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NSUK_PROJECT_1

  1. 1. - 1 - PROBLEMS OF AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE IN DIVINE MERCY SECONDARY SCHOOL ASOKORO-ABUJA BY OKOYE EBELE OBIOMA E. BEING A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, FACULTY OF ADMINISTRATION, NASARAWA STATE UNIVERSITY IN PARTIAL FULFILMENTFOR THE AWARD OF MASTERS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (MPA) JUNE, 2013
  2. 2. - 2 - APPROVAL PAGE This project titled, “The Problems of Autocratic Leadership in Divine Mercy Secondary School-Asokoro” has been submitted to the Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Administration, Nasarawa State University Keffi in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Masters in Public Administration (MPA). ………………………………. …...……………… Project Supervisor Date Dr. Amb. Katuka Yaki Jakadan-Gwong Kagoma ………………………………. ………………….. Head of Department Date Dr. Charles Nwekeaku ……………………………… …………………. External Supervisor Date
  3. 3. - 3 - DECLARATION I Okoye, Ebele Obioma Esther hereby declare that this project has been written by me and to the best of my knowledge has not been submitted to Nasarawa State University Keffi or any other institution of higher learning for the award of any degree. All materials used outside the primary and secondary sources have been dully acknowledged. ………………………... …..……………… Okoye Ebele O. E. Date NSU/ADM/MPA/213/11/12
  4. 4. - 4 - DEDICATION With deep sense of gratitude to the Lord God Almighty who availed me the opportunity to undertake and successfully complete this project, I say thank you. All glory be to you oh Lord! This project is specially dedicated to you, Almighty God for your divine guidance, protection and provision throughout this phase of academic pursuit and to my son, Ifeanyichukwu Ejimeto, whom You blessed me with in the course of the pursuit of this degree. To my dear husband Pst. N. Okoye who has been by my side on this journey, thank you for your prayers darling. My pillar of support in this academic undertaking, my dearest indomitable parents Sir and Lady C.E. Agumadu, my siblings who have made the stress feel like nothing – Mrs C. Udeogalanya, Chinedu Agumadu, Dozie Agumadu, and Emeka Agumadu (aka lil’bro), my big brother-in-law and his amiable wife Elder and Mrs. Ben Okoye, I say a big thank you to you all. God richly bless you, I am grateful. I won’t properly conclude this without paying my respect to my employer, Lady U. R. Uganden and boss Mr. Whiskey Benson who for the times I had to absent myself from work to attend to academic demands, granted me the privilege with a smile. Thank you. Finally, to my friends who MPA class divinely placed in my life – Gabriel Obi, Blessing Okwujiako, Comfort, Arikpo, Ejike, Hajia Kano and Hajia Mai-Borno.
  5. 5. - 5 - ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I specially acknowledge my supervisor who exercised so much patience with me, my mentor in the field, Dr. Amb. Katuka Yaki Jakadan-Gwong (Kagoma) and my daddy in the department, Dr. Charles Nwekeaku, God bless you beyond measure. To all my lecturers who have made this course worth the while – Dr. Yaki Katuka, Dr. Charles Nwekeaku, Dr. Tukur, Dr. Chukwuma Okafor, Dr. Dan Aighewi, Prof. Akindele, Dr. Jide, Dr. Itodo, Dr. Abdullahi. Thank you for the opportunity to fetch from your stream of knowledge. My appreciation goes also to all my respondents, the staff of Divine Mercy Secondary School-Asokoro, without whom this academic undertaking would not have materialised. Finally to me, the typist and financier, good job girl. Keep the flame up!
  6. 6. - 6 - TABLE OF CONTENT Approval Page - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ii Declaration - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - iii Dedication - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - iv Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - v Table of Content - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - vi CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the Study - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1.3 Objectives of the Study - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 1.4 Significance of the Study - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 1.6 Basic Assumption and Research Question - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 1.7 Hypothesis - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 1.8 Definition of Terms - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5
  7. 7. - 7 - 1.9 Organisation of Chapters - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 2.2 Concept of Autocratic Leadership - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 2.3 Other Leadership Styles - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 13 2.4 Impact of Autocratic Leadership - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 15 2.5 Problems of Autocratic Leadership - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 19 2.6 Characteristics of an Autocratic Leader - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 21 2.7 Historical Background of Divine Mercy Secondary School Asokoro - - - - - - - - - - 23 2.8 Theoretical Framework - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 25 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 32 3.2 The Design - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 32 3.3 The Research Population - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 32
  8. 8. - 8 - 3.4 Sampling and Sampling Techniques - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 33 3.5 Method of Data Collection - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 33 3.6 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 34 3.7 Problems Encountered - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 34 CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 4.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 35 4.2 Data Presentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 35 4.3 Data Analysis - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 35 4.4 Discussion of Findings - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 41 CHAPTER FIVE: FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 43 5.2 Conclusions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 43 5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 47 5.4 Bibliography - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 48 5.5 Appendix - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 51
  9. 9. - 9 - CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY The desire to undertake this study as a result of my observations and experiences under the tenures of two school principals in Divine Mercy Secondary School Asokoro - Abuja between 2010 and 2013. A rhetorical question arose on why many teachers were no longer interested in teaching as a profession as those who are in keep looking for ‘greener pastures’. Many reasons were whispered and murmured including the leadership style of those at the helm of affairs in the academic institution in question and how it affects the teachers’ productivity. Other variables are poor staff motivation, little or no job security, poor staff remuneration, accommodation availability etc. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study is targeted at examining empirically, the complex relationship between the principal’s leadership and the resultant effect on the teachers’ productivity in Divine Mercy Secondary School Asokoro-Abuja thus what is the motivational significance of an autocratic leadership style on subordinates? Does the attitudes of superordinates in
  10. 10. - 10 - managing subordinates affect the latter’s confidence and self-determination since leadership is some sort of social transaction whether in a benevolent autocracy or a recognised bureaucracy? The teachers in DMSS have developed nonchalant laissez-faire attitudes towards additional responsibilities. Thus punitive measures have to be enforced to the end of which was to check these excesses. The researcher intends to ascertain whether these problems are as a result of the autocratic leadership style or that there are other factors responsible for teachers’ negative attitudes in DMSS. 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY a. To determine the degree of autocratic leadership in DMSS. b. To identify the factors which are responsible for dissatisfaction among the teachers in DMSS. c. To identify whether or not the autocratic leadership style affects the conditions of service of the teachers in DMSS. d. To identify the factors which are responsible for low productivity among the teachers in DMSS. e. To examine the extent to which the leadership style has enhanced the productivity of the teachers in the institution. f. To recommend strategies for improving the management strategies in DMSS.
