Flame Retardant Regulatory Status and Future Development GPEC 2010 – March 9, 2010 Raymond B. Dawson Global Director, Advo...
Why are Flame Retardants Needed? <ul><li>Flame retardants are used to help: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent ignition </li></...
Why are Flame Retardants Needed? <ul><li>Fire prevention is essential from a number of perspectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Combustion Gases Generated In Fires <ul><li>Typically items involved in fires are a complex mixture of materials (furnitur...
Pollutants Generated In Fires <ul><li>Pollutants generated regardless of whether or not flame retardants are present </li>...
Common Flame Retardant Classes Halogenated Mineral Phosphorus Others… Brominated Chlorinated <ul><li>Based on natural elem...
European Union (EU) Risk Assessment <ul><li>The EU Regulation 793/93 - EU Risk Assessment was one such assessment process ...
Summary of FR EU Risk Assessments ENV = Environmental Sections, R38 = irritating to skin, HH = Human Health Sections, R40 ...
Summary of FR EU Risk Assessments ENV = Environmental Sections, R38 = irritating to skin, HH = Human Health Sections, R40 ...
Restriction of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (RoHS) <ul><li>Directive 2002/95/EC - c...
RoHS Revision – current status <ul><li>European Council </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main focus is on alignment between REACH & R...
Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical Substances (REACH) <ul><li>REACH is a new European Com...
REACH – Registration timelines 06/2007 REACH Entry  into force 06/2008 12/2010 06/2018 06/2013 Registration >   1000 tpa >...
REACH – Evaluation Submission of registration  (by registrant) Completeness Check  for dossier and fee  (by ECHA) Dossier ...
REACH – Authorization <ul><li>Substances targeted by authorization are Substances of Very High Concern (SVHCs):  </li></ul...
REACH – Authorization Potential Options for Authorization SUBSTANCES of VERY HIGH CONCERN RISK IS ADEQUATELY CONTROLLED : ...
REACH Flame Retardant Summary <ul><li>Pre-registration / Registration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Albemarle pre-registered all i...
REACH Flame Retardant Summary <ul><li>HBCD  (Hexabromocyclododecane)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classified as a PBT - On the 1...
HBCD – Other Issues <ul><li>HBCD  (Hexabromocyclododecane)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UNECE POP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
Deca-BDE Phase-Out <ul><li>The three major producers of Deca-BDE have entered into a “partnership” with EPA to phase out p...
NA Activity <ul><li>State-by-state regulations - limited number of flame retardants  </li></ul><ul><li>Potential TSCA Refo...
Informed Substitution
Safety & Sustainable Use of Flame Retardants <ul><li>Flame Retardant Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical, Mechanical,...
Sustainability <ul><li>Fire Safety is important for the good of society </li></ul><ul><li>We are a fire safety company </l...
To Achieve This <ul><li>Our new product development will focus on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polymeric solutions, big molecules...
earth wise ™ A division of ALBEMARLE ® The next generation of eco-friendly fire safety <ul><li>First product in our family...
<ul><li>Voluntary Emissions Control Action Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V oluntary – producer and user implemented </li><...
Reduce Levels of Environmental Emissions of Flame Retardants VECAP   addresses many stages of the Life-Cycle <ul><li>Manuf...
Commit to  VECAP   Code of Good Practice Create and implement emissions reduction plan Utilize third-party verification au...
VECAP   in Action – Best Available Practices for Handling Packaging These techniques can be applied to all polymer additiv...
“ VECAP  is a good example of effective cooperation throughout the whole supply chain. In line with GM’s commitment to env...
Eagle Performance Products Receives Environmental Award for Use of VECAP Eagle Performance Products has implemented 5 init...
Conclusions <ul><li>Flame Retardants provide a valuable role in our society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent ignition </li></...
For More Information… <ul><li>www.albemarle.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.earthwiseinside.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.vecap.info...
