shank drills must be gripped in a chuck; tapered shanks fit with a sticking taper in matching holes in the machine and are driven partly by the taper and partly by a tang that fits in a slot in the machine. For enlarging cored, punched, or drilled holes, core drills are particularly suited. These have three or four flutes, and because the cutting edges do not extend to the centre of the drill, they cannot originate holes in solid materials. Cutting is accomplished by a chamfered edge at the end of each flute. 3.6 BELT AND PULLEY Belt and pulley mechanism is provided for transmitting drive from the motor to drill spindle and cam arrangement. 3.6.1 Pulley A pulley is a wheel with a groove along its edge, also called a sheave, for holding a rope or cable. Pulleys are usually used in sets designed to reduce the amount of force needed to lift a load. The same amount of work is necessary for the load to reach the same height as it would without the pulleys. The magnitude of the force is reduced, but it must act through a longer distance. The effort needed to pull a load up is roughly the weight of the load divided by the number of wheels. The more wheels there are, the less efficient a system is, because of more friction between the rope and the wheels. The pulleys and lines are weightless, and that there is no energy loss due to friction. It is also assumed that the lines do not stretch. With this assumption, it follows that, in equilibrium, the total force on the pulley must be zero. This means that the force on the axle of the pulley is shared equally by the two lines looping through the pulley. The lines are not parallel, the tensions in each line are still equal, but now the vector sum of all forces is zero. A second basic equation for the pulley follows from the conservation of energy the product of the weight lifted times the distance it is moved is equal to the product of the lifting force times the distance the lifting line is moved. The weight lifted divided by the lifting force is defined as the advantage of the pulley system. It is
  15. 15. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 15 ISSAT important to notice that the amount of work done in an ideal pulley is always the same. The work is given by the effort times the distance moved. The pulley simply allows trading effort for distance. 3.6.2 Belt Belts are used to mechanically link two or more rotating items. They may be used as a source of motion, to transmit power at up to 98% efficiency between two points, or to track relative movement. Fig. 3.3 Pulley and Belt As a source of motion, a conveyor belt is one application where the belt is adapted to continually carry a load between two points. A belt may also be looped between two points so that the direction of rotation is reversed at the other point. Power transmission is achieved by specially designed belts and pulleys. The demands on a belt drive transmission system. Belts normally transmit power only on the tension side of the loop. Designs for continuously variable transmissions exist that use belts that are a series of solid metal blocks, linked together as in a chain, transmitting power on the compression side of the loop. 3.7 CAM A cam is a projecting part of a rotating wheel or shaft that strikes a lever at one or more points on its circular path. The cam can be a simple tooth, as is used to deliver pulses of power to a steam hammer, for example, or an eccentric disc or other shape that produces a smooth reciprocating (back and forth) motion in the follower which is a lever making contact with the cam.
  16. 16. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 16 ISSAT The reason the cam acts as a lever is because the hole is not directly in the centre, therefore moving the cam rather than just spinning. On the other hand, some cams are made with a hole exactly in the centre and their sides act as cams to move the levers touching them to move up and down or to go back and forth. 3.8 HYDRAULIC BOTTLE JACK Bottle jacks are hydraulic jacks that are placed in a horizontal position. These jacks push against a lever, which lifts the main lift arm. Bottle jacks have a longer handle than most hydraulic jacks, however, and it is possible to get more lift per stroke with the increased leverage they provide when compared to regular models of jacks. Bottle jacks are versatile because their horizontal position makes it possible to place them in tight spots and provides good leverage. Recently bottle jacks have proven useful in search and rescue missions following earthquake damage. As a result, bottle jacks are standard equipment in firehouses and for search and rescue teams. They are also used for lifting, spreading, bending, pushing, pressing, or straightening requirements. The base and cylinders of bottle jacks are electrically welded for strength, and all models are capable of working in upright, angled, or horizontal positions. Fig. 3.4 Hydraulic Jack
  17. 17. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 17 ISSAT 3.8.1 Characteristics and Properties for Hydraulic Oils Low temperature sensitivity of viscosity; Thermal and chemical stability; Low compressibility; Good lubrication (anti-wear and anti-stick properties, low coefficient of friction); Hydrolitic stability (ability to retain properties in the high humidity environment); Low pour point (the lowest temperature, at which the oil may flow); Water emulsifying ability; Filterability; Rust and oxidation protection properties; Low flash point(the lowest temperature, at which the oil vapors are ignitable); Resistance to cavitation; Low foaming; Compatibility with sealant materials. 3.8.2 Types of Hydraulic Fluids Optimal properties of hydraulic oils are achieved by a combination of a base oil and additives (anti-wear additives, detergents, Anti-oxidants, anti-foaming agents, Corrosion inhibitors etc.). 1. Mineral hydraulic oil (petroleum base). Mineral based oils are the most common and low cost hydraulic fluids. They possess most of the characteristics important for hydraulic oils. The disadvantages of mineral (petroleum) based oils are their low fire resistance (low flash point), toxicity and very low biodegradability.