  11. 11. - 11 - 1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY In this study, we are concerned with the problems of autocratic leadership, thus, the impact on the employees (teaching and non-teaching staff) who have worked in the employ of the institution within the duration of the years under study (2010 – 2013) in DMSS. This project covers only Divine Mercy Secondary School Asokoro – Abuja. The sample collected as constituting the problems streamlining the impact of autocratic leadership on the workers. However, this research may be constrained by the following limitations: 1. The inability of staff to divulge the requisite information due to the fear of being indicted. 2. Inadequate time as the research completion is time-bound. 3. The indifference and uncooperative responses of some respondents to relevant questions. 1.5 BASIC ASSUMPTION AND RESEARCH QUESTION
  12. 12. - 12 - Every dynamic leader is expected to develop his staff to an effective working team by making the work environment stimulating, challenging and conducive. Akalaba (1983:9), noted in the result of a similar study with Agyris (1957), Simon (1958) and Vietale (1953) all agreeing that subordinates react favourably to experiences which they feel are supportive and contribute to their sense of responsibility, importance and personal worth. On the other hand, people react unfavourably to experiences which are threatening and decrease or minimize their sense of responsibility and dignity. Similarly, subordinates tend to expect their superiors to behave in ways that are consistent with the personality of superiors as stereotype as it may be. Hence both the subordinate and the superior react on the basis of their own unique background, knowledge, experience and expectation. In order to facilitate an effective research, the following questions are posed: 1. What can cause the drift in a leadership style that set out to be democratic but ends up authoritative? 2. What are the components of an effective leadership style? 3. Does the leadership style have to be authoritative to be effective in DMSS? 4. What is the impact of the leadership style on the productivity of the staff of DMSS? 1.6 HYPOTHESIS
  13. 13. - 13 - Osuala (2001:56) opines that a hypothesis is a conjectural statement of the relationship between two or more variables stated as a guide to the investigation in an entire process of research. The following hypotheses, stated in a null form, are formulated for this study: 1. There is no positive correlation between leadership style and teachers’ productivity. 2. The leadership style does not adversely affect the conduciveness of the working environment. 1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS Leadership: Contributing to the concept of leadership, Ekhator (2002) posited that it is really difficult to attempt a definition of leadership or to define what makes certain people leaders as against the others. Substantiating on this position Barnard (1948) stated that, “Indeed, I have never observed any leader who was able to state adequately or intelligently why he was able to be a leader, or any statement of followers that acceptably expressed why they followed.” Millet (1954) expresses, however, that “Leadership is thought as being primarily personal in character, founded upon individual pre-eminence or accomplishment in a particular field of endeavour. Superior strength, superior cunning, superior intelligence, superior knowledge, superior determination – any or all of these may be the means to the attainment of leadership.”
  14. 14. - 14 - Leadership, according to Bedeian (1986) is the act of influencing individual or group activities towards the achievement of the organisational objectives. In this dimension, Bedeian views leadership as both the adhesive that binds a work group together and the catalyst that triggers employees’ motivation thereby having a major influence on organisational performance. To Ejiofor (1989), leadership is synonymous with given positions in an organisation’s structure or hierarchy. According to him, this gives leadership a prescribed set of behaviour assigned to the position within the organisation and which requires the person who occupies the position to carry it out. He further opined that this view of leadership expresses the expected roles and the role functions for a given power position in an organisation’s structure and which any person who occupies the position is expected to carry out. The second concept of leadership, according to Ejiofor (1989) is the view that emphasizes the role of personality variables, abilities, interests and other personal attributes which the leader brings into the exercise of his leadership roles. From this perspective, he defines leadership as the ability, interest and other personal attributes which the leader brings forth to influence a group to achieve common goals. The third position of leadership according to Ejiofor (1989) views leadership as a process implying a transactional framework or reciprocal relationship between the leader and the followers. Accordingly, leadership is not a mere exercise of authority and power but viewed in terms of how the leader attains and maintains his position in the organisational structure.
  15. 15. - 15 - Hence, the process of orientation of leadership combines the person as a leader and the organisational variables to attain leadership objectives. Leadership Style: Leadership style is based on authority. There are three major styles which are the democratic, the laissez-faire and the autocratic leadership styles. The democratic leader gets the members involved in decision making by guiding them to determine how the group functions. The autocratic leader provides the direction and determines policies while the laissez-faire leader allows members of the group to determine their own direction and function without interference. These leadership styles represent a range of behaviours in a continuum and therefore are not to be perceived as styles to be selected from. Productivity: It is the measure of how well resources are brought together in an organisation and utilised for accomplishing a set of results. This means that productivity is reaching the highest level of performance with the least expenditure of resources. Productivity is a critical factor in economic and social development hence a determinant in the standard of living of the citizenry. Low productivity results in high price without any corresponding rise in employees’ earnings while high productivity gives rise to high income and profit thus better suited to pay high wages.
  16. 16. - 16 - Performance: Performance in addition to being the amount of successful role achievement is also the use of resources to attain set goals (efficiency). Performance in this context would be measured in terms of availability and the use of instructional materials and how regular workshops, seminars, refresher courses etc. are held in secondary schools towards the improvement of the staff in question. 1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY The findings of this study will assist in providing solutions to lateness, absenteeism and labour turnover among both the teaching and non-teaching staff. We would also be able to understand how personnel management can influence productivity. This will foster designing a conducive work environment for the employees and management. 1.9 ORGANISATION OF CHAPTERS This work has been divided into five chapters. Chapter one, which is the introduction, covers the background to the study, the statement of the problem, the objectives, the scope and limitation to the study. It then proceeds to state the basic assumption and research question, the hypothesis, the definition of major terms, the significance of the study, the historical background of Divine Mercy Secondary School Asokoro-Abuja and the chapter arrangement.
  17. 17. - 17 - Chapter two consists of the literature review and theoretical framework: the concept of autocratic leadership, other leadership styles, the impact and problems of autocratic leadership and the characteristics of an autocratic leader. Chapter three deals with the research methodology: the design, population, sample and sampling techniques, methods of data collection and analysis and the problems encountered in the course of the data collection. Chapter four is concerned with data analysis and interpretation as well as discussing the results obtained and the examination of the hypothesis. Chapter five, the concluding chapter, summarises the findings and tests the hypothesis against the findings. It will also include recommendations and suggestions on further areas of study.
  18. 18. - 18 - CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.1 INTRODUCTION It is imperative to review the works and contributions of relevant components on the subject matter of our research. This will go a long way to uphold the contributions of various authorities to our understanding of the place of autocratic leadership style in Divine Mercy Secondary School. Literature review entails an objective and intelligent x- ray of what other relevant scholars have done in relation to the topic under study thus predicated upon available materials such as books, monographs, academic research projects and the internet. 2.2 THE CONCEPT OF AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP Autocratic leadership is a classical leadership approach and the corporate equivalent of dictatorship or tyranny. This leadership style is marked with the leader having complete authority and the followers obeying the instructions of the leader without questioning and without receiving an explanation or rationale for such instructions. This leadership style bases itself on Douglas McGregor’s Theory X that considers employees as inherently lazy and disliking work, and assumes they seek to avoid work as much as possible. Theory X advocates close supervision and comprehensive control systems, reinforced by a hierarchical structure and a narrow span of control.
  19. 19. - 19 - In an autocratic leadership style, the person in charge has total authority and control over decision making. By virtue of their position and job responsibilities, they not only control the efforts of the team, but monitor them for completion – often under close scrutiny. This style is reminiscent of the earliest tribes and empires. Obviously, our historical movement toward democracy brings a negative connotation to autocracy, but in some situations, it is the most appropriate type of leadership. That, of course, doesn’t mean a blank check to ignore the wellbeing of the subordinates. The autocratic leadership style is best used in situations where control is necessary, often where there is little margin for error. When conditions are dangerous, rigid rules can keep people out of harm’s way. Many times, the subordinate staff is inexperienced or unfamiliar with the type of work and heavy oversight is necessary. Rigid organisations often use this style. It has been known to be very paternalistic, and in highly-professional, independent minded teams, it can lead to resentment and strained morale. Good fits for autocratic leadership: Military, Manufacturing, and Construction. Autocratic leadership creates a centralized chain of command with heavy involvement of the leader in all gamut of operations. This leads to the formation of a hub and spoken type of organizational structure that helps in many ways, such as: 1. Getting things done quickly 2. Improving communication and logistics.
