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A global study_of_macro_meso_and_micro_a

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A global study_of_macro_meso_and_micro_a

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Our presentation at OERcamp Global 2021 with Christian Stracke and Ramesh Sharma on A Global Study of Macro, Meso, and Micro Aspects of Open Education due to COVID-19

Our presentation at OERcamp Global 2021 with Christian Stracke and Ramesh Sharma on A Global Study of Macro, Meso, and Micro Aspects of Open Education due to COVID-19

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A global study_of_macro_meso_and_micro_a

  1. 1. A Global Study of Macro, Meso and Micro aspects of Open Education due to COVID-19 C.M. Stracke, R.C. Sharma, C. Swiatek, D. Burgos, A. Bozkurt, Ö. Karakaya, A. Inamorato dos Santos, J. Mason, C. Nerantzi, J.F. Obiageli Agbu, E. Ossiannilsson, M. S. Ramírez Montoya, G. Santos-Hermosa, J. G. Shon, M. Wan, G. Conole, R. Farrow 10 December 2021
  2. 2. Grainne Conole Ramesh Sharma Ebba Ossiannilsson Jon Mason Daniel Burgos Aras Bozkurt Christian M. Stracke Chrissi Nerantzi María Soledad Ramírez Montoya Andreia Inamorato dos Santos Marian Wan Cécile Swiatek Jin Gon Shon Robert Farrow Özlem Karakaya Gema Santos-Hermosa Jane-Frances Obiageli Agbu
  3. 3. Challenges for formal education during the COVID-19 outbreak https://pixabay.com/illustrations/covid-19-coronavirus-distance-4951405/ • Global overview of the status of Open Education and Open Science • First year of the COVID-19 pandemic • Practices and uses cases from 13 countries and global regions • Challenges for formal education during the COVID-19 outbreak • Potential solutions and examples of Open Education and Open Science
  4. 4. Open education and COVID-19 This present study investigated how the operations for open education and support mechanisms for distance learning were established on a global scale during the initial COVID-19 period -- with a focus on examining the affordances of open education and learnings therefrom https://pixabay.com/illustrations/distance-learning-teacher-students-5735149/
  5. 5. Case studies from all over the world https://pixabay.com/illustrations/map-of-the-world-background-paper-2401458/ Case studies describing the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on formal education and how distance education was adopted, were collected from 13 countries: Australia, Brazil, France, India, Mexico, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Spain, Sweden, South Korea, Taiwan, Turkey, and the United Kingdom
  6. 6. Research Question https://pixabay.com/photos/couple-social-distancing-5422795/ In what ways has open education been proposed and addressed using distance and online learning during the COVID 19 pandemic and lockdowns?
  7. 7. Impact of COVID-19 on formal education in selected 13 countries Results
  8. 8. Results Marginalised or excluded student groups It was found that disadvantaged and marginalised social groups from lower socio-economic backgrounds have been the most severely affected due to COVID-19 pandemic. In several countries, there were early responses to try and minimise this impact and to provide support such as Australia, France and Sweden. In contrast, other countries reported a prominent digital divide such as Turkey. https://pixabay.com/photos/teacher-child-concept-kindergarten-3966049/
  9. 9. Results Impact on infrastructure An early finding of our investigation was the lack of resources, infrastructure, equipment, special needs, etc. We found that most of the countries investigated implemented open educational practices for continuity of education. This was mainly delivered as distance education, although the policy guidelines for these were often unrealistic or too restrictive. https://pixabay.com/photos/architecture-building-infrastructure-2564897/
  10. 10. Results Effective communication Effective communication between teachers and students is a crucial foundation of education (Tiffin & Rajasingham, 1995). During emergencies, this foundation requires additional support for social and emotional wellbeing (Chatzidamianos & Nerantzi, 2020). https://pixabay.com/photos/school-classroom-boys-girls-79612/ https://pixabay.com/photos/virtual-learning-online-learn-5550480/ For those with access to adequate infrastructure, such communication was maintained globally by using social media, virtual learning environments (VLE) and online platforms such as Zoom, Microsoft Teams, or Google Meet suddenly with no time or preparations for training.
