EQuIS 5 LakeWatch - January 2009

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EQuIS 5 LakeWatch brings together sound science with software expertise to provide the user:

* Data import from many instruments and sources
* Data quality control
* Easy data inspection and review
* Data analysis (e.g. calculation of averages, trends, etc.)
* Segmentation of lake into layers
HVOD Analysis
* Assessment of trophic state, and rate of change
* Many different reports
* Robust, commercial database back-end
* Support, improvements, enhancements

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EQuIS 5 LakeWatch - January 2009

  1. 1. Lake Mead Science Symposium January 13-14, 2009 Las Vegas, Nevada EQuIS 5 LakeWatch: The Latest Advances in Lake Data Analysis Software Scot D. Weaver, Vice President and Co-Founder Mitch Beard, CEO and Co-Founder
  2. 2. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Who are we? <ul><li>A software company, not a consultant </li></ul><ul><li>Experience developing environmental data management systems for more than 12 years </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise in limnology, environmental chemistry, geology and geotechnical engineering </li></ul>
  3. 3. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Who are we? <ul><li>Clients include: </li></ul><ul><li>Over 250 analytical labs </li></ul><ul><li>Over 100 consultants </li></ul><ul><li>Six U.S. EPA Regions </li></ul><ul><li>18 state agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Dept. of Defense, Dept. of Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Many industrial clients </li></ul><ul><li>Licenses in Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Kuwait, Singapore, England, Ireland, Italy, South Africa, Venezuela, Australia, Canada, Portugal, Belgium, China, Germany, UAE </li></ul>
  4. 4. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Who are we? <ul><li>City of Las Vegas </li></ul><ul><li>California DTSC </li></ul><ul><li>California Department of Water Resources </li></ul><ul><li>City of San Bernardino </li></ul><ul><li>San Bernardino Valley Municipal Water District </li></ul><ul><li>Sacramento County </li></ul><ul><li>Los Angeles Department of Water & Power </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Clara Valley Water District </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan Water District of Southern California </li></ul>
  5. 5. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 <ul><li>Data Checking and Import from RUSS, Hydrolab, Licor, … </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical Profiles </li></ul>Original Features
  6. 6. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Original Features <ul><li>Data Checking and Import from RUSS, Hydrolab, Licor, … </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical Profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Isopleths </li></ul>
  7. 7. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 In April 2006, EarthSoft teamed with Dr. Noel Burns of Lakes Consulting in New Zealand and acquired LakeWatch. Software for Lake and Reservoir Monitoring EarthSoft Acquired LakeWatch Internationally renowned limnologist having studied inland waters around the globe for over four decades
  8. 8. <ul><li>Key Variables: </li></ul><ul><li>Total Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Total Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Secchi Depth </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll A </li></ul>Features and Key Variables <ul><li>Data Checking and Import from Hydrolab, Licor, RUSS, … </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical Profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Isopleths </li></ul><ul><li>Layering into epilimnion, thermocline, and hypolimnion </li></ul><ul><li>Deseasonalizing of data </li></ul><ul><li>Trending of variables to observe change with time </li></ul><ul><li>Trophic state interpretation and trending (Carlson, Burns) </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of Reports </li></ul>
  9. 9. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Lake Mead data courtesy of Dr. Jim LaBounty, Dr. Todd Tietjen Southern Nevada Water Authority Case Study: Lake Mead
  10. 10. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Case Study: Lake Mead
  11. 11. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Case Study: Lake Mead In May 2000, Southern Nevada Water Authority established a major lake monitoring program to ensure that Lake Mead would continue to be a high-quality, valuable water resource long into the future. One component of the monitoring program includes analysis of physical and chemical data using EQuIS LakeWatch.
  12. 12. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 EQuIS LakeWatch <ul><li>Detailed review of each parameter. </li></ul><ul><li>Display multiple profiles for determination of layers. </li></ul><ul><li>Deseasonalize data for all parameters. </li></ul><ul><li>Detect trends in parameters. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize results in pre-formatted reports, including annual trophic state and probability of change with time. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 <ul><li>Trending must be possible with irregularly sampled data. </li></ul><ul><li>Data is first deseasonalized by plotting all data as a function of day and month only. </li></ul><ul><li>Polynomial curve is then fit to the data. Residuals are calculated for each data point. </li></ul><ul><li>Observed data and residual data are plotted as a function of time and trended. P-value of < 0.05 taken as significant. </li></ul>Trend Determination
  14. 14. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 OUTLIER Deseasonalizing Data Trends are difficult to detect in seasonal data. Trends are affected by sampling biases such as seasonal sampling programs.
  15. 15. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Detecting Trends by Plotting Residuals OUTLIER Residuals are not affected by sampling biases.
  16. 16. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Seasonal Regression: y = 186.2 + -0.08476x ; R = -0.05929 ; p = 0.3012 -0.08 C/yr OUTLIER Detecting Trends by Plotting Residuals
  17. 17. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 OUTLIER Seasonal Regression: y = 186.2 + -0.08476x ; R = -0.05929 ; p = 0.3012 -0.08 C/yr Detecting Trends by Plotting Residuals
  18. 18. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 +0.12 C/yr OUTLIER Seasonal Regression: y = 186.2 + -0.08476x ; R = -0.05929 ; p = 0.3012 Residuals Regression: y = -234 + 0.1173x ; R = 0.3459 ; p = 4.156E-7 Detecting Trends by Plotting Residuals