  20. 20. - 20 - 3. Better response to changes in the external environment 4. Putting forth a more coordinated approach toward fulfilling organizational goals 5. Anticipating problems in advance, and better realisation of consequences of an action by one section on other sections. Proponents of the autocratic leadership style advocate it as an ideal method to extract high performance from employees without putting them under stress. They insist that the close supervision and monitoring leads to a faster pace of work with less slack, where the leader assumes full responsibility for the decisions and actions, ultimately creating reduced stress for subordinates. Some situations call for the autocratic style of leadership, particularly those that are urgent or dangerous. For example, a leader might choose to delegate specific tasks to her followers if the organization needs to meet an urgent deadline where something important is at stake, such as the organization’s image. A leader who has more knowledge about how to react to the crisis situation will be able to effectively delegate tasks to workers to ensure that the organization and its members make it through the crisis. New members of an organization often want to fit in and look to leaders for guidance on what they should do to feel they are part of the team. Autocratic leadership helps new members by teaching them exactly how to perform a task so the new member has a set of clear expectations. Also, new members might be reluctant to try new things or take ownership because they are afraid of stepping on other members’ toes. Autocratic leadership allows knowledgeable members to direct new
  21. 21. - 21 - members in terms of appropriate behaviour until the new members are capable of making decisions on their own. This leadership style survives by default because it comes naturally to most leaders especially in times of low morale or insubordination. 2.3 OTHER LEADERSHIP STYLES One way to define a leadership style is the way we handle a few categories: 1. How one deals with personnel: How you address your human capital, from directing their work to dealing with problems and conflict will shape your leadership style. 2. How one manages the workflow: How you manage what gets done, and how much oversight there will be. Do you expect people to get it done, or do you make sure it is happening yourself? 3. How you view your role: Do you see yourself as a caretaker of the environment, or the ultimate decision maker and director of traffic? Your perspective on leadership boils down to two broad categories: the micromanager and the macro manager. The micromanager will supervise and approve every detail, keeping a heavy hand in the overall progress of the project. The macro manager keeps
  22. 22. - 22 - track of goals and big-picture timelines while relying on his team to make all the smaller decisions. The handling of the flow of ideas also distinguishes leaders. Some serve to enable the decision making skills of their teams. Others bring in a pre-defined philosophy and seek compliance and consent from the group. You may hear one style and think to yourself “that sounds perfect.” It probably is for your skill or environment. But that is not to say there is a perfect leadership style; only the ones that might fit best. The Two Broad Categories of Leadership Styles: Task-oriented leaders are excellent at managing the nuts and bolts in their area of expertise. Their ability to get things done translates into valuable resources for the team – provided they leverage those resources with good communication and interaction. People-oriented leaders are the charmers and visionaries. They get keep the human and emotional side of the team going strong. There real value comes in making the group produce better results than would come from the sum of its parts alone. Example of leadership styles: These are some broad sketches of leadership style. We may find sometimes people follow a combination of these, or even cross styles. That is fine as long as their methods fit the work environment, personalities and goals of everyone involved.
  23. 23. - 23 - 1. Task-Oriented Leaders: The Hands-Off Leader doesn’t see the need to provide feedback, continuous input, or scrutiny to their team. Usually there is a good reason for this: they tend to work with highly-experienced and functional groups. If the group does not fit this mould, there will be problems. The Bureaucrat knows the rules of the institution and has the team abide by them. When there are rigid policies and guidelines in place, the Bureaucrat makes sure that they are maintained and used to the best of their ability. This style can be effective when there is little margin for error, but stifling in a changing or evolving environment. The Autocrat manages the direction of all goals and work, with little to no input from the team. They have all the power to make decisions, and they use it. They don’t worry about input, and do not leave room for subordinates to sub-manage. This is a style most often used when a great deal of scrutiny is necessary to have a successful end product, but can be untenable in less clear-cut situations. 2. People-Oriented Leaders: The Trainer works to develop the team members to make them more efficient and stronger at their jobs. This leader focuses on the increasing skills and success of his team to make success more likely. They can foster a strong community feeling. The Cheerleader/Coach takes an indirect approach, motivating and encouraging the team toward success. They have magnetic personalities and boatloads of charisma. The
  24. 24. - 24 - Cheerleader/Coach tries to make people comfortable in their roles, but if they leave, the team might end up in shambles. The Democratic Leader is a facilitator who encourages discussion and the free-flow of ideas. The team expresses their ideas on the best course of action, the leader studies the options and then chooses based on the input. This style offers the group a strong sense of place and carefully measure decisions, but can be slow to respond. 2.4 IMPACT OF AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP The autocratic style is one of the most recognized forms of directive leadership. At first, the style seems to contradict many modern work environments that emphasize teamwork, group input and shared decision-making. However, certain conditions and specific industries, such as the military, manufacturing and construction, thrive when a leader takes tight control and makes most of the decisions, according to Leadership-Toolbox. Even so, the most effective autocratic leaders remember to communicate task expectations and to respect their followers with the following effects: 1. Easy to Learn The autocratic, or "do this or else," type of leadership is intuitive, easy to learn and does not require specialized training or knowledge of leadership theory, according to Leadership-Toolbox. Autocratic leaders do not have to worry about recognizing and
  25. 25. - 25 - responding to followers' emotions or try to meet different motivational needs of group members. 2. Control Dangerous work environments or situations requiring complicated tasks with no room for error such as safety inspections prosperunder autocratic leadership since each depends on control. In addition, companies may turn to autocratic leadership for urgent short-term results (Money-Zine). For example, employees working through a company crisis may need one authoritative leader to call the shots and ensure tasks are completed correctly. 3. Good for Inexperienced or Unmotivated Workers Depending on the industry, new employees may need specific instructions and close follow-up until they learn the job (Leadership-Toolbox). The autocratic leadership style is also good for low-skilled tasks, such as directing employees to make copies or file papers. In addition, according to LeadershipExpert, bosses may need to use the "do it or else" type of autocratic leadership to ensure that unmotivated employees complete their assigned tasks. 4. Increased Work Burden Since they take full responsibility for team decisions and review of a team's work, autocratic leaders are extremely busy, which can lead to high stress and even health problems. Other leadership styles, such as participative or democratic, distribute some of the decision-making to certain group members.
  26. 26. - 26 - 5. Bad for Highly Skilled and Motivated Workers Few people like to be told what to do, especially those who are already intrinsically motivated and understand the task at hand. An autocratic leader facing this type of group will dampen morale and will reduce his team's creativity and productivity. Autocratic leaders in this situation may not make the best decisions since they lack the group input from team members who have experience and skills. In addition, members of Generation Y, workers born in the mid-1970s to 1990s, usually do not respond well to autocratic leadership, according to LeadershipExpert. 6. Leader Dependence The autocratic style is most effective when the leader is present. Unlike the transformational style of leadership where followers become self-motivated to complete tasks, once the autocratic leader is gone, there is no guarantee that team members will keep working. A critique of autocratic leadership style reveals that it remains best suited in certain situations such as: 1. Occasions when the situation requires a strong centralized control with detailed orders and instructions, such as in the military or during surgery. 2. When leading an extremely large group, such as in assembly line factories, where the wide span of control not only makes it impossible but also counterproductive to elicit the views of all employees.