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GPEC 2010 - Earthwise Powerpoint

  1. 1. Flame Retardant Regulatory Status and Future Development GPEC 2010 – March 9, 2010 Raymond B. Dawson Global Director, Advocacy [email_address] Susan D. Landry Advisor, Fire Safety & Advocacy [email_address]
  2. 2. Why are Flame Retardants Needed? <ul><li>Flame retardants are used to help: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent ignition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delay the spread of fires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delay the time of flashover to enable people time to escape </li></ul></ul>It is estimated that escape times can be up to 15 times longer when flame retardants are present, providing increased chances of survival “ Fire-Hazard comparison of fire retarded and non fire retarded products,” NIST 1988, http://fire.nist.gov/bfrlpubs/fire88/art003.html Toronto, Canada, August 2, 2005: Flame retardants were credited with increasing escape times for all 309 passengers from this jet, which was ultimately completely consumed by fire. Washington Post , Aug. 5, 2005 Extract from a Dutch TV documentary, RTL 5, 2000 Non flame retarded Flame retarded to UK-standard
  3. 3. Why are Flame Retardants Needed? <ul><li>Fire prevention is essential from a number of perspectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of property and the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention of immediate local pollution to air and water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention of lesser-known long-term environmental effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results of a 2009 study, performed by Greenstreet Berman Ltd for the UK Department of Business, Innovation and Skills, has shown that the UK furniture fire safety regulations account for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>54 fewer deaths per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>780 fewer non-fatal casualties per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1065 fewer fires per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(A statistical report to investigate the effectiveness of the Furniture and Furnishings (Fire) (Safety) Regulations 1988, December 2009 ) </li></ul></ul>The introduction of voluntary flammability standards made possible by the use of flame retardant plastics in the TV enclosures and accessories led to a significant reduction in the number of TV-initiated fires, even with a sharp increase in the total number of TV sets per household. It is estimated that 190 lives are saved annually through the use of brominated flame retardants in TV enclosures. F. Clarke, “The life safety benefits of brominated flame retardants in the United States,” Final Report to the Chemical Manufacturers Association Brominated Flame Retardant Industry Panel, Benjamin/Clarke Associates, 1997
  4. 4. Combustion Gases Generated In Fires <ul><li>Typically items involved in fires are a complex mixture of materials (furniture, electronics, building materials, household cleaners, etc…) </li></ul><ul><li>Combustion Gases generated regardless of whether or not flame retardants are present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Clearly, fire gases are dangerous to fire fighters and other citizens who could be exposed, independent of the presence or absence of flame retardants [2] ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Combustion gases contain very high concentrations of acutely toxic substances [3] ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combustion gases generated during fires that contribute to acute toxicity include CO, HCN, HCl, and acrolein [1] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The acute toxicity of fire gases is controlled by carbon monoxide (CO) – responsible for over 90% of fire deaths [1] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Troitzsch, J, “Fire Gas Toxicity and Pollutants in Fires – The Role of Flame Retardants,” FR2000 Conference, London, 8th-9th February 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Review of Fire Emissions from Products with and without BFRs and the Hazard of Exposure for Fire Fighters and Clean-up Crews”, SP Report 2007:74 </li></ul><ul><li>Rechenbach, P, Troitzsch, J, “Smoke Toxicity and Pollutants from Fires”, Kunststoffe 89 (1999) 9, pp. 132-134 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pollutants Generated In Fires <ul><li>Pollutants generated regardless of whether or not flame retardants are present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polyhalogenated dibenzodioxins and furans (PHDDs/PHDFs) are the most important pollutants generated in fires [1] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compared to PAHs, the impact of PHDDs/PHDFs on our health is negligible [1] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the Lengerich fire (Germany in 1992), measurements and their respective cancer risk and relationship showed that the PAHs have an up to 500 times higher cancer risk than the PHDDs/PHDFs [1] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PAHs are generated in all fires [1] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are several hundred different substances in the PAH family [1] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many PAHs generated in fires are carcinogenic compounds, including benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) [1] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PAHs are found in high amounts in the soot after fires [1] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Troitzsch, J, “Fire Gas Toxicity and Pollutants in Fires – The Role of Flame Retardants,” FR2000 Conference, London, 8th-9th February 2000 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Common Flame Retardant Classes Halogenated Mineral Phosphorus Others… Brominated Chlorinated <ul><li>Based on natural elements </li></ul><ul><li>There are many different flame retardants in each of these classes </li></ul><ul><li>Each individual flame retardant has it’s own unique set of environmental, human health, physical, and chemical properties </li></ul><ul><li>The distinct nature of individual flame retardants requires that each be treated on it’s own merits </li></ul>