  18. 18. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 18 ISSAT 2. Phosphate ester based synthetic hydraulic fluids. Phosphate esters are produced by the reaction of phosphoric acid with aromatic alcohols. Phosphate esters based hydraulic fluids possess excellent fire resistance; however they are not compatible with paints, adhesives, some polymers and sealant materials. They are also toxic. 3. Polyol ester based synthetic hydraulic fluids. Polyol esters are produced by the reaction of long-chain fatty acids and synthesized alcohols. Polyol ester based hydraulic fluids are fire resistant and possess very good lubrication properties. They are environmentally friendly but their use is limited by high cost. 4. Water glycol synthetic hydraulic fluids. Water glycol based fluids contain 35-60% of water in form of solution (not emulsion) and additives (anti-foam, anti-freeze, rust and corrosion inhibitors, anti- wear etc.). Water glycol based hydraulic fluids possess excellent fire resistance, they are non-toxic and biodegradable. However their temperature range is relatively low: 32°F - 120°F (0°C - 49°C). Water evaporation causes deterioration of the hydraulic fluids properties. 5. Vegetable hydraulic oils. Vegetable hydraulic oils are produced mainly from Canola oil. Their chemical structure is similar to that of polyol esters. Vegetable hydraulic oils possess very good lubrication properties and high viscosity index (low temperature sensitivity of viscosity). They are non-toxic and biodegradable. The main disadvantage of vegetable hydraulic oils is their relatively low oxidation resistance. 3.8.3 Viscosity of Hydraulic Oils Viscosity of a hydraulic fluid depends on its composition and the temperature. Low viscosity limit is determined by the lubrication properties of the oil and its resistance to cavitation. Upper viscosity value is limited by the ability of the oil to be pumped.
  19. 19. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 19 ISSAT Common viscosity of hydraulic oils is in the range 16 - 100 centistokes. Optimum viscosity value is 16 - 36 centistokes. 3.8.4 Safety Instructions 1. Park the vehicle or load to be lifted on a flat firm surface and place wedges under the wheels to stop movement. 2. Position de jack on a solid, even and horizontal surface, never use the jack on a slope. 3. The jack should be positioned so as to avoid the user from having to operate it under the vehicle. Every vehicle lifted by a jack should always have a secondary safety support such as mechanical stands. 4. It is imperative that all possible precautions are taken to avoid unexpected movement of the load when it is being lifted. 5. The load to be lifted should never exceed the rated capacity of the jack. 6. Never operate the jack beyond its maximum stroke. 7. If these basic rules are not followed, injury to the user, the jack or the load being lifted may result. 8. As an additional safety feature the jack is equipped with a valve to prevent the unit from being overloaded. This unit is factory set and must no be tampered with. 3.8.5 Use and Operation 1. Before operating the jack you must purge its hydraulic circuit in order to eliminate any possible air in the system. To purge the system open the release valve, turning it anti-clockwise. Then with the aid of the lever operate the pump several times. 2. Close the release valve with the lever in a clockwise direction until it is fully closed. The jack is now ready for use. 3. To lower the jack, turn the release valve very slowly in an anti-clockwise direction.