  27. 27. - 27 - 3. When followers are new or inexperienced, or lack the qualifications, skills, or talent to respond to any participative leadership styles, or remain unmotivated, and non- committed workers. 4. During occasions of contingencies, emergencies and other situations warranting on the spot decisions. 5. When dealing or negotiating with external agencies or departments. The autocratic leadership style on the whole remains a short-term or quick fix approach to management. The ability to make decisions faster, while helping the organization in the short term, actually ‘unskills’ the workforce leading to poor decision-making capability and productivity in the long run. 2.5 PROBLEMS OF AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP The advantages of autocratic leadership notwithstanding, this leadership style has borne the brunt of heavy criticism in the last three decades, where the move toward systems thinking and empowering people have led to the perception of “autocratic” and “centralized command” as negative and undesirable traits. Theory Y, the antithesis of Theory X assumes that ambitious and self-motivated employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. Such employees possess the ability for creative problem solving, but most organizations under-utilize their talents. Theory Y holds that employees seek and accept responsibility and exercise self-control
  28. 28. - 28 - and self-direction in accomplishing objectives, provided the conditions remain congenial for such an approach. The autocratic leadership style remains wholly unsuited for such Theory Y oriented workforces and does not rank among the modern leadership styles in a changing world. Autocratic leadership often creates a more stressful work environment. Employees may worry less about completing business functions to the best possible outcome and more about avoiding punishment from leaders and managers. Employees can also face strict punishment or penalties for operating outside company guidelines. Business owners using an autocratic leadership style can increase their employee turnover. Employee turnover occurs when individuals become disenchanted when working in a difficult business environment and desire to find another job. Because the autocratic style of leadership relies on issuing directives, members of the organization often feel stressed as they try to evaluate their performance against the expectations of the leader. Often, because the leader takes responsibility for motivating the workers, he also feels obligated to push workers to produce using negative reinforcement and punishment tactics. Members of the organization become stressed due to the high expectations and a low feeling of worth because they cannot make decisions and are not allowed to be directly responsible for their work. Many times workers will lose their commitment to the organization because the autocratic style of leadership strips them of their responsibility for the organization’s
  29. 29. - 29 - success. Because members of the organization are marginalized in favour of a leader who makes all of the decisions and takes the credit for success, there are usually higher levels of absenteeism and quitting. Without a sense of ownership in the organization, workers do not feel as committed. 2.6 CHARACTERISTICS OF AN AUTOCRATIC LEADER The major characteristics of an autocratic leader include: 1. The autocratic leader retains all power, authority, and control, and reserves the right to make all decisions. 2. Autocratic leaders distrust their subordinate’s ability, and closely supervise and control people under them. 3. Autocratic leaders involve themselves in detailed day-to-day activities, and rarely delegate or empower subordinates. 4. The autocratic leader adopts one-way communication. They do not consult with subordinates or give them a chance to provide their opinions, no matter the potential benefit of such inputs. 5. Autocratic leadership assumes that employee motivation comes not through empowerment, but by creating a structured set of rewards and punishments. 6. Autocratic leaders get work done by issuing threats and punishments and evoking fear.
  30. 30. - 30 - 7. The primary concern of autocratic leaders remains dealing with the work at hand and not on developmental activities. 8. Autocratic leaders assume full responsibility and take full credit for the work. Below are some characteristics of an effective autocratic leader: 1. Respect of Subordinates: It’s easy to end up as rigid as the rules you are trying to enforce. It’s important that you stay fair and acknowledge that everyone brings something to the table, even if they don’t call the shots. Making subordinates realize they are respected keeps moral up and resentment low; every functional team is built on a foundation of mutual respect. 2. Explain the rules: Employees know they have to follow procedure, but it helps them do a better job if they know why. 3. Consistency: If the leader’s role in the team is to enforce the company line, he has to make sure he does so consistently and fairly. It is easy to respect someone’s objective, but hard to trust someone who applies policy differently in similar circumstances. 4. Education before enforcement:
  31. 31. - 31 - Having everyone understand the expectations up front will mean fewer surprises down the road. Being above board from the outset prevents a lot of miscommunications and misunderstandings. 5. Listen, even if you don’t change: We all want to feel like our opinions are appreciated even if they are not going to lead to immediate change, being a leader means that your team will want to bring their opinions to you. It is important to be clear that they are heard, no matter the outcome. 2.7 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF DIVINE MERCY SECONDARY SCHOOL ASOKORO-ABUJA Divine Mercy Secondary School (DMSS), Asokoro took off as a co-educational, secular and day secondary school on 21st June 2001, after the assumption of duty on same day by the pioneer Principal, Mr. Samuel C. Ugochukwu and the spiritual blessing of the premises by Rev. Fr. Innocent Jooji. Founded as a co-educational school for all faiths, all nationalities and of varied social cultural backgrounds by Chief C.K. and Mrs A.R Uganden, the school’s major objectives are to provide quality education and sound character building for its pupils and to complement government’s efforts in providing employment opportunities for residents of the new Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, in particular. Located on Plot 328 Jimmy Carter Street, Asokoro, along the road oppositethe Asokoro Protea Hotel, the school occupies an area of 1.6 hectares, and it has land enough for required school buildings, sporting facilities and for future expansion. It
  32. 32. - 32 - was registered as a business name as a nursery/primary and secondary school with the Corporate Affairs Commission Abuja, Nigeria, on 9th July 2001, with registration number BN 980602. At present, however, it only runs the junior and senior secondary schools only and hopes to open the primary section when it completes the construction of classrooms currently going on. The school got government approval to operate as a secondary school on 1st July 2003. It was re-accredited by the FCT’s Department of Policy and Implementation on 15th May 2007 in the 2007/2008 academic session during which the school was given approval to run both the Nigerian Basic Education and the Senior Secondary School programmes. It had its first lessons on 23rd October 2001 with 10 teachers, 5 support staff and one student and ended the first term in December 2001with only three (3) students. Three years after its take off, the school introduced the boarding system for interested girls only. The small student population at the beginning looked discouraging and hopeless in the eyes of the pioneer Vice-Principal, Mr D. Suleiman, who left not long after resumption of duty, thinking that the school would not survive because of that initial small population. He was, however, proved wrong as the school grew steadily in the subsequent sessions. By early October 2012, in the current 2012/2013 academic session, the school has a population of 232 students. The teaching staff strength has also increased from 10 at inception to 61 presently. A new boys’ hostel and attractive new uniforms were introduced in the 2010/2011 session to attract more students. Another examination centre is also being considered outside of Abuja to get more quality students. Indeed,
  33. 33. - 33 - infrastructural development has been greatly enhanced and more academic structures, facilities and equipment have been put in place to promote greater academic output. The academic performance has been improving in spite of the national ups and downs in the education sector. Moreover with a good student-teacher ratio of about one teacher to 10 students, there is the ample opportunity for the teachers to interact more with the students on a one-on-one basis for better and more effective teaching/learning as well as better monitoring and mentoring. 2.8 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK In autocratic leadership, the focus of power is with the manager and all interactions within the group move towards the manager who is generally described as cohesive, authoritarian and dictatorial. He commands and expects compliance. It is the manager alone who has the power of taking decisions, determining policies, laying procedures for achieving goals and is the major source of influence in the group activities. Because of his control over the group and its resources, the group members are dependent on him. Autocratic leadership fits into Douglas McGregor theory X assumption that subordinates 1. Dislike work and then possibly will avoid it 2. They give little contribution, do not show responsibility and prefer to be directed 3. Are unintelligent and would like to be led 4. Are not creative and lack initiative or idea 5. Work only when coerced or forced. – Katuka (2013:7)
  34. 34. - 34 - Mahal (2001) opines that the manager assumes that people work basically for money and want security thus he exercises strict control and supervision over his subordinates. He has the power of giving reward or punishments, fixing work tasks and relationships. Subordinates are therefore entirely dependent on the leader and production tends to decline in the absence of the leader who solely solves the problems and takes the decisions using available information without consultation. Since workers are not taken into confidence either for fixing goals or for making decisions, their motivational level is very low and they feel insecure. They do not identify themselves with the organisation. Kendra Cherry (2011) states that autocratic leadership, also known as authoritarian leadership, is a leadership style characterized by individual control over all decisions and little input from group members. Autocratic leaders typically make choices based on their own ideas and judgments and rarely accept advice from followers. Autocratic leadership involves absolute, authoritarian control over a group. Some of the primary characteristics of autocratic leadership include: Little or no input from group members, leaders make the decisions, group leaders dictate all the work methods and processes, group members are rarely trusted with decisions or important tasks. Cherry believes that there are benefits of Autocratic Leadership: Autocratic leadership can be beneficial in some instances, such as when decisions need to be made quickly without consulting with a large group of people. Some projects require strong leadership in order to get things accomplished quickly and efficiently.