  11. 11. Learning Experiences A Digital Education Action Plan (European Commission, 2020) was launched in Europe in mid-2020. A guide for ‘remote learning’ was developed by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER), which incidentally overlooked deliberations on OER (Cowden et al., 2020). Social media and virtual reality technology were used for social, technical and pedagogical purposes in Sweden, Taiwan, Turkey and the UK. National associations (ICOLC followed by ADBU, Couperin and EPRIST) in France promoted open access and open science. Results https://pixabay.com/photos/school-video-conference-digitization-5711987/
  12. 12. Results Digitally-supported open learning Online platforms generally provided increased support for openness, with many companies offering services and resources for free that normally attracted a premium. https://pixabay.com/photos/webinar-conferencing-video-call-5005852/
  13. 13. Results Open Educational Resources (OER) The UNESCO Recommendation on OER (2019) has gained significant adoption in most of the countries (Stracke et al., 2019). In Turkey, substantial use of OER is clear although open licenses, pedagogical frameworks and models were not promoted. Several initiatives in Spain like Conectad@s, UNED Abierta, Emergency remote teaching programme and UNIRTv are notable examples for use of OER. In India, DIKSHA (Digital Infrastructure for Knowledge Sharing) platform and the National Repository of OER (NROER) offered many OER including e-content, quizzes and QR-coded Energized Textbooks (Phygital Textbooks). MEC-RED, the Brazilian portal for OER, offered open-licensed basic education content to around 32 million students.
  14. 14. How during the pandemic formal education at a distance was introduced MACRO MESO MICRO https://pixabay.com/photos/hands-world-map-global-earth-600497/
  15. 15. MACRO Level Formal education at distance for first time Similar approaches for formal education Missing infrastructure and sharing Open Educational Resources* Note: * = related to Open Education
  16. 16. MESO Level Diverse teaching and learning methods and practices Open Education and access to Open Educational Resources* Note: * = related to Open Education
  17. 17. MICRO Level Assessing and monitoring learning environments, teachers and students Huge need for professional development and training for teachers* Note: * = related to Open Education
  18. 18. Conclusions • There is a low usage or lack of open education and OER revealed economic inequities (access to infrastructure and resources), cultural injustice (the lack of cultural sensitivity) and political injustice where teachers in various constrained environments lack voice and empowerment • The digital divide has also become more prominent in terms of access to devices and Internet connections • More collaboration between teachers and at the institutional level • Need for the inclusiveness of digital education
  19. 19. Conclusions • There is a need for open and direct communication and pro-active leadership that recognises the need for trauma-informed pedagogy of care, changed roles of parents as teachers, and increased domestic violence and student stress came • Too much exposure to webinars has also met with resistance and ‘screen fatigue’ • This period has heightened calls for policies for open education and openness • Assessment is crucial to robust educational process but has been threatened in online settings by increased cheating • We found an emergent need for inclusiveness and social justice in education
