PILOT PROGRAM BASED BUDGET (PBB) FOR 2013-2015 MINISTRY OF TOURISM
Busby: In part this represents the old way of thinking about industry engagement – with a quantitative requirement of hours, but with no qualitative consideration of the standard of the experience in industry.
Their knowledge in tourism as an industry.Their perception about tourism as and academic field of study.Their view on factors hindering the development of tourism education in the country and in the institution
Challenge of tourism education
UNIVERSITY OF CAPE COAST
DEPARTMENT OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM
CHALLENGES AND CONSTRAINTS OF TOURISM
EDUCATION IN GHANA
A CASE FOR TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN GHANA.
EBENEZER AFFUL JNR.
Outline of the Presentation
Significance of the Study
Ghana’s tourism industry has seen remarkable
progresses in terms of international arrivals, receipts and
tourism infrastructure of which much material has been
researched and published (Akyeampong, 2008).
Receipt ( US
2013 (Target) ; 1,263,857
Source: GTA, 2010 MoT, 2013
Tourism is a competitive industry that requires a good mix
of attractions and support facilities to ensure a sustainable
thus, with tourism infrastructure,
According to GTA
No. of Hotels increased from 1,345 in 2005 to 1,800in 2011
No. of hotel rooms also grew from 18,752 to 26,047 in same period,
with No. of beds growing correspondingly.
Festivals in Ghana has also seen some new entrance or
revivals, e.g. PANAFEST in 2004, Akwantu-tintin ect.
This growth have also ensured that employment generated
domestically by the industry has also seen some increase
from 172,823 to 291,202 in 2010 (GTA, 2010).
Expected employment levels by 2013 = 380,092 (MoT –
There has been much discussion over the past
three decades into the provision and content of
tourism education (TE), and the realization that,
tertiary education sector has much to contribute to
the evolving science or craft of tourism.
Some have acknowledged, and raised concern,
over the rapid growth in tourism degree courses
Others have also advocated a core body of
knowledge which should form the basis for all
tourism degree education (Richards, 1998; Airey
and Johnson, 1999).
King (1991); Black (2004) both acknowledged that, industry
placements have long been a part of TE in UK and Thailand,
with majority of tourism-related programmes requiring a
period of practical experience,
Busby (2005) criticise that, where industry linkage strategies
do exist, they are often centred on industrial placement or
work experience models.
It has been suggested that tourism/industry linkage strategies
in many education institutions are often haphazard and lack
vision (Busby, 2005).
Cooper and Westlake (1998); Solnet (2004) also stated that
the linkage lacks focus, commitment and resources.
Tourism is an increasingly complex and diverse industry
that cannot be neglected by destinations and businesses
if they wish to remain competitive (Gun, 1994)
The emergence of tourism studies as a legitimate area of
academic investigation in the tertiary institutions is recent
and ongoing development (Oppermann and Weaver,
2000; Akyeampong, 2008).
Some pundits have emphasised the need for a well
educated and trained tourism manpower to manage the
sector in Ghana.
Problem Statement Contd.
Studies on TE usually centers on the three domains model,
i.e. Generic tourism degrees, Functional tourism degrees ,
Market/product-based tourism degrees.
Others also look at the triangulational relationship between
the unique characteristics of the three primary tourism
stakeholders; the students, the educators and the tourism
Quite recently that Dr. Oheneba proposed a Framework for
TE in Ghana, but all these studies fail in some respect, to
critically examine the challenges and constraints of TE and in
There is therefore the need to examine critically the
challenges and constraints of TE in Ghana.
Objectives of the Study
The Main Objective
The general objective of this research work is to
identify and examine the various factors
hindering the development of TE in Ghana and
tertiary institutions in particular.
Objectives of the Study Contd.
However, the specific objectives are to;
discuss the growth of tourism as a tertiary based field of
study in Ghana.
identify and discuss the factors hindering the development
of TE in Ghana.
examine the significance of a closer industry/academe
relationship for tourism development.
appreciate the distinctive and mutually reinforcing role of
tertiary institutions in the development of tourism.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between sociodemographic characteristic (age, sex and nationality) and
perceived factors hindering the development of TE.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the supply
and demand of tourism manpower in the industry.
Ho: There is no significance difference in industry/academe
relationship for tourism development.
Is tourism a discipline or a vocational field of study?
Does the current TE curriculum emphasis the supply of
labour to meet the industry needs?
Does TE and training correspond to tourism carrier path
What kinds of educational institutions are associated to
tourism- related programmes in Ghana?
Has enough attention and resources been allocated for
TE in Ghana as that given to the more traditional
Significance of the study
This study will primarily benefit tourism academia and
researchers whose work is to develop strong indigenous
theories and methodologies to help grow the field in Ghana.
The findings will also provide an understanding as to the
factors that have hindered the development of TE in Ghana to
Furthermore, the policy makers, employers and human
resource specialists in tourism and hospitality industry will
better understand the factors that have hindered the
development of TE in Ghana, and steps taken to correct or
minimize this challenges and constraints.
Add to existing literature on TE in Ghana.
Systems theory(Ludwig, 1940), It investigate both the
principles common to all complex entities involved in the
Stakeholder theory (Freeman, 1984). Examining the overall
“quality” of this relationship various stakeholders in TE
Relationship theory (Jain et al., 2003). relationships that
exists between the providers of education (institutions), and
the end-users of this process (students, industry).
Applying relationship management approach to gain
understanding about ways in which such relationships can
The three domains model of tourism education
Crispin and Robinson, 2001.
The hospitality education-industry relationship: the
five GAP model
Tribe (2002), Curriculum Space Quadrant
Tourism Education-Industry relationship
Addresses the “WHAT" questions
collect information that will demonstrate relationships and describe
the challenges of TE
SPSS v 17.
Descriptive Statistics Analysis
Mean, Frequency tables, etc
transcribed and put in themes
Educated decision of what participation involves
Principles of privacy and respect for autonomy
Grinyer (2002), Providing participants the opportunity to
decide on the use of their identity
Presentation of findings March
Completion of first draft April
Submission of soft copy May