  35. 35. - 35 - If you have ever worked with a group of students or co-workers on a project that got derailed by poor organization, a lack of leadership, and an inability to set deadlines, chances are that your grade or job performance suffered as a result. In such situations, a strong leader who utilizes an autocratic style can take charge of the group, assign tasks to different members, and establish solid deadlines for projects to be finished. In situations that are particularly stressful, such as during military conflicts, group members may actually prefer an autocratic style. It allows members of the group to focus on performing specific tasks without worrying about making complex decisions. This also allows group members to become highly skilled at performing certain duties, which can be beneficial to the group. While autocratic leadership can be beneficial at times, there are also many instances where this leadership style can be problematic. People who abuse an autocratic leadership style are often viewed as bossy, controlling, and dictatorial, which can lead to resentment among group members. Because autocratic leaders make decisions without consulting the group, people in the group may dislike that they are unable to contribute ideas. Researchers have also found that autocratic leadership often results in a lack of creative solutions to problems, which can ultimately hurt the performance of the group. Leadership toolbox.com summarises autocratic leadership as a leadership style in which the person in charge has total authority and control over decision making. By virtue of their position and job responsibilities, they not only control the efforts of the team, but monitor them for completion – often under close scrutiny. This style is reminiscent of the
  36. 36. - 36 - earliest tribes and empires. Obviously, our historical movement toward democracy brings a negative connotation to autocracy, but in some situations, it is the most appropriate type of leadership. That, of course, does not mean a blank check to ignore the wellbeing of his subordinate. Autocratic leaders are "primarily concerned with task accomplishment, not the happiness or satisfaction of followers," according to the "Encyclopedia of Leadership, Volume Four." To this end, such leaders express aloofness from their followers and typically opt to motivate them by punishing poor performers as opposed to rewarding top achievers. Under certain conditions, autocratic leaders are able to promptly wrest order from chaos. Indeed, certain organizations, "such as the Armed Forces, are so complex that they may need autocratic leadership to keep the group functioning," observes Dr Elizabeth Bolton, Professor of Community Development at the University of Florida. Contrasting leadership styles, such as laissez faire or participative leadership, frequently fail to retain their effectiveness under complex conditions. While wielding absolute power often provides an autocratic leader with an adrenaline rush, such a leadership style is anathema to healthy emotional growth. These leaders are usually quick to place blame, and may experience depression if unable to handle crisis situations that arise during a busy work day. Since such leaders often prefer to be hated than loved in the context of a work environment, they are often prone to shy away from opportunities for emotional enrichment outside of a work environment.
  37. 37. - 37 - Not merely world dictators or control freaks, autocratic leaders can be found in pressure- filled "newsrooms under deadlines, troops on a battlefield, and a sailing ship in a storm," argue authors Charles B. Dygert and Richard A. Jacobs in their book "Creating a Culture of Success." Additionally, parents of toddlers and leaders of drug rehabilitation facilities are both positive examples of autocratic leaders whose efforts are beneficial to their communities. Within an organizational context, autocratic leadership does not provide guaranteed results. Rather, it yields greater benefits in certain circumstances than it might in others. This style of leadership can be useful when dealing with a large number of employees, who are engaged in relatively simple tasks. By focusing on the bottom line, autocratic leaders are often able to increase worker productivity, organizational output and even profit margins. Solutions for Enterprise Productivity (2010) has it that Genghis Khan, Napoleon Bonaparte, Adolf Hitler, Attila the Hun and Gen. George Patton all have one thing in common: autocratic leadership. Today there are countless other examples of autocratic leadership in businesses; even Jack Welch adopted the same style. It appears that autocratic leadership still prevails but how successful is it? Autocratic leadership is a style of management that typically involves making important business decisions without the input of others. This usually prevails in military organisations where superiors are not challenged by subordinates. It may be justified when time is short and there is an element of secrecy involved in decision making. However, in many instances, employees feel
  38. 38. - 38 - suffocated working under autocratic leaders. Turnover and absenteeism may be very high. If anything goes wrong, leaders take the blame. The leader is the centre of attention, unlike in democratic leadership where the group is the focus. These leaders may experience more problems as the power is concentrated in fewer hands. If anything goes wrong, the entire organization runs the risk of collapsing like a house of cards. However, while not suitable for many kinds of environments, this style may work in unskilled industries where there is less need for communication and creativity. And it can work in rare instances in other industries. For example, Martha Stewart was a successful autocratic leader who flourished in a competitive environment. Another example is Howell Raines, who was the executive editor of the New York Times from 2001 to 2003. But these are exceptions. The 21st century does not encourage this kind of leadership because employees expect to be treated as partners and collaborators. There are two types of autocratic leaders: directive autocrats, who make decisions unilaterally and closely supervise subordinates, and permissive autocrats, who make decisions unilaterally and give subordinates latitude in carrying out their work. Autocratic leaders typically are task-oriented and are least concerned about people, they are the only decision-making authority, they limit arguments and attempt to solve problems without discussion and deliberation, they develop and groom their subordinates as leaders, they treat their followers as puppets and act themselves as puppeteers, they have big egos and are status- conscious, they expect others to follow them without questioning. Autocratic leadership can provide some of the structure and discipline required for any enterprise to survive and
  39. 39. - 39 - succeed. At times, it connects divergent people and brings cohesion. Further, it can be effective when employees are new and do not yet know how to perform their tasks, and it can be relevant when a high amount of production takes place regularly. It can be suitable when there is a time shortage. Autocratic leaders may cultivate weak management teams that may not be able to live up to organizational challenges. They do not groom their successors and do not line up a leadership pipeline. Further, there is likely to be intra- office politicking since autocratic leaders do not promote transparency and discussion. Further, the personality traits associated with autocratic leaders may be difficult to manage. For example, autocratic leaders typically like to be surrounded by yes-men. They do not appreciate discussion especially when there is dissent. Ultimately, they are loners. And there likely won’t be anyone else to help them celebrate their success after an accomplishment, which could result in frustration or unrealistic drive. That said, every leader will have his or her own style and quirks. Autocratic leadership is dying as a management style, but it still exists and in some cases can still be relevant. It is important to assess your company and its leaders and determine the best course of action for your organization. One cannot expect all leaders to be alike. Such is the case with autocratic leaders. Although autocratic leadership is gradually fading away, it is still relevant in certain aspects. Bunmi Omolayo (2007) in consonance with the others, confirms that autocratic leadership style gives rise to job-related tension in work organizations.
