1

UNIVERSITY OF CAPE COAST
DEPARTMENT OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM
MANAGEMENT

CHALLENGES AND CONSTRAINTS OF TOURISM
EDUCAT...
Outline of the Presentation
2













Background
Problem Statement
Research Objectives
Research Questions
...
Background
3



Ghana’s tourism industry has seen remarkable
progresses in terms of international arrivals, receipts and
...
Background Contd.
4



Tourism is a competitive industry that requires a good mix
of attractions and support facilities t...
Background Contd.
5



There has been much discussion over the past
three decades into the provision and content of
touri...
Background Contd.
6



King (1991); Black (2004) both acknowledged that, industry
placements have long been a part of TE ...
Problem Statement
7



Tourism is an increasingly complex and diverse industry
that cannot be neglected by destinations a...
Problem Statement Contd.
8



Studies on TE usually centers on the three domains model,
i.e. Generic tourism degrees, Fun...
Objectives of the Study
9

The Main Objective


The general objective of this research work is to
identify and examine th...
Objectives of the Study Contd.
10

However, the specific objectives are to;
 discuss the growth of tourism as a tertiary ...
Research hypothesis
11



Ho: There is no significant relationship between sociodemographic characteristic (age, sex and ...
Research Questions
12



Is tourism a discipline or a vocational field of study?



Does the current TE curriculum empha...
Significance of the study
13

This study will primarily benefit tourism academia and
researchers whose work is to develop ...
Theoretical Framework
14



Systems theory(Ludwig, 1940), It investigate both the
principles common to all complex entiti...
Conceptual Framework
15

The three domains model of tourism education

Crispin and Robinson, 2001.
11/3/2013
Conceptual Framework
16

The hospitality education-industry relationship: the
five GAP model

11/3/2013
Conceptual Framework
17

Tribe (2002), Curriculum Space Quadrant

Vocational
Action

Liberal
Action

Reflective
Vocational...
Conceptual Framework
18

Tourism Education-Industry relationship
(systems approach)
Liberal
Vocation
Action

Student

al
A...
Methodology
19

Research
Philosophy

Interpretiv
e

Mixed
Method

Positivis
t


Research Design


Descriptive Research
...
Methodology Contd.
20

Population
The
Universities
Departmen
t
Teaching
Staff

Manager/Gradua
te employee

Employees
Hotel...
Methodology Contd.
21

Sources of Data
 UCC
 KNUST
Data collection Methods
 Interviews
 Questionnaires


Sample Techn...
Methodology Contd.
22



Data Analysis
 SPSS v 17.
 Descriptive Statistics Analysis
 Mean, Frequency tables, etc
 Inf...
Ethical Issues
23



Informed Consent




Confidentiality




Educated decision of what participation involves

Princ...
Work Plan
24



Pre-testing

Nov.

2013



Data collection

Dec.- Jan.

2014



Presentation of findings March

2014

...
THE END
25

11/3/2013
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Challenge of tourism education

952 views

Published on

CHALLENGES AND
CONSTRAINTS OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM EDUCATION IN GHANA

Published in: Education, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
952
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • PILOT PROGRAM BASED BUDGET (PBB) FOR 2013-2015 MINISTRY OF TOURISM
  • Busby: In part this represents the old way of thinking about industry engagement – with a quantitative requirement of hours, but with no qualitative consideration of the standard of the experience in industry.
  • Their knowledge in tourism as an industry.Their perception about tourism as and academic field of study.Their view on factors hindering the development of tourism education in the country and in the institution
  • Challenge of tourism education