  20. 20. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 20 ISSAT 4. Always keep the jack in vertical position, with the ram, extension screw and pump retracted after use. 5. If you require operating the jack in a horizontal manner the pump should be located on the lower side of the jack. 3.8.6 Maintenance 1. Lubricate all moving parts at regular intervals. 2. Always keep the jack clean and protected from aggressive conditions. 3. If you have to replace the oil, the correct volume is indicated in the parts list. Make sure the piston is fully retracted. Important: An excess of oil will render the jack inoperative. 4. Use only hydraulic oil, type HL or HM, with an ISO grade cinematic viscosity of 30 c St at 40º C or an Engler viscosity of 3 at 50º C. Very important: Never use brake fluid. 5. When ordering spare parts, please make note of the part number as shown in the exploded view drawing provided. A repair kit is available containing all the common spare parts 3.8.7 Repair Both maintenance and repair of this jack shall be carried out by qualified persons who on base of their education and experience have enough knowledge in jacks and associated equipment. 3.9 BEVEL GEAR Two important concepts in gearing are pitch surface and pitch angle. The pitch surface of a gear is the imaginary toothless surface that you would have by averaging out the peaks and valleys of the individual teeth. The pitch surface of an ordinary gear is the shape of a cylinder. The pitch angle of a gear is the angle between the face of
  21. 21. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 21 ISSAT the pitch surface and the axis. The most familiar kinds of bevel gears have pitch angles of less than 90 degrees and therefore are cone-shaped. This type of bevel gear is called external because the gear teeth point outward. The pitch surfaces of meshed external bevel gears are coaxial with the gear shafts; the apexes of the two surfaces are at the point of intersection of the shaft axes. Bevel gears that have pitch angles of greater than ninety degrees have teeth that point inward and are called internal bevel gears. Fig. 3.5 Bevel Gear 3.10 BEARING A bearing is a device to permit constrained relative motion between two parts, typically rotation or linear movement. Bearings may be classified broadly according to the motions they allow and according to their principle of operation. Low friction bearings are often important for efficiency, to reduce wear and to facilitate high speeds. Essentially, a bearing can reduce friction by virtue of its shape, by its material, or by introducing and containing a fluid between surfaces. By shape, gains advantage usually by using spheres or rollers. By material, exploits the nature of the bearing material used. Sliding bearings, usually called bushes bushings journal bearings sleeve bearings rifle bearings or plain bearings. Rolling-element bearings such as ball bearings and roller bearings. Jewel bearings, in
  22. 22. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 22 ISSAT which the load is carried by rolling the axle slightly off-center. fluid bearings, in which the load is carried by a gas or liquid magnetic bearings, in which the load is carried by a magnetic field. Flexure bearings, in which the motion is supported by a load element which bends. Bearings vary greatly over the forces and speeds that they can support. Forces can be radial, axial (thrust bearings) or moments perpendicular to the main axis. Bearings very typically involve some degree of relative movement between surfaces, and different types have limits as to the maximum relative surface speeds they can handle, and this can be specified as a speed in ft/s or m/s. The moving parts there is considerable overlap between capabilities, but plain bearings can generally handle the lowest speeds while rolling element bearings are faster, hydrostatic bearings faster still, followed by gas bearings and finally magnetic bearings which have no known upper speed limit. A linear-motion bearing or linear slide is a bearing designed to provide free motion in one dimension. There are many different types of linear motion bearings and this family of products is generally broken down into two sub-categories: rolling- element and plane. Motorized linear slides such as machine slides, XY tables, roller tables and some dovetail slides are bearings moved by drive mechanisms. Not all linear slides are motorized and non-motorized dovetail slides, ball bearing slides and roller slides provide low-friction linear movement for equipment powered by inertia or by hand. All linear slides provide linear motion based on bearings, whether they are ball bearings, dovetail bearings or linear roller bearings. XY Tables, linear stages, machine slides and other advanced slides use linear motion bearings to provide movement along both X and Y multiple axis. There are many types of bearings, each used for different purposes either singularly or in combinations. These include ball bearings, roller bearings, ball thrust bearings, roller thrust bearings and tapered roller thrust bearings.
  23. 23. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 23 ISSAT 3.10.1 Ball bearings Fig. 3.6 Ball Bearing Ball bearings, as shown to the left, are the most common type by far. They are found in everything from skate boards to washing machines to PC hard drives. These bearings are capable of taking both radial and thrust loads, and are usually found in applications where the load is light to medium and is constant in nature (ie not shock loading). The bearing shown here has the outer ring cut away revealing the balls and ball retainer. 3.10.2 Roller bearings Fig. 3.7 Roller Bearing Roller bearings like the one shown to the left are normally used in heavy duty applications such as conveyer belt rollers, where they must hold heavy radial loads. In these bearings the roller is a cylinder, so the contact between the inner and outer race is not a point (like the ball bearing above) but a line. This spreads the load out over a larger area, allowing the roller bearing to handle much greater loads than a ball bearing. However, this type of bearing cannot handle thrust loads to any significant degree. A variation of this bearing design is called the needle bearing. The needle roller bearing uses cylindrical rollers like those above but with a very small diameter. This allows the bearing to fit into tight places such as gear boxes that rotate at higher speeds.