  40. 40. - 40 - CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the detailed methodology of the research undertaken in the course of this study. Specifically, it outlines the population and sample of study, the data collection and data analysis techniques in addition to a proposed model for the study. 3.2 THE DESIGN The research work is designed to assess the problems of autocratic leadership using Divine Mercy Secondary School Asokoro-Abuja as the case study. In view of the above, questionnaires have been designed and distributed to respondents to enable them express their views and also help the researcher carry out the study successfully. Therefore, the research collected, analysed and interpreted data collected from the personnel of Divine Mercy Secondary School Asokoro-Abuja. 3.3 THE RESEARCH POPULATION The population from which the sample for the study is drawn comprises of the staff of Divine Mercy Secondary School Asokoro-Abuja, the strength of which is 84. 3.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
  41. 41. - 41 - The random sampling technique was adopted by the researcher. This is because random sampling is the process of allowing every subject or unit in a given population an opportunity of appearing in the selection thus ensuring that each member has an equal chance of being chosen by the sample (Toluhi 2001). The division of staff based on their function – The security staff, the Yard Superintendent and hostel personnel, the drivers, the sanitation personnel, the cooks, the library unit, the secretarial personnel, the Social Science department, the Arts and Languages department, the Science department, the Vocational department. About half of the members of every department have been given the questionnaires constituting a combination of both senior and junior staff, the number of personnel in each department varying. Hence, a total of 45 questionnaires have been given out. 3.5 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION The primary method of data collection was used to collect the data for this research. This was done by administering questionnaires in addition to the oral interview conducted with the employees of Divine Mercy Secondary School. The researcher carried out a personal administration of the questionnaires through a direct method to avoid the distortion of data to be collected.
  42. 42. - 42 - 3.6 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis is the process of interpreting raw data so as to make it relevant to the problem being investigated (Osuala 2009). The analysis will be done by presenting the responses of the respondents in a tabula form at the end of which the percentage method will be used.
  43. 43. - 43 - CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 4.1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, the data collected for the purpose of this research work will be presented and analysed such that it will be easily understood. 4.2 DATA PRESENTATION For the purpose of presenting the data collected, tables shall be used which will contain the distribution of responses as evident in the questionnaires returned. 4.3 DATA ANALYSIS To analyse the data collected, the simple percentage method will be used. All the questionnaires administered were returned as the researcher used the electronic google forms format. TABLE 1: Job distribution Distribution Senior staff Junior Staff Number 12 33 Percentage 27% 73% The table above shows that 12 out of the 45 respondents are senior staff consisting of Heads of Departments, the Senior Masters and the Guidance Counsellor. TABLE 2: Effective delegation of responsibility
  44. 44. - 44 - Your leader delegates responsibility, accountability and authority effectively. always 2 4% often 15 33% sometimes 13 28% rarely 16 35% never 0 0% When your leader delegates a task, he/she trusts that you would be able to do the job and does not interfere. always 17 37% often 14 30% sometimes 11 24% rarely 4 9% never 0 0% Your leader allows you to determine what needs to be done and how to do it in your assignment. always 8 17% often 17 37% sometimes 12 26% rarely 8 17% never 1 2% Your working environment allows you to take ownership of projects and take decisions on in it. always 8 18% often 9 20% sometimes 19 42% rarely 8 18% never 1 2% Do you have liberty to exercise your decisions to fulfil your commitments? always 10 22% often 9 20% sometimes 18 40% rarely 5 11% never 3 7% From the table above, it can be seen that a larger percentage of the responses fall under headings ‘often’ and ‘sometimes’ with a 58% average even though the first question has a whopping 35% under the ‘rarely’ heading and the second question 37% under ‘always’ do not have the liberty to take decisions in the course of discharging their duties. We can deduce therefore that responsibility is delegated but is not only closely monitored but also the decision/s taken is influenced by the leader. TABLE 3: Exemplary leadership question Your leader leads by example. always 5 11% often 12 27% sometimes 16 36% rarely 10 22% never 2 4%
  45. 45. - 45 - From the table above it can be deduced that the leader does not always lead exemplarily given that the responses sometimes, rarely and never bear the highest percentage total of 62%. TABLE 4: Fair treatment of workers Your leader is firm and fair minded when dealing with co-workers. always 10 22% often 17 37% sometimes 15 33% rarely 3 7% never 1 2% This table reflects the fact that workers are not always treated fairly with a whooping percentage of 78% and this goes a long way to affect the productivity and mind-set of the worker. TABLE 5: Employees are threatened or punished if they do wrong or make mistakes. always 8 18% often 21 47% sometimes 16 36% rarely 0 0% never 0 0% Table 5 shows that threat and punishment is common place whether as a corrective measure or a punitive one with a 100% affirmative response. TABLE 6: Vertical communication flow Your leader informs you about the changes, policies, and procedures that affect you. always 28 61% often 10 22% sometimes 8 17% rarely 0 0% Never 0 0% Your leader is available for questions and feedback. always 22 49% often 11 24% sometimes 9 20% rarely 2 4% never 1 2% When you make a mistake, your leader politely tells you and advises you not to do it again. always 12 27% often 7 16% sometimes 12 27% rarely 11 24% never 3 7% Your leader uses constructive feedback to optimize the productivity of co-workers. always 14 30% often 14 30% sometimes 13 28% rarely 4 9% never 1 2%
  46. 46. - 46 - Your leader develops objectives and performance standards with his/her subordinates. always 10 22% often 19 41% sometimes 11 24% rarely 5 11% never 1 2% From the table above, it can be seen that in spite of the autocratic nature of the leadership, information flow to and from the employees is maintained at optimal level. The rarely and never responses can be assumed to be the staff who are not always on seat when information is being passed such as the accountant who may have gone to the bank or the nurse who may have taken a student to the hospital etc. TABLE 7: Acknowledgement and commendation of optimal performance Your leader recognizes optimal performance, and expresses appreciation in a timely manner. always 19 41% often 8 17% sometimes 12 26% rarely 7 15% never 0 0% Table 7 shows that the responses always, often and sometimes amounting to 85% of the responses reflect that good work is duly appreciated. TABLE 8: Consultative leadership factor Your leader motivates you to do the best on the job. always 20 44% often 7 16% sometimes 8 18% rarely 9 2% never 1 2% Your leader is able to make the team work together in a unified direction. always 3 7% often 15 33% sometimes 14 31% rarely 11 24% never 2 4% Your leader asks for your ideas and listens to your opinions for upcoming plans and projects. always 2 4% often 8 18% sometimes 17 38% rarely 17 38% never 1 2% Your leader resolves issues as and when it occurs, and considers the best interest of all concerned. always 9 20% often 16 35% sometimes 13 28% rarely 8 17% never 0 0% Your leader has the best interests of the team members in mind. always 12 26% often 16 35% sometimes 15 33% rarely 3 7% never 0 0%
  47. 47. - 47 - Your leader develops objectives and performance standards with his/her subordinates. always 10 22% often s19 41% sometimes 11 24% rarely 5 11% never 1 2% For a major decision to pass, it has to have the approval of employees. always 4 9% often 9 20% sometimes 12 27% rarely 16 36% never 4 9% Your leader considers his/her decision as final. always 2 4% often 10 22% sometimes 24 53% rarely 6 13% never 3 7% You share your mistakes with your leader. always 2 4% often 9 20% sometimes 9 20% rarely 16 36% never 9 20% Can you talk freely about any matter to your leader? always 8 18% often 10 22% sometimes 15 33% rarely 10 22% never 2 4% It can be seen from table 8 that the leader motivates the employees to do the best on the job to at least 60% but not necessarily as a team as that response has 93% in the negative. The leader clearly hardly considers his/her decision as final given the at least 73% response in opposition to that but does not always listen to employee opinion for prospective plans. It can also be observed that further that the leader has the best interest of the staff at heart and resolves issues promptly as reflected in the affirmative response of 94% and 83% each. On the other hand, a majority of the employees do not freely talk with or share their mistakes with the leader. TABLE 9: Job security/ satisfaction Do you like to go to your job? always 24 53% often 16 36% sometimes 5 11% rarely 0 0% never 0 0% Do you feel restless/ uneasy while doing your job? always 0 0% often 1 2% sometimes 14 31% rarely 15 33% never 15 33% Do you like to do extra time to your job so that your assignments can be finished early/in time? always 16 36% often 16 36% sometimes 12 27% rarely 0 0% never 1 2%
  48. 48. - 48 - Do you want to change your job to another one better than this job? yes 35 78% no 10 22% Do you think that you will never change this job? yes 2 4% no 43 96% Do you feel secure on this job? always 3 7% often 16 36% sometimes 20 44% rarely 5 11% never 1 2% Are you satisfied with your job? yes 33 73% no 12 27% From table 9, it can be understood that at least 89% and 72% like to go to work and would not mind doing extra time on the job (for the purpose of delivering on their jobs promptly) respectively. Job satisfaction is on the high side with a 78% average affirmative response while job security is not so promising with a 7% always response. On the desire for change of job for greener pastures, an expected average of 87% affirmative response is observed which is characteristic of the employees of privately owned establishments. TABLE 10: The effect of the leadership on the desire for employees to resign from their jobs Will the leadership be a factor in informing your decision to leave the job? yes 7 16% no 38 84% Finally, from table 10, it can be clearly observed that the leadership will only influence resignation at a minimal level of 7%.