    1. 1. 1 UNIVERSITY OF CAPE COAST DEPARTMENT OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND CONSTRAINTS OF TOURISM EDUCATION IN GHANA A CASE FOR TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN GHANA. M.Phil. Proposal Presentation BY: EBENEZER AFFUL JNR. 11/3/2013
    2. 2. Outline of the Presentation 2            Background Problem Statement Research Objectives Research Questions Research Hypotheses Significance of the Study Theoretical Framework Conceptual Framework Methodology Ethical Issues Work Plan 11/3/2013
    3. 3. Background 3  Ghana’s tourism industry has seen remarkable progresses in terms of international arrivals, receipts and tourism infrastructure of which much material has been researched and published (Akyeampong, 2008). Year Arrivals Receipt ( US $) 1987 1997 2007 103,440 325,438 586,612 36.5 265.6 1,172 2009 802,779 2010 913,224 2013 (Target) ; 1,263,857 Source: GTA, 2010 MoT, 2013 1,615.2 1,875.0 11/3/2013 2,195.0
    4. 4. Background Contd. 4  Tourism is a competitive industry that requires a good mix of attractions and support facilities to ensure a sustainable tourism industry. thus, with tourism infrastructure, According to GTA   No. of Hotels increased from 1,345 in 2005 to 1,800in 2011 No. of hotel rooms also grew from 18,752 to 26,047 in same period, with No. of beds growing correspondingly.  Festivals in Ghana has also seen some new entrance or revivals, e.g. PANAFEST in 2004, Akwantu-tintin ect.  This growth have also ensured that employment generated domestically by the industry has also seen some increase from 172,823 to 291,202 in 2010 (GTA, 2010).  Expected employment levels by 2013 = 380,092 (MoT – 11/3/2013 PPB, 2013-2015)
    5. 5. Background Contd. 5  There has been much discussion over the past three decades into the provision and content of tourism education (TE), and the realization that, tertiary education sector has much to contribute to the evolving science or craft of tourism.  Some have acknowledged, and raised concern, over the rapid growth in tourism degree courses (Evans, 1993).  Others have also advocated a core body of knowledge which should form the basis for all tourism degree education (Richards, 1998; Airey and Johnson, 1999). 11/3/2013
    6. 6. Background Contd. 6  King (1991); Black (2004) both acknowledged that, industry placements have long been a part of TE in UK and Thailand, with majority of tourism-related programmes requiring a period of practical experience,  Busby (2005) criticise that, where industry linkage strategies do exist, they are often centred on industrial placement or work experience models.  It has been suggested that tourism/industry linkage strategies in many education institutions are often haphazard and lack vision (Busby, 2005).  Cooper and Westlake (1998); Solnet (2004) also stated that the linkage lacks focus, commitment and resources. 11/3/2013
    7. 7. Problem Statement 7  Tourism is an increasingly complex and diverse industry that cannot be neglected by destinations and businesses if they wish to remain competitive (Gun, 1994)  The emergence of tourism studies as a legitimate area of academic investigation in the tertiary institutions is recent and ongoing development (Oppermann and Weaver, 2000; Akyeampong, 2008).  Some pundits have emphasised the need for a well educated and trained tourism manpower to manage the sector in Ghana. 11/3/2013
    8. 8. Problem Statement Contd. 8  Studies on TE usually centers on the three domains model, i.e. Generic tourism degrees, Functional tourism degrees , Market/product-based tourism degrees.  Others also look at the triangulational relationship between the unique characteristics of the three primary tourism stakeholders; the students, the educators and the tourism professionals  Quite recently that Dr. Oheneba proposed a Framework for TE in Ghana, but all these studies fail in some respect, to critically examine the challenges and constraints of TE and in Ghana particularly.  There is therefore the need to examine critically the 11/3/2013 challenges and constraints of TE in Ghana.
    9. 9. Objectives of the Study 9 The Main Objective  The general objective of this research work is to identify and examine the various factors hindering the development of TE in Ghana and tertiary institutions in particular. 11/3/2013