  24. 24. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 24 ISSAT 3.10.3 Thrust ball bearings Fig.3.8 Thrust Bearing Ball thrust bearings like the one shown to the left are mostly used for low- speed non precision applications. They cannot take much radial load and are usually found in lazy susan turntables and low precision farm equipment. 3.10.4 Roller thrust bearing Fig.3.9 Roller Thrust Bearing Roller thrust bearings like the one illustrated to the left can support very large thrust loads. They are often found in gearsets like car transmissions between gear sprockets, and between the housing and the rotating shafts. The helical gears used in most transmissions have angled teeth; this can causes a high thrust load that must be supported by this type of bearing. 3.10.5 Taper roller bearing Fig. 3.10 Taper Roller Bearing Tapered roller bearings are designed to support large radial and large thrust loads. These loads can take the form of constant loads or shock loads. Tapered roller
  25. 25. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 25 ISSAT bearings are used in many car hubs, where they are usually mounted in pairs facing opposite directions. This gives them the ability to take thrust loads in both directions. The cutaway taper roller on the left shows the specially designed tapered rollers and demonstrates their angular mounting which gives their dual load ability. The above bearing types are some of the most common. There are thousands of other designs, some standard and some specific applications but all perform the same basic function. Essentially further types of bearings usually take all or some of the characteristics of the above bearings and blend them into one design. Through the use of careful material selection and applying the correct degree of machining precision, a successful bearing solution can usually be found. 3.11 VICE It is a device consisting of two parallel jaws for holding a work piece; one of the jaws is fixed and the other movable by a screw, a lever, or a cam. When used for holding a work piece during hand operations, such as filing, hammering, or sawing, the vise may be permanently bolted to a bench. In vises designed to hold metallic work pieces, the active faces of the jaws are hardened steel plates, often removable, with serrations that grip the work piece; to prevent damage to soft parts, the permanent jaws can be covered with temporary jaws made from sheet copper or leather. Pipe vises have double V-shaped jaws that grip in four places instead of only two. Woodworking vises have smooth jaws, often of wood, and rely on friction alone rather than on serrations. For holding work pieces on the tables of machine tools, vises with smooth hardened-steel jaws and flat bases are used. These machine vises are portable but may be clamped to the machine table when in use; means may also be provided for swiveling the active part of the vise so that the work piece can be held in a variety of positions relative to the base. For holding parts that cannot be clamped with flat jaws, special jaws can be provided.
  26. 26. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 26 ISSAT For holding parts that cannot be clamped with flat jaws, special jaws can be provided. Fig. 3.11 Vice 3.12 HACK SAW A hacksaw is a fine-toothed saw, originally and principally for cutting metal. They can also cut various other materials, such as plastic and wood; for example, plumbers and electricians often cut plastic pipe and plastic conduit with them. There are hand saw versions and powered versions (power hacksaws). Most hacksaws are hand saws with a C-shaped frame that holds a blade under tension. Such hacksaws have a handle, usually a pistol grip, with pins for attaching a narrow disposable blade. The frames may also be adjustable to accommodate blades of different sizes. A screw or other mechanism is used to put the thin blade under tension. Panel hacksaws forgo the frame and instead have a sheet metal body; they can cut into a sheet metal panel further than a frame would allow. These saws are no longer commonly available, but hacksaw blade holders enable standard hacksaw blades to be used similarly to a keyhole saw or pad saw. Power tools including nibblers, jigsaws, and angle grinders fitted with metal-cutting blades and discs are now used for longer cuts in sheet metals. On hacksaws, as with most frame saws, the blade can be mounted with the teeth facing toward or away from the handle, resulting in cutting action on either the
  27. 27. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 27 ISSAT push or pull stroke. In normal use, cutting vertically downwards with work held in a bench vice, hacksaw blades should be set to be facing forwards. Some frame saws, including Fret Saws and Piercing Saws, have their blades set to be facing the handle because they are used to cut by being pulled down against a horizontal surface. 3.13 CUTTING TOOL In the context of machining, a cutting tool (or cutter) is any tool that is used to remove material from the work piece by means of shear deformation. Cutting may be accomplished by single-point or multipoint tools. Single-point tools are used in turning, shaping, planning and similar operations, and remove material by means of one cutting edge. Milling and drilling tools are often multipoint tools. Grinding tools are also multipoint tools. Each grain of abrasive functions as a microscopic single- point cutting edge (although of high negative rake angle), and shears a tiny chip. Cutting tools must be made of a material harder than the material which is to be cut, and the tool must be able to withstand the heat generated in the metal-cutting process. Also, the tool must have a specific geometry, with clearance angles designed so that the cutting edge can contact the work piece without the rest of the tool dragging on the work piece surface. The angle of the cutting face is also important, as is the flute width, number of flutes or teeth, and margin size. In order to have a long working life, all of the above must be optimized, plus the speeds and feeds at which the tool is run.