  7. 7. European Union (EU) Risk Assessment <ul><li>The EU Regulation 793/93 - EU Risk Assessment was one such assessment process adopted in 1993 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most comprehensive assessment of a materials environmental and human health characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Products were assessed individually, not as a class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determined the need for further testing to fill in data gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determined if there was a need to limit risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This process: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examined mammalian toxicology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acute, chronic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Established acceptable human exposure limits: Predicted No-Effect Conc. (PNEC) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examined environmental fate and toxicology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Established acceptable environmental exposure limits: PNEC </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examined all releases to water, soil, air, from all operations throughout lifecycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volumes, processing, uses, waste streams </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Established human and environmental exposures: Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluated risk: Exposures versus limits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determined if exposure is above or below established limits </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Summary of FR EU Risk Assessments ENV = Environmental Sections, R38 = irritating to skin, HH = Human Health Sections, R40 = Carcinogenic category 3, limited evidence of a carcinogenic, PBT = Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic effect, C&L = Classification and Labeling, SVHC – Substance of Very High concern, N - Dangerous to the Environment, T = Toxic, R22 = Harmful if swallowed, Xn = Harmful, R50/53 = Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment, R51/53 = Toxic for aquatic environment, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment, R60 = Toxic to reproduction category 2 (CMR category 2), ATP = Adaptation to Technical Progress --- Banned in EU as of Aug 2004 Risk Assessment Unfavorable --- Concluded Penta-BDE R50/53 Transferred to REACH - on the SVHC Candidate List Classified a PBT Risks identified, PBT status debate – new science On the SVHC Candidate List ENV: Finalized HH: Finalized HBCD R50/53 - Not restricted for any applications - Authorities have emission requirements - Emissions control program active ENV: risk identified at one additive user plant only HH: None None ENV: Finalized HH: Finalized TBBPA None - Safe for continued use - Emissions control program active None Additional tests, monitoring, and emissions control in progress Concluded Deca-BDE --- Banned in EU as of Aug 2004 Some risks identified --- Concluded Octa-BDE Classification Conclusions Risks Identified Next Steps Status Flame Retardant
  9. 9. Summary of FR EU Risk Assessments ENV = Environmental Sections, R38 = irritating to skin, HH = Human Health Sections, R40 = Carcinogenic category 3, limited evidence of a carcinogenic, PBT = Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic effect, C&L = Classification and Labeling, SVHC – Substance of Very High concern, N - Dangerous to the Environment, T = Toxic, R22 = Harmful if swallowed, Xn = Harmful, R50/53 = Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment, R51/53 = Toxic for aquatic environment, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment, R60 = Toxic to reproduction category 2 (CMR category 2), ATP = Adaptation to Technical Progress R38, R40 Transferred to the REACH ENV: risks identified for sediments at a few plants HH: no risks identified at current stage –discussions in progress Risk Assessment transferred to REACH ENV: finalized HH: finalized (Sb 2 O 3 ) None Antiblaze ® TL-10 successfully completed registration (REACH Registration # 01-2119419991-33-0000 None Antiblaze ® TL-10 successfully c ompleted REACH registration ENV: Finalized HH: Finalized V-6 N, R51/53, R40 TDCP will be sold with the same existing labels Chronic tox + Carc, dermal, production & flexible PU foam manufacturing REACH registration, C& L decision ENV: Finalized HH: Finalized TDCP Xn, R22 TCPP will be sold with the same existing labels Reprotox, dermal, production REACH registration, C& L decision ENV: finalized HH: finalized TCPP T, N, R51/53, R22, R60, R40 Transferred to REACH - on the SVHC Candidate List Reprotox + chronic tox + Carc, several exposure scenarios On the SVHC Candidate List ENV: finalized HH: finalized TCEP Classification Conclusions Risks Identified Next Steps Status Flame Retardant
  10. 10. Restriction of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (RoHS) <ul><li>Directive 2002/95/EC - came into force July 1, 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricts the placing on the EU market new electrical and electronic equipment containing certain levels of lead, cadmium, mercury, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Review of the RoHS Directive is now ongoing: </li></ul><ul><li>European Commission proposal (December 2008): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No addition of new substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Annex III with list of substances for priority review including HBCD & 3 phthalates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REACH / RoHS alignment to avoid contradiction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>European Parliament (November 2009): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Green Political Party has the lead on the discussions = “rapporteur” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their current proposal is to ban all BFRs & other substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not endorsed by a number of MEPs - too extreme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion around open scope for RoHS </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. RoHS Revision – current status <ul><li>European Council </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main focus is on alignment between REACH & RoHS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No discussion on addition of substances yet but discussion on need of criteria &/or methodology for inclusion of new substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion around open scope for RoHS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The RoHS revision is still under discussion by the European Institutions & nothing is decided yet </li></ul><ul><li>Most industry associations do not agree to add further substances to the RoHS Directive </li></ul>