  49. 49. - 49 - CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 SUMMARY This research work is on the impact of the problems of autocratic leadership style with particular reference to Divine Mercy Secondary School-Asokoro. The study reveals that the leadership style does not motivate workers to put in their best on the job hence the leadership style and the productivity of the staff are mutually exclusive. By virtue of the careful presentation and analysis of data in the previous chapter, the findings of the study is summarised below: The study revealed that the work environment for the employees of Divine Mercy Secondary School-Asokoro is satisfactory. 5.2 CONCLUSION The need to exercise caution on the generalised statement covered by this study is paramount. This is because questionnaires were administered to collect data for this study which implies that there cannot be a universal conclusion due to the subjective nature of the responses. From the study one can conclude that Autocratic leadership is not a bad management style in and of itself. Business owners who fail to implement this style effectively often receive negative results. Business owners should be sensitive to the personality and working style of their employees. Creating an open and understanding work environment
  50. 50. - 50 - allows employees to provide business owners with feedback regarding business operations. Business owners can use this information to refine their management style and improve the working relationship of the owner and employees. Contrary to claims of close supervision with detailed instructions to reduce stress and improve productivity, this research suggests that such actions actually ‘unmotivate’ employees, and cause them to becoming tense, fearful, or resentful. Lack of involvement from the employee in the decision making process leads to employees not assuming ownership of their work, contributing to low morale, lack of commitment, and manifesting in high turnover, absenteeism, and work stoppage. The heavily centralized command of autocratic leadership style ensures that the system depends entirely on the leader. If the leader is strong, capable, competent, and just, the organization functions smoothly, and if the leader is weak, incompetent, or has low ethical and moral standards, the entire organization suffers for the sake of a single leader. All power vested with the leader leads to risk of leaders with low moral fibre exploiting employees, indulging in favouritism and discrimination, and the like. Weak autocratic leaders tend to take decisions based on ego rather than sound management principles, and punish employees who dare to disagree with such decisions. The leader reserving the right to make all decisions leads to subordinates becoming heavily dependent on the leader. The team thereby becomes useless in running operations
  51. 51. - 51 - if they lose contact with their leader, and absence of the leader leads to total collapse and shutdown of operations. The one sided communication flow in an autocratic leadership style restricts the creative and leadership skills of the employees and prevents their development. This harms the organization as well, for the employees remain incapable of assuming greater responsibilities, to perform anything outside the routine or to work as a team. The autocratic leader, by taking all responsibility and involved heavily in day-to-day operations, remains forced to work at full capacity, leading to stress and other health problems. Autocratic leaders usually remain unpopular and damage working relationships with colleagues. This leadership style is unsuited to build trusting relationships. Autocratic leadership often creates a more stressful work environment. Employees may worry less about completing business functions to the best possible outcome and more about avoiding punishment from leaders and managers. Employees can also face strict punishment or penalties for operating outside company guidelines. Business owners using an autocratic leadership style can increase their employee turnover. Employee turnover occurs when individuals become disenchanted when working in a difficult business environment and desire to find another job. Because the autocratic style of leadership relies on issuing directives, members of the organization often feel stressed as they try to evaluate their performance against the
  52. 52. - 52 - expectations of the leader. Often, because the leader takes responsibility for motivating the workers, he also feels obligated to push workers to produce using negative reinforcement and punishment tactics. Members of the organization become stressed due to the high expectations and a low feeling of worth because they cannot make decisions and are not allowed to be directly responsible for their work. Many times workers will lose their commitment to the organization because the autocratic style of leadership strips them of their responsibility for the organization’s success. Because members of the organization are marginalized in favour of a leader who makes all of the decisions and takes the credit for success, there are usually higher levels of absenteeism and quitting. Without a sense of ownership in the organization, workers do not feel as committed. 5.3 RECOMMENDATION In the light of the finding and conclusion drawn from this research, the following recommendations are made to ensure the effectiveness of the leadership system to further encourage the performance and productivity of the workers in Divine Mercy Secondary School-Asokoro. a. The greater involvement of workers in the decision making process should be considered as it is a vital asset for effective performance. Workers’ involvement in decision making gives them a sense of belonging which will motivate them to perform effectively for increase in productivity.
  53. 53. - 53 - b. A conducive working environment should be provided for challenging work. c. Employees should be encouraged to improve themselves by furthering their studies. d. There is need for the encouragement of team spirit among employees in order to enhance greater productivity hence they do their best in their appointed tasks. e. Effective communication should be fostered in order to ensure upward and downward (vertical communication) flow of information thus giving confidence to the subordinate to voice their opinions thereby increasing performance. f. Motivational incentives and verbal commendations should be regularly given to encourage higher productivity.