  28. 28. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 28 ISSAT CHAPTER 4 DESIGN AND DRAWING The mechanical multipurpose machine is consists of the following components to full fill the requirements of complete operation of the machine. 4.1 MACHINE COMPONENTS 1. Motor 2. Bevel gear 3. Cam 4. Belt and pulley 5. Hydraulic bottle jack 6. Bevel gear 7. Clamping vice 8. Bearing block 9. Driller
  29. 29. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 29 ISSAT 4.2 DRAWING FOR MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE (DRILLING, SLOTTING AND CUTTING) Fig. 4.1 Motorized Multipurpose Machine Item Description Quantity Meterial 1 Motor 1 2 Hacksaw frame 1 M.S 3 Pulley 1 C.I 4 Drill chuck 1 M.S 5 Column 1 M.S 6 Slotting tool 1 M.S 7 Belt 1 Nylon 8 Bearing 5 S.S 9 Bevel gear 1 S.S
  30. 30. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 30 ISSAT FABRICATED MOTORIZED MULTIPURPOSE MACHINE Fig.4.2 Fabricated MMPM
  31. 31. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 31 ISSAT 4.3 CALCULATIONS 1. Drilling Speed Np = Ng x (Tg/Tp) rpm (1) Where, Np = Speed of drill spindle in rpm Ng = Speed of gear=120rpm Tg = No. of gear teeth=17 Tp = No. of pinion teeth=13 Hence,Np = 120x(17/13)=156rpm 2. Slotting Velocity V = L xN x(1+K)/1000 m/min (2) Where, L = Stroke Length=80mm N = No. of Cutting stroke/ min=145 K = return stroke time/ cutting stroke time=1 Hence, V = 80x145x(1+1)/1000=23.2m/min 3. Cutting Speed of Hack saw Ns = Da/Db x Nm rpm (3) Where, Ns = wheel speed in rpm Nm= speed of motor in rpm=1400rpm Da = dia of small pulley in mm=30mm Db = dia of large pulley in mm =290mm Hence,Ns = (30/290)x1400=145rpm
  32. 32. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 32 ISSAT CHAPTER 5 WORKING PRINCIPLE Here the bevel gear arrangement is used for carrying out the operations. Bevel gear is used to perpendicular (900) power transmission. One of the bevel gear is connected with the motor and another one with the drill chuck hence when the motor is rotated the drill chuck also rotates. The motor pulley shaft is connected to a cam arrangement on the other side. Cam arrangement converts rotary motion into reciprocating motion and the reciprocating motion is used for the slotting and cutting operation. The slotting tool and cutting tool are guided by a horizontal guide bush. The up down table is mounted on a hydraulic bottle jack piston rod hence when the bottle jack handle is pumped the table height can be adjusted according to the requirement when the after the process is completed the pressure should be released through pressure relief valve to make the table come down. A vice is mounted on the table to hold the work piece.
  33. 33. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 33 ISSAT CHAPTER 6 MERITS & DEMERIT 6.1 MERITS  Easy To Implement  Low cost  Low maintenance  Easy to operate  Reduces time and increases production rate  Multi operations are performed at one time  All Operations performed by only one motor  Time Saving  Less Man power is required 6.2 DEMERIT  Uneven forces acts on the wok piece  Only small components can be machined
  34. 34. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 34 ISSAT CHAPTER 7 APPLICATION  Used in small scale industries to reduce machine cost.  In such places where frequent change in operation are required.
  35. 35. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 35 ISSAT CHAPTER 8 LIST OF MATERIALS The various factors which determine the choice of material are discussed below. 8.1 PROPERTIES The material selected must possess the necessary properties for the proposed application. The various requirements to be satisfied Can be weight, surface finish, rigidity, ability to withstand environmental attack from chemicals, service life, reliability etc. The following four types of principle properties of materials decisively affect their selection a. Physical b. Mechanical c. From manufacturing point of view d. Chemical The various physical properties concerned are melting point, thermal Conductivity, specific heat, coefficient of thermal expansion, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, magnetic purposes etc.The various Mechanical properties Concerned are strength in tensile, Compressive shear, bending, torsional and buckling load, fatigue resistance, impact resistance, eleastic limit, endurance limit, and modulus of elasticity, hardness, wear resistance and sliding properties. The various properties concerned from the manufacturing point of view are,  Cast ability  Weld ability  Surface properties  Shrinkage  Deep drawing etc.