  12. 12. Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical Substances (REACH) <ul><li>REACH is a new European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use (EC 1907/2006) - entered into force on 1 June 2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All manufacturers and importers of chemicals in the EU must identify and manage risks linked to the substances they manufacture and market </li></ul><ul><li>REACH replaces about 40 pieces of EU legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Industry must bear most responsibilities to manage the risks posed by chemicals and provide appropriate safety information to their users </li></ul><ul><li>REACH calls for the progressive substitution of the most dangerous chemicals when suitable alternatives have been identified </li></ul>
  13. 13. REACH – Registration timelines 06/2007 REACH Entry into force 06/2008 12/2010 06/2018 06/2013 Registration > 1000 tpa > 1 tpa (CMR cat. 1 & 2, PBT, vPvB) > 100 tpa (N; R 50/53) Registration > 100 tpa P R E - R E G I S T R A T I O N Registration > 1 tpa Not pre-registered / non phase-in substances CMR = Carcinogen, Mutagen, Reprotoxic, N - Dangerous to the Environment , tpa = tonnes per annum per company, PBT = Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic, R 50/53 = Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment, vPvB = very Persistent and very Bioaccumulative
  14. 14. REACH – Evaluation Submission of registration (by registrant) Completeness Check for dossier and fee (by ECHA) Dossier Evaluation (by ECHA) Substance Evaluation (by MS) Check of Testing Proposals (by ECHA) Compliance Check (by ECHA) Check of Substance properties OUTPUT : Decision on further information requirements Information for stakeholders Restrictions Registration No. assignment Duties of registrants : Update w ith undue delay and with relevant new information (uses, hazard information, tonnage band) Update submission on examined testing proposals, requirements of compliance checks and other requirements set by Authorities Additional fees for each update
  15. 15. REACH – Authorization <ul><li>Substances targeted by authorization are Substances of Very High Concern (SVHCs): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CMR (Carcinogen, Mutagen, Reprotoxic) cat. 1 and 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PBT (Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vPvB (very Persistent and very Bioaccumulative) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substances with equivalent concern (e.g. endocrine disruptors) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are reporting, notification, and information obligations for suppliers of SVHC substances, and preparations and articles containing them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Authorization process comprises three stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of SVHC (Candidate list) - This triggers notification and communication obligations for candidate list in articles, with possible black list effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HBCD listed on the first candidate list published by ECHA October 2008 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TCEP added to the candidate list </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusion of candidate substances in the list of substances subject to authorization (Annnex XIV) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decisions on applications for authorization </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. REACH – Authorization Potential Options for Authorization SUBSTANCES of VERY HIGH CONCERN RISK IS ADEQUATELY CONTROLLED : CMRs 1 & 2 + OTHER substances with threshold limits RISK IS NOT ADEQUATELY CONTROLLED : CMRs 1 & 2 + OTHER substances with threshold limits + PBTs, vPvBs AUTHORIZATION Time-limited review on case-by-case basis YES Suitable alternative NO YES SUBSTITUTION Socio-economic benefits YES NO BAN
  17. 17. REACH Flame Retardant Summary <ul><li>Pre-registration / Registration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Albemarle pre-registered all its flame retardants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consortia formation and registration dossiers gathering ongoing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk assessed substances are already data-rich </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TL-10ST </li></ul><ul><li>Albemarle’s TL-10ST (2,2-Bis(chloromethyl)trimethylene bis(bis(2-chloroethyl)phosphate)) has successfully completed registration (REACH Registration # 01-2119419991-33-0000) </li></ul>
  18. 18. REACH Flame Retardant Summary <ul><li>HBCD (Hexabromocyclododecane) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classified as a PBT - On the 1st Candidate List for Authorization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in EPS & XPS, with no available alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authorization is being sought for this application due to the importance of insulating foam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Application for Authorization due mid-2012 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current sunset date is late 2013 for all applications without Authorization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TCEP (Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classified CMR cat. 1-2 after EU risk assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not sustainable under REACH - alternatives available for all uses </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. HBCD – Other Issues <ul><li>HBCD (Hexabromocyclododecane) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UNECE POP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HBCD classified as a POP Dec 2009 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Q1 2010 - Risk management Questionnaire </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Q4 2010 - Risk management will be decided </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Q4 2011 - Potential POP listing unless exemption is granted </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industry is actively co-operating with the UNECE process to ensure exemption for EPS & XPS use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNEP POP (Stockholm Convention) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May 2013 - Potential POP listing unless exemption is granted </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Deca-BDE Phase-Out <ul><li>The three major producers of Deca-BDE have entered into a “partnership” with EPA to phase out production and importation of Deca-BDE </li></ul><ul><li>Other Deca-BDE importers/distributors are encouraged to join the partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Our commitments to EPA include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We will stop manufacturing Deca-BDE by December 31, 2013 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We will submit to EPA annual progress reports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After the phase-out period, EPA intends to impose additional Deca-BDE testing requirements on remaining producers/importers </li></ul><ul><li>After the phase-out period, EPA intends to impose a “significant new use rule” or SNUR on Deca-BDE and articles containing Deca-BDE </li></ul>December 31, 2013 Transportation and military uses December 31, 2012 All other uses (except transportation or military) December 31, 2010 Wire & Cable (except transportation or military) Deadline for completion of Deca-BDE phase-out End-Use Application
  21. 21. NA Activity <ul><li>State-by-state regulations - limited number of flame retardants </li></ul><ul><li>Potential TSCA Reform </li></ul><ul><li>EPA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Chemicals of Concern” Action List announced Dec 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Include phthalates, short-chain chlorinated paraffins, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorinated chemicals, including PFOA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process could lead to risk reductions actions under section 6 of TSCA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EPA also announced that three companies agreed to phase out Deca-BDE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcing the Deca-BDE phase-out – with requirements to ensure that any new uses of PBDEs are reviewed by EPA prior to returning to the market. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) Project Plan” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge (~2200 HPV chemicals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design for Environment (DfE) program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Partnership with a broad range of stakeholders - Several have and are currently including flame retardants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>California Green Chemistry Initiative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage the development of “green chemistry” solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Canada - Implementation of Chemical Substances Plan </li></ul>
  22. 22. Informed Substitution
  23. 23. Safety & Sustainable Use of Flame Retardants <ul><li>Flame Retardant Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical, Mechanical, and Flammability Properties; Stability; and Recyclability of Polymer Formulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial Availability of FR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Health and Environmental Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meets Current Regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meets Anticipated Regulations ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do you measure environmental impact of various FR’s in use? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Cycle Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Footprint, Global Warming, Energy Consumption, Ozone Depletion, Air Acidification, etc… </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Sustainability <ul><li>Fire Safety is important for the good of society </li></ul><ul><li>We are a fire safety company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Albemarle will provide the right solution; we do not limit ourselves to particular products or chemistries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The choice of technology used to achieve fire safety should be based on sound principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full life-cycle analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-toxic, non-bioaccumulative products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consideration of environmental and societal impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We must solve the end-of-life problem for products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Products should enable recyclability </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. To Achieve This <ul><li>Our new product development will focus on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polymeric solutions, big molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactive products that become bound to the final polymer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-toxic small molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mineral products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Releases of all products to the environment must be minimized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We will champion the implementation of measures throughout the supply chain to minimize emissions of persistent compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage distributors, customers, and competitors in programs such as VECAP TM to eliminate all product emissions from the environment </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. earth wise ™ A division of ALBEMARLE ® The next generation of eco-friendly fire safety <ul><li>First product in our family of green solutions </li></ul><ul><li>non-bioaccumulative </li></ul><ul><li>superior toxicity profile </li></ul><ul><li>excellent recycle capability </li></ul><ul><li>exceptionally broad application profile </li></ul><ul><li>Polymeric flame retardant </li></ul><ul><li>Highly stable product lends itself to efficient recycling of plastics. </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions to the environment are minimized, when combined with other good practices such as the Voluntary Emissions Control Action Program. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Voluntary Emissions Control Action Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V oluntary – producer and user implemented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E missions – identify sources of BFR emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C ontrol – reduce, minimize and where possible eliminate emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A ction – dynamic, continuous process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P rogram – focus on best practices to eliminate emissions </li></ul></ul>VECAP TM VECAP™ is an Industry Program that can be applied to all polymer additives to prevent potential emissions and save valuable raw material Eliminating Emissions To The Environment Is Of The Utmost Importance For Sustainability
