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Corn Nitrogen Management - Ben Rosser - 14

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N sampling and application timing, Y Drop, aerial imagery and green seeker.

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Corn Nitrogen Management - Ben Rosser - 14

  1. 1. 2017 Eastern Ontario Crop Conference Corn Nitrogen Management Ben Rosser OMAFRA Corn Specialist
  2. 2. DTN
  3. 3. Bender et al. (2013) Agron. J. 105:161-170 Sidedress 10% 70% Tassel Rapid Uptake Managing N Timing
  4. 4. Bender et al. (2013) Agron. J. 105:161-170 Managing N Timing > 75% of N Available for Loss 7-8 Weeks?
  5. 5. Managing N Timing Adapted from University of Nebraska - Lincoln NO3 - NO3 - NO3 - NO3 - NO3 - NO3 - Leaching NO3 -> NO2 -> NO -> N2O -> N2 Gaseous Loss --------------------> Denitrification OMAFRA Nitrogen Recommendations: Soil Texture Sidedress Adjustment Sand Soils No Adjustment “Sandy” Soils 90% of Preplant Loams, Silts, Clays 80% of Preplant
  6. 6. Managing N Timing Late Nitrogen Applications Iowa State
  7. 7. Iowa State 174 179 201 167 170 182 201 163 168 0 50 100 150 200 250 S Ont, '14-'15 (n=6) E Ont, '15 (n=9) Bruce Soil and Crop, '15 (120 lb/ac) (n=4) Bruce Soil and Crop '15 (180 lb/ac) (n=4) Pre V6 V10-V12 Managing N Timing Late Nitrogen Applications: Ontario Data Yield(bu/ac)
  8. 8. Managing N Timing Late Nitrogen Applications: Case Study 1 Same total N rate, different timings: Treatment 1: Starter + Sidedress (V6) Treatment 2: Starter + Sidedress (V6) + Delayed (V12)
  9. 9. Managing N Timing Late Nitrogen Applications: Case Study 1 100 lb/ac Total N Delayed
  10. 10. Managing N Timing Late Nitrogen Applications: Case Study 1 180 lb/ac Total N Delayed
  11. 11. Managing N Timing Late Nitrogen Applications Greg Stewart, Maizex Seeds
  12. 12. Managing N Timing Late Nitrogen Applications G. Stewart, Maizex Seeds
  13. 13. Managing N Timing Late Nitrogen Applications Greg Stewart, Maizex Seeds +18 +41
  14. 14. Managing N Timing: Soil Sampling? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 25-Apr 9-May 23-May 6-Jun 20-Jun 4-Jul 18-Jul 1-Aug 15-Aug 29-Aug 12-Sep 26-Sep 10-Oct 24-Oct 7-Nov NO3-N(ppm) Year 2009 ESN138 Urea138 Control5
  15. 15. Managing In Crop Applications: Crop Injury Urea Over Crop 150 lb Urea - 2016260 lb Urea - 2015
  16. 16. Managing In Crop Applications: Crop Injury Nelson et al, 2011, Nitrogen Rescue Applications -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 UAN AN Urea Urea-NBPT Yield(bu/ac) 30 60 90 120 17 46 59 55 15 25 30 16 4 9 7 4 5 11 7 3 Yield Loss for Broadcast vs. Under Canopy Applications Crop Height (cm)
  17. 17. Managing In Crop Applications: Crop Injury 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 4 8 10 Yield(bu/ac) Leaf Stage N Soil N Streamer 3 Hole Streamer Nozzle Application A A A B A B
  18. 18. Managing In Crop Applications: App. Method Timing Method Avg. Difference Preplant Surface (Streamer) 168 + 6 Preplant Inject 174 SidedressSurface (Streamer) 168 + 7 SidedressInject 175 N Application Method/Timing, 4 Locations, 2013
  19. 19. Managing In Crop Applications: App. Method Year Location Early N (Pl-V6) Late N (~V12) Mid-Row, Surface In-Row, Surface Mid-Row, Covered 2014 Elora 2014 Bornholm 2015 Elora 2016 Bornholm