  36. 36. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 36 ISSAT 8.2 MANUFACTURING CASE Sometimes the demand for lowest possible manufacturing cost or surface qualities obtainable by the application of suitable coating substances may demand the use of special materials. 8.3 QUALITY REQUIRED This generally affects the manufacturing process and ultimately the material. For example, it would never be desirable to go casting of a less number of components which can be fabricated much more economically by welding or hand forging the steel. 8.4 AVAILABILITY OF MATERIAL Some materials may be scarce or in short supply, it then becomes obligatory for the designer to use some other material which though may not be a perfect substitute for the material designed. The delivery of materials and the delivery date of product should also be kept in mind. 8.5 SPACE CONSIDERATION Sometimes high strength materials have to be selected because the forces involved are high and space limitations are there. 8.6 COST As in any other problem, in selection of material the cost of material plays an important part and should not be ignored. Sometimes factors like scrap utilization, appearance, and non-maintenance of the designed part are involved in the selection of proper materials
  37. 37. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 37 ISSAT Table 8.1 Cost of Particulars Sl.No. Particulars Total Quantity Cost Rs./- Per Unit Total Cost 1 Motor-1440 rpm 1 2250 2250 2 Pulley-290mm 1 450 450 3 Pulley-30mm 1 150 150 4 v-Belt 1 200 200 5 Ball bearing 5 100 500 5 Bevel Gear Set 1 850 850 6 Hydraulic Jack 1 1100 1100 7 Drill Chuck-3/8” 1 600 600 8 Vice 1 650 650 9 Hack Saw Frame 1 100 100 10 Material Cost 5350 5350 11 Labour Cost 4250 4250 12 Transport 500 500 13 Paint & Painting Items 350 350
  38. 38. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 38 ISSAT CHAPTER 9 COST ESTIMATION 1. LABOUR COST Lathe, drilling, welding, drilling, power hacksaw, gas cutting cost 2. OVERGHEAD CHARGES The overhead charges are arrived by” manufacturing cost” Manufacturing Cost =Material Cost + Labor Cost =5350+4250 =9600/- Overhead Charges =20%of the manufacturing =4850x20/100 =1070/- 3. TOTAL COST Total cost = Material Cost +Labor Cost +Overhead Charges =5350+4250+1070 =10670 Total cost for this project =10670/-
  39. 39. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 39 ISSAT CHAPTER 10 FUTURE IMPLEMENTATION  We can perform various operations like Cutting,Drilling,or Slotting individually by introducing coupling (engagement and disengagement) between them  We can perform Grinding Operation by introducing a grinding tool at the Machining Shaft  We can perform boring operation by introducing a boring tool by replacing drilling tool.  We can change the speed of Motor by Regulator.
  40. 40. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 40 ISSAT CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION This project is made with pre planning, that it provides flexibility in operation. This innovation has made the more desirable and economical. The project “Motorized Multi Purpose Machine (Drilling, Slotting and Cutting)” is designed with the hope that it is very much economical and helps full to power transmitter to the driving unit with variable speed. This project helped us to know the periodic steps in completing a project work. Thus we have completed the project successfully.
  41. 41. PROJECT REPORT 2015 MOTORIZED MULTI PURPOSE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL 41 ISSAT REFERANCE [1] R Maguteeswaran1,M Dineshkumar,R Dineshkumar,K Karthi.“Fabrication of multi process machine”. International journal of research in Aeronautical and mechanical engineering.Vol 2 issue 2. PP 105-111 [2] 2013, M. Anil Prakash, Nalla Japhia Sudarsan, K. Pavan Kumar and K.Ch.Sekhar. “Advanced shaper”,International Monthly Refereed Journal of Research In Management & Technology. Vol II [3] 2014, D.V.Sabariananda1, V.Siddhartha1, B.Sushil Krishnana1, T.Mohanraj. “Design and Fabrication of Automated Hacksaw Machine”. Second National Conference on Trends in Automotive Parts Systems and Applications (TAPSA-2014). Volume 3, Special Issue 2. [4] 2014 Gautam Jodh , Piyush Sirsat , Nagnath Kakde , Sandeep Lutade. “Design of low Cost CNC Drilling Machine”. International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 2, Issue 2, Feb-Mar 14.

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