  54. 54. - 54 - Bibliography Ademolekun, I. (2003). Public Administration; a Nigerian and Comparative Perspective: London, Longman Press. Akowe, J. (2005). Theories of Administration and the Application of Public Service Rules in Nigeria: Lokoja, Howard Press Barnard, C. (1948). Organisation and Management: Cambridge. Harvard University Press. Bedian, A. (1986). Management. Chicago: The Dryden Press Betts, J. (2003). Supervising Management: London, Pitman Publishing Collins, D. (2010). “Designing Ethical Organisations for Spiritual Growth and Superior Performance: An Organisation Systems Approach”. Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion. (Vol 7:95 – 117). Darcy, K. (2010). Ethical Leadership: The Past, Present and Future”. Internatonal Journal of Disclosure and Governance. Vol 7:188 - 212. Ejiofor, P. (1989). Foundation of Business Administration. Onitsha: Africana Feb Publishers. Ekhator, V. (2002) Rudiments of Public Administration. Kaduna: Joyce Graphic Printers and Publishers. Leadership Review: Autocratic Leadership in Social Dilemmas Mahal, Kitab (2011). Public Administration in Theory and Practice. New Delhi: Kitab Mahal Printing Division. Millet, J. (1954). Management in Public Service. New York: McGraw Hill Book Co. Money-zine: Autocratic Leadership Newstrom, John W. & Davis, Keith (1993). Organizational Behavior: Human Behavior at Osuala, E.C. (2011) Introduction to Research Methodology. Onitsha: Africana Feb Publisher Ltd. Tannenbaum, R. & Schmidt, W. (1973). How to Choosea Leadership Pattern. Harvard Business Review, No. 73311.
  55. 55. - 55 - Vecchio, Robert, P. (1998). Leadership: Understanding the Dynamics of Power and Influence in Organizations. University of Notre Dame Press Vroom, V. and Yetton, P. (1973). Leadership and Decision Making. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsssburgh Press. Yaki, K. (2013). Theories of Leadership and Administrative Practices in Organisations. Ebbs Strategic Mgt. Leadership Training School. LCC California USA.
  56. 56. - 56 - APPENDIX RESEARCHQUESTIONNAIRE 1. Your leader's mission, objectives and goals reflect his highest principles. always 16 35% frequently or often 19 41% sometimes 9 20% rarely 1 2% Never 1 2% 2. Your leader likes and emphasizes the power he/she has over his subordinates. always 6 13% frequently or often 10 22% sometimes 13 29% rarely 14 31% Never 2 4% 3. Your leader leads by example. always 5 11% frequently or often 12 27% sometimes 16 36% rarely 10 22% Never 2 4% 4. Your leader has the skills and resources necessary to perform tasks effectively. always 6 35% frequently or often 19 41% sometimes 8 17% rarely 2 4% Never 1 2% 5. Your leader is firm and fair minded when dealing with co-workers. always 10 22% frequently or often 17 37% sometimes 15 33% rarely 3 7% Never 1 2% 6. When your leader delegates a task, he/she trusts that you would be able to do the job and does not interfere. always 17 37% frequently or often 14 30% sometimes 11 24% rarely 4 9% Never 0 0% 7. Your leader's decision is consistent with corporate policies, procedures, and objectives. always 19 42% frequently or often 17 38% sometimes 5 11% rarely 2 4% Never 2 4% 8. Your leader motivates you to do the best on the job. always 20 44% frequently or often 7 16% sometimes 8 18% rarely 9 2% Never 1 2% 9. Your leader is able to make the team work together in a unified direction. always 3 7% frequently or often 15 33% sometimes 14 31% rarely 11 24% Never 2 4% 10. Your leader is available for questions and feedback. always 22 49% frequently or often 11 24% sometimes 9 20% rarely 2 4% Never 1 2% 11. Your leader asks for your ideas and listens to your opinions for upcoming plans and projects. always 2 4% frequently or often 8 18% sometimes 17 38% rarely 17 38% Never 1 2%
  57. 57. - 57 - 12. Your leader resolves issues as and when it occurs, and considers the best interest of all concerned. always 9 20% frequently or often 16 35% sometimes 13 28% rarely 8 17% Never 0 0% 13. Your leader has the best interests of the team members in mind. always 12 26% frequently or often 16 35% sometimes 15 33% rarely 3 7% Never 0 0% 14. Your leader develops objectives and performance standards with his/her subordinates. always 10 22% frequently or often 19 41% sometimes 11 24% rarely 5 11% Never 1 2% 15. Your leader informs you about the changes, policies, and procedures that affect you. always 28 61% frequently or often 10 22% sometimes 8 17% rarely 0 0% Never 0 0% 16. Your leader recognizes optimal performance, and expresses appreciation in a timely manner. always 19 41% frequently or often 8 17% sometimes 12 26% rarely 7 15% Never 0 0% 17. Your leader delegates responsibility, accountability and authority effectively. always 2 4% frequently or often 15 33% sometimes 13 28% rarely 16 35% Never 0 0% 18. Your leader ensures that the team receives adequate training, coaching and participation on the job. always 23 50% frequently or often 4 9% sometimes 8 17% rarely 7 15% Never 4 9% 19. Your leader allows you to determine what needs to be done and how to do it in your assignment. always 8 17% frequently or often 17 37% sometimes 12 26% rarely 8 17% Never 1 2% 20. Your leader uses constructive feedback to optimize the productivity of co-workers. always 14 30% frequently or often 14 30% sometimes 13 28% rarely 4 9% Never 1 2% 21. Your working environment allows you to take ownership of projects and take decisions on in it. always 8 18% frequently or often 9 20% sometimes 19 42% rarely 8 18% Never 1 2% 22. Your leader allows you to use your creativity and ingenuity to solve organisational always 6 13% frequently or often 19 41% sometimes 14 30% rarely 6 13% Never 1 2%
  58. 58. - 58 - problems. 23. Employees are threatened or punished if they do wrong or make mistakes. always 8 18% frequently or often 21 47% sometimes 16 36% rarely 0 0% Never 0 0% 24. For a major decision to pass, it has to have the approval of employees. always 4 9% frequently or often 9 20% sometimes 12 27% rarely 16 36% never 4 9% 25. Your leader considers his/her decision as final. always 2 4% frequently or often 10 22% sometimes 24 53% rarely 6 13% never 3 7% 26. You share your mistakes with your leader. always 2 4% frequently or often 9 20% sometimes 9 20% rarely 16 36% never 9 20% 27. When you make a mistake, your leader politely tells you and advises you not to do it again. always 12 27% frequently or often 7 16% sometimes 12 27% rarely 11 24% never 3 7% 28. Do you like to go to your job? always 24 53% frequently or often 16 36% sometimes 5 11% rarely 0 0% never 0 0% 29. Do you think about the betterment of your organization and share your ideas with your leader? always 22 49% frequently or often 9 20% sometimes 11 24% rarely 3 7% never 0 0% 30. Do you feel that you are a part of the organization and for its betterment you can take on-the-spot decisions? always 20 44% frequently or often 8 18% sometimes 14 31% rarely 2 4% never 1 2% 31. Do you have liberty to exercise your decisions to fulfil your commitments? always 10 22% frequently or often 9 20% sometimes 18 40% rarely 5 11% Never 3 7% 32. Do you feel restless/ uneasy while doing your job? always 0 0% frequently or often 1 2% sometimes 14 31% rarely 15 33% never 15 33% 33. Do you like to do extra time to your job so that your assignments can be finished early/in time? always 16 36% frequently or often 16 36% sometimes 12 27% rarely 0 0% never 1 2% 34. Can you talk freely about any matter to your leader? always 8 18% frequently or often 10 22% sometimes 15 33% rarely 10 22% never 2 4%
  59. 59. - 59 - 35. Do you want to change your job to another one better than this job? yes 35 78% no 10 22% 36. Do you think that you will never change this job? yes 2 4% no 43 96% 37. Do you feel secure on this job? always 3 7% frequently or often 16 36% sometimes 20 44% rarely 5 11% never 1 2% 38. Are you satisfied with your job? yes 33 73% no 12 27% 39. Will the leadership be a factor in informing your decision to leave the job? yes 7 16% no 38 84%

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