  19. 19. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Epilimnion Hypolimnion Detecting Trends by Plotting Residuals
  20. 20. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Hypolimnetic Oxygen Depletion
  21. 21. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Depletion rate in Lake Mead is increasing. Hypolimnetic Volumetric Oxygen Depletion Report
  22. 22. <ul><li>If a lake has changed in trophic level and is not just affected by a weather perturbation - then the four epilimnion key variables (Chla, SD, TP, TN) should exhibit a similar type of change: </li></ul><ul><li>Chla increase, clarity decrease, nutrient increase </li></ul><ul><li>Or the reverse </li></ul><ul><li>Since rationalized PAC values can be calculated, this concept can be statistically treated </li></ul>Percent Annual Change (PAC) Values
  23. 23. Time Trend Years Seasonal regression: y = 1.542E5 + -77.07x ; R = -0.6128 ; p = 8.765E-10 Residuals Regression: y = 1.021E5 + -51.24x ; R = -0.6561 ; p = -1.726E-8 TN ( mg / m 3) If p-value to regression line fit is < 0.05 (< 5%) then trend is considered significant . Thus for an analysis period, i.e. TN from 1990 to 1994 : PAC TN = Change per Year / Av.Value of Variable = - 51.24 / 598 = - 8.53% per year Percent Annual Change for a Parameter
  24. 24. Concept - if there has been a change in trophic level in a lake, 3 or 4 of the key variables will indicate similar change. Average PAC value = PAC (Chla) + PAC (SD) + PAC (TP) + PAC (TN) ) + PAC (HVOD ) Interpretation of p - value of PAC average (pg. 10) 4 <ul><ul><ul><li>P ≤ 0.1 Definite change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>0.1 < P ≤ 0.2 Probable change </li></ul><ul><li>0.2 < P ≤ 0.3 Possible change </li></ul><ul><li>0.3 < P No change </li></ul>Combining PAC Values to Determine Lake Trend
  25. 25. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Regression Equations: TLp = 0.218 + 2.92 log (TP) TLn = -3.61 + 3.01 log (TN) TLs = 5.10 +2.60 log (1/SD - 1/40) TLc = 2.22 +2.54 log (Chla) TLI = 1/4(TLp + TLn + TLs + TLc) Burns et al. (1999): ‘A monitoring and classification system for New Zealand Lakes and Reservoirs.’ Lake and Reservoir Management 15 (4):255-271 Burns Trophic Level Index
  26. 26. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Baseline TLI value of a lake can be established. Rate of change of Trophic Level can be estimated with probability of change determined by average PAC. Burns Trophic Level Index
  27. 27. <ul><li>TLI/TSIs give you an annual objective measure of lake trophic level. It is very difficult to compare annual lake states by comparing Chla,SD,TP,TN separately. </li></ul><ul><li>TLI/TSI allows close, objective tracking of a lake’s tropic state, even if the change is small and gradual </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to improve a lake, go back to historical data from when the lake was considered acceptable and determine a benchmark TLI/TSI from that data. Determine how to manage the lake to achieve this. </li></ul>Why Use Trophic Level Index (or TSI)?
  28. 28. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Trophic Level Index Report Burns Trophic Level Index (TLI) values are calculated from annual averages of chlorophyll, Secchi depth, total phosphorus and nitrogen.
  29. 29. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Lake Mead is not changing in trophic level. Trophic Level Index Report
  30. 30. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Case Study: Lake Mead <ul><li>Determined cause of major algal bloom in 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery of major oxygen problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Provided instant graphics and data analysis for selection of new deep water intake location. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 <ul><li>Direct import from several industry-standard instruments and data formats </li></ul><ul><li>Robust SQL Server or Oracle backend </li></ul><ul><li>“ Disconnected” snapshot processing </li></ul><ul><li>True multi-user environment </li></ul>Enhancements and New Features
  32. 32. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 <ul><li>Easily review data by date or station </li></ul>Enhancements and New Features
  33. 33. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 <ul><li>Easily place SAMPLE or PROFILE parameters on top or bottom axis </li></ul>Enhancements and New Features
  34. 34. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 <ul><li>One-click export, print, or email </li></ul>Enhancements and New Features
  35. 35. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Enhancements and New Features
  36. 36. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Enhancements and New Features <ul><li>Spatial isopleths (cross-sections) </li></ul><ul><li>In Surfer </li></ul><ul><li>In Excel </li></ul>
  37. 37. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Future Enhancements <ul><li>Integration with ArcGIS </li></ul>
  38. 38. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Future Enhancements <ul><li>Integration with CTech’s EVS/MVS or other visualization and analysis tools </li></ul>
  39. 39. In Conclusion… <ul><li>EQuIS 5 LakeWatch brings together sound science with software expertise to provide the user: </li></ul><ul><li>Data import from many instruments and sources </li></ul><ul><li>Data quality control </li></ul><ul><li>Easy data inspection and review </li></ul><ul><li>Data analysis (e.g. calculation of averages, trends, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentation of lake into layers </li></ul><ul><li>HVOD Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of trophic state, and rate of change </li></ul><ul><li>Many different reports </li></ul><ul><li>Robust, commercial database backend </li></ul><ul><li>Support, improvements, enhancements </li></ul>
  40. 40. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Thank you! Scot D. Weaver EarthSoft, Inc. www.earthsoft.com
  41. 42. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Conductivity and total nitrogen concentrations help define plume in top of thermocline Event Profile Top - Hypolimnion Bottom-Epilimnion Sampling Station 9/24/2002
  42. 43. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Profile Table
  43. 44. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Sample Table
  44. 45. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Annual Sample Averages Report
  45. 46. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Multiple Profiles
  46. 47. Lake Mead Science Symposium—January 13, 2009 Profile Scatter Points

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