    10. 10. Objectives of the Study Contd. 10 However, the specific objectives are to;  discuss the growth of tourism as a tertiary based field of study in Ghana.  identify and discuss the factors hindering the development of TE in Ghana.  examine the significance of a closer industry/academe relationship for tourism development.  appreciate the distinctive and mutually reinforcing role of tertiary institutions in the development of tourism. 11/3/2013
    11. 11. Research hypothesis 11  Ho: There is no significant relationship between sociodemographic characteristic (age, sex and nationality) and perceived factors hindering the development of TE.  Ho: There is no significant relationship between the supply and demand of tourism manpower in the industry.  Ho: There is no significance difference in industry/academe relationship for tourism development. 11/3/2013
    12. 12. Research Questions 12  Is tourism a discipline or a vocational field of study?  Does the current TE curriculum emphasis the supply of labour to meet the industry needs?  Does TE and training correspond to tourism carrier path in Ghana?  What kinds of educational institutions are associated to tourism- related programmes in Ghana?  Has enough attention and resources been allocated for TE in Ghana as that given to the more traditional disciplines? 11/3/2013
    13. 13. Significance of the study 13 This study will primarily benefit tourism academia and researchers whose work is to develop strong indigenous theories and methodologies to help grow the field in Ghana.  The findings will also provide an understanding as to the factors that have hindered the development of TE in Ghana to tourism students.  Furthermore, the policy makers, employers and human resource specialists in tourism and hospitality industry will better understand the factors that have hindered the development of TE in Ghana, and steps taken to correct or minimize this challenges and constraints.   Add to existing literature on TE in Ghana. 11/3/2013
    14. 14. Theoretical Framework 14  Systems theory(Ludwig, 1940), It investigate both the principles common to all complex entities involved in the system.  Stakeholder theory (Freeman, 1984). Examining the overall “quality” of this relationship various stakeholders in TE education.  Relationship theory (Jain et al., 2003). relationships that exists between the providers of education (institutions), and the end-users of this process (students, industry).  Applying relationship management approach to gain 11/3/2013 understanding about ways in which such relationships can
    15. 15. Conceptual Framework 15 The three domains model of tourism education Crispin and Robinson, 2001. 11/3/2013
    16. 16. Conceptual Framework 16 The hospitality education-industry relationship: the five GAP model 11/3/2013
    17. 17. Conceptual Framework 17 Tribe (2002), Curriculum Space Quadrant Vocational Action Liberal Action Reflective Vocational Reflective Liberal 11/3/2013
    18. 18. Conceptual Framework 18 Tourism Education-Industry relationship (systems approach) Liberal Vocation Action Student al Action GAP 3 GAP 1 GAP 2 Government Adapted version Contributio n 11/3/2013 Tourism Industry and Operation s
    19. 19. Methodology 19 Research Philosophy Interpretiv e Mixed Method Positivis t  Research Design  Descriptive Research   Addresses the “WHAT" questions collect information that will demonstrate relationships and describe the challenges of TE 11/3/2013
    20. 20. Methodology Contd. 20 Population The Universities Departmen t Teaching Staff Manager/Gradua te employee Employees Hotel/Attraction 11/3/2013
    21. 21. Methodology Contd. 21 Sources of Data  UCC  KNUST Data collection Methods  Interviews  Questionnaires  Sample Technique  Judgmental or Purposive sampling – Interview  Lectures –  Hotel/Attraction Manager – Interview  Graduate Employees –  HODs Semi- Structured Questionnaires Semi- Structured 11/3/2013 Questionnaires
    22. 22. Methodology Contd. 22  Data Analysis  SPSS v 17.  Descriptive Statistics Analysis  Mean, Frequency tables, etc  Inferential Statistics ANOVA  Factor Analysis   Interview  transcribed and put in themes 11/3/2013
    23. 23. Ethical Issues 23  Informed Consent   Confidentiality   Educated decision of what participation involves Principles of privacy and respect for autonomy Anonymity   Pseudonyms Grinyer (2002), Providing participants the opportunity to decide on the use of their identity 11/3/2013
    24. 24. Work Plan 24  Pre-testing Nov. 2013  Data collection Dec.- Jan. 2014  Presentation of findings March 2014  Completion of first draft April 2014  Submission of soft copy May 2014 11/3/2013
    25. 25. THE END 25 11/3/2013

    ×