  20. 20. Managing In Crop Applications: App. Method Year Location Early N (Pl-V6) Late N (~V12) Mid-Row, Surface In-Row, Surface Mid-Row, Covered ---- lb-N/ac ---- --------------- bu/ac ------------- 2014 Elora 50 70 148 151 165 2014 Bornholm 50 70 162 153 153 2015 Elora 80 70 182 175 180 2016 Bornholm 50 50 195 192 198 Average 172 168 174
  21. 21. Source: Deen et al. 2015 Better Soils and Crops Guelph loam Near Elora Managing N Rate 2012: 120 lbs 2014: 220 lbs
  22. 22. Managing N Spatially Question: How much does yield response to N vary across a field? (ie. what is the range in response?)
  23. 23. Managing N Spatially Question: How much does yield response to N vary across a field? (ie. what is the range in response?) Pfeffer et al, 2010: 2006: 2 to 115 bu/ac 2007: -37 to 80 bu/ac
  24. 24. Managing N Spatially Question: How much does yield response to N vary across a field? (ie. what is the range in response?) Pfeffer et al, 2010: 2006: 2 to 115 bu/ac 2007: -37 to 80 bu/ac Eastern Ont. Soil and Crop N Timing Trials: 2015: 2 to 74 bu/ac (average of 9 trials)
  25. 25. Managing N Spatially 980 990 1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 Yield(bu/ac) Zero-N 2 Elevation (feet) Elevation(feet)
  26. 26. Managing N Spatially 980 990 1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 Yield(bu/ac) Zero-N 2 Elevation (feet) Elevation(feet) Higher Zero-N Yields
  27. 27. Managing N Spatially 980 990 1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 Yield(bu/ac) Zero-N 2 Elevation (feet) Elevation(feet) Lower Zero-N Yields
  28. 28. Managing N Spatially 980 990 1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 Yield(bu/ac) Zero-N 2 High-N 2 Elevation (feet) Elevation(feet)
  29. 29. Managing N Spatially 980 990 1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 Yield(bu/ac) High-N 2 Elevation (feet) Elevation(feet)
  30. 30. GFO Precision Ag Project: Case Study Data Collection: - Historical Yield Index (yield stability) Corn Soys Wheat Corn Soys Wheat Corn Soys Wheat Aspinall, Rabe, Stewart, McDonald, 2015 All Years
  31. 31. GFO Precision Ag Project: Case Study Corn Nitrogen Validation: 1 2 3
  32. 32. GFO Precision Ag Project: Case Study Corn Nitrogen Validation: 1 2 3
  33. 33. Managing N Spatially 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 Yield(bu/ac) Nitrogen Rate (lb-N/ac)
  34. 34. Managing N Spatially 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 Yield(bu/ac) Nitrogen Rate (lb-N/ac) PartialBudget($/ac)
  35. 35. Previous Practice 1. 60lbs/ac N of dry fertilizer going down with the planter 2. Balance of N using 3-hole streamer nozzle or draghose in-crop
  36. 36. Current Practice 1. 40lbs/ac N of dry fertilizer going down with the planter 2. 70lbs/ac N using 3 streamer nozzles at 4-6L stage 3. VRA of N using GreenSeeker and drop hoses, about 70 lbs/ac of N
  37. 37. Drone use to determine N timing • Now we are using the drone to fine tune timing for second and third app • After reviewing these photos, we sent the sprayer to the field to apply the third shot early
  38. 38. The Drone – Our thoughts • Flying every 3 – 4 weeks seems to work best • More value in a wet year like 2015 then a dry year like 2016
  39. 39. Greenseeker -Our Thoughts • Not saving on total N, just different distribution • Daylight intensity and leaf wetness influences the app rate • Green seeker control over each boom section would be nice • Using quadcopter for NIR pictures ahead of the application could be even more beneficial

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