  28. 28. Reduce Levels of Environmental Emissions of Flame Retardants VECAP addresses many stages of the Life-Cycle <ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dust from unloading and feed operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaks in feed equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improper clean-up of spills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Waste disposal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Residues in packaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poorly treated wastewater from system wash-outs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste not reprocessed </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Commit to VECAP Code of Good Practice Create and implement emissions reduction plan Utilize third-party verification audits as needed Drive to Reduce Emissions Perform self assessment and Mass Balance; develop baseline emissions to ensure progress is measurable We are asking users to:
  30. 30. VECAP in Action – Best Available Practices for Handling Packaging These techniques can be applied to all polymer additives to prevent potential emissions and save valuable material for use, rather than waste <ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Discarded packaging can retain small amounts of product </li></ul><ul><li>Product has the potential to get into the environment, depending on end-of-life practices for empty packaging </li></ul>Solution VECAP Best Available Technique (BAT) for Emptying Packaging Document and Poster
  31. 31. “ VECAP is a good example of effective cooperation throughout the whole supply chain. In line with GM’s commitment to environmental excellence, the programme ensures that the chemicals included in our products are safely managed. Moreover, as it allows a better management of substances, VECAP is particularly relevant in the context of REACH and of the development of the new chemical regulation in the US.” Dr. Pat Beattie, Director Chemical Risk Management, General Motors Corporation Dave Mattis, Global Technology Engineering, General Motors Corporation “ VECAP is a great example of how chemicals need to be managed in the 21st Century, true producer responsibility. Here is a sector of the chemical industry that has been under more pressure than most but has responded to the challenges before it by developing a ground breaking model for control. VECAP ’s strength lies in its focus on the use of brominated flame retardants across the whole value chain, not just at one stage within it. It is based on the use of common sense best practice; often small things that added together can make a real difference. Of course it doesn't just rely on words on paper but brings things to life on the factory floor with good practice guides, training and audits. Finally VECAP does not duck the challenge of debate with those stakeholders who may criticize the performance of the industry, nor has it hidden from the need to back up the claims for its potential with evidence of real year on year improvement in reducing emissions. Put together this value chain approach, best practice, training, measurement and debate and we have a model that shows how a sector of the chemical industry can go beyond compliance with legislation and develop a far more sustainable approach to doing business.” Mike Barry, Head of Corporate Social Responsibility, Marks & Spencer Support of VECAP GM Marks & Spencer &quot;It was a pleasure to be introduced to the innovative Voluntary Emission Control Action Program ( VECAP ) designed to reduce and where possible eliminate avoidable emissions of brominated flame retardants into the environment from manufacturing processes. The Wildlife Habitat Council supports voluntary efforts by industry to go beyond regulatory requirements and adopt management practices, such as VECAP . We look forward to working with this industry sector and help them improve their overall sustainable management practices to include wherever possible management strategies that promote wildlife habitat improvement and on site conservation education for the benefit of the local community.“ Robert H. Loftur-Thun, Vice President External Affairs, Marketing, & Development, Wildlife Habitat Counci l Wildlife Habitat Counci l
  32. 32. Eagle Performance Products Receives Environmental Award for Use of VECAP Eagle Performance Products has implemented 5 initiatives that have reduced waste both in-house and with customers. These waste reduction initiatives have resulted in savings of approximately 6,000 Kg/yr of formulated material and 11,500 Kg/yr of plastic additives at the Eagle Performance Products plant and approximately 36,000 Kg/yr of formulated product at their customer’s facilities.
  33. 33. Conclusions <ul><li>Flame Retardants provide a valuable role in our society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent ignition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delay the spread of fires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delay the time of flashover to enable people time to escape </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is important that Flame Retardants are safe in use </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations that are being developed worldwide provide the platform to achieve this goal with a level of confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Albemarle’s Earthwise TM family of products will focus on sustainable offerings </li></ul><ul><li>GreenArmor TM is the first product in this family of sustainable solutions </li></ul>
  34. 34. For More Information… <ul><li>www.albemarle.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.earthwiseinside.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.vecap.info </li></ul><ul><li>www.bsef.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.ebfrip.org </li></ul>

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