  20. 20. Further References • Stracke, C. M., Sharma, R. C., Swiatek, C., Burgos, D., Bozkurt, A., Karakaya, Ö., Ossiannilsson, E., Mason, J., Nerantzi, C., Agbu, J.-F., Ramírez Montoya, M. S., Shon, J. G., Inamorato dos Santos, A., Farrow, R., Wan, M., Santos-Hermosa, G., & Conole, G. (2021). How COVID-19 has an impact on formal education: A collective international evaluation of open education in distance learning. Proceedings of the 14th Annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI) (pp. 4270-4275). https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5764585 • Stracke, C. M., Bozkurt, A., Burgos, D., Mason, J., Ossiannilsson, E., Sharma, R. C., Wan, M., Agbu, J.-F., Cangialosi, K., Conole, G., Cox, G., Nascimbeni, F., Nerantzi, C., Ramírez Montoya, M. S., Sgouropoulou, C., Shon, J. G., Boulet, P., Inamorato dos Santos, A., Downes, S., Farrow, R., Proudman, V., Varoglu, Z., Weller, M., Xiao, J., Santos-Hermosa, G., Karakaya, Ö., Truong, V., & Swiatek, C. (2021). Global study on Open Education and Open Science: Practices, use cases and potentials during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. Open Education Global Conference 2021 (OE Global 2021, online). Université de Nantes, France. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5546182 [Open Access] • All also online available at: http://www.opening-up.education
  21. 21. Further References • Stracke, C. M. (2020). Open Science and Radical Solutions for Diversity, Equity and Quality in Research: A Literature Review of Different Research Schools, Philosophies and Frameworks and Their Potential Impact on Science and Education. In Radical Solutions and Open Science. An Open Approach to Boost Higher Education. Lecture Notes in Educational Technology (pp. 17-37). Springer: Singapore. doi:10.1007/978-981-15-4276-3_2 [Open Access] • Stracke, C. M. et al. (2020). Open Education and Open Science for our Global Society during and after the COVID-19 Outbreak. In Proceedings of the Open Education Global Conference 2020. (s.p.). doi:10.5281/zenodo.4274890 [Open Access] • Stracke, C. M. et al. (2020). A Holistic Pedagogical Model for STEM learning and education inside and outside the classroom. In P. Zaphiris & A. Ioannou (Eds.): Learning and Collaboration Technologies 2020, Part I, HCII 2020, LNCS 12205 (pp. 568–581). doi:10.1007/978-3-030-50513-4_41 • All also online available at: http://www.opening-up.education
  22. 22. Further References • Stracke, C. M., Downes, S., Conole, G., Burgos, D., & Nascimbene, F. (2019). Are MOOCs Open Educational Resources? A literature review on history, definitions and typologies of OER and MOOCs. Open Praxis, 11(4), 331-341. doi:10.5944/openpraxis.11.4.1010 [Open Access] • Stracke, C. M. (2019). The Quality Reference Framework for MOOC Design and Evaluation. In Proceedings of the Open Education Global Conference 2019 (s.p., 11 p.). doi:10.5281/zenodo.3966308 [Open Access] • Stracke, C. M. et al. (2019). A Holistic Pedagogical Model for STEM education in schools: Its Design and Evaluation through Mixed Methods Research with Surveys and Interviews. In Proceedings of Learning Innovations and Quality (LINQ) 2019, EPiC Series 2 (pp. 40-48). doi:10.29007/t43b [Open Access] • Stracke, C. M. (2019). The Quality Reference Framework for MOOC Design. Proceedings of EC-TEL 2019, LNCS 11722 (pp. 673–677). doi:10.1007/978-3-030-29736-7_64 • All also online available at: http://www.opening-up.education
  23. 23. Further References • Stracke, C. M. (2019). Quality Frameworks and Learning Design for Open Education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 20(2), 180-203. doi:10.19173/irrodl.v20i2.4213 [Open Access] • Stracke, C. M., & Bozkurt, A. (2019). Evolution of MOOC designs, providers and learners and the related MOOC research and publications from 2008 to 2018. International Open and Distance Learning Conference 2019 (pp. 13-20). doi:10.5281/zenodo.3598418 • Stracke, C. M. et al. (2018). Gap between MOOC designers' and MOOC learners' perspectives on interaction and experiences in MOOCs: Findings from the Global MOOC Quality Survey. In M. Chang et al. (Eds.), Proceedings 18th IEEE ICALT Conference (pp. 1-5). doi:10.1109/ICALT.2018.0000 • Stracke, C. M. et al. (2018). Quality Reference Framework (QRF) for the Quality of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Retrieved from http://www.mooc-quality.eu/QRF [Open Access] • All also online available at: http://www.opening-up.education
  24. 24. Acknowledgments The co-authors thank the following colleagues for their contribution to the discussion of the national reports and the article (in alphabetic order): Pierre Boulet (University of Lille, France), Karen Cangialosi (Keene State College, USA), Fabio Nascimbeni (Universidad Internacional de La Rioja, Spain), Lisa Petrides (ISKME, USA), Vanessa Proudman (SPARC Europe, The Netherlands), Cleo Sgouropoulou (University of West Attica, Greece), and Zeynep Varoglu (UNESCO, France).

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