Simple Present tense• used to:3. Express information or a fact which is true all the time.e.g.: The earth is round. All mammals are warm-blooded creatures. Syazana is a qualified engineer. I am a student. Cats are cute and fluffy.
2. To give information which is true at the time of speaking. e.g.:I have ten ringgit in my purse They live in Kedah. I am a student in MSU, Shah Alam. We are from the Faculty of Business Management and Professional Studies.
3. Show a repeated or habitual action.e.g.: Badrul walks to campus everyday. My mother waters the plants every morning and evening. We go to class everyday. My family and I are at the park every Sunday morning.
Rules to form simple present tense: Base S.P.T Rules Examples formOpen Opens Zahrin walks to Add –s to mostWalk Walks school everyday. regular verbsTeach Teaches Add –es to verbs Mdm. SarinaFetch Fetches which end with teaches I.T in –ch, -sh, and –ss college.Study Studies Change to -ies Yassin cries whencry Cries for verbs ending he lost his house in with -y the fire
be verb…Base form S.P.T Examplesbe Am: only with “I am a freelance singular subject I journalist” said Sheena. Is: Only with singular subjects The Tugu Negara is a EXCEPT I national monument built Are: Only with to commemorate our plural subjects heroes. and the subject you You are one of the successful candidates.
Negative Form of the Simple Present Tensee verb:m- am notam not the one to take care of hims- is not
Action verb:• Listen- do not listen/ does not listen• Jump- do not jump/does not jump• Agree- do not agree/does not agree Do: used with I, you and plural subjects. Does: used with singular subjects
Forming question using Simple Present Tensebe verb: be verb+subject+(the rest of the question)examples:• Am I in this group?• Is she at home?• Are you ready for the presentation?
Action verb: Do/Does+subject+base verb+(the rest of the question)Examples:• Does Ben surfs the internet every night?• Do Amrita and Sangeeta go to the club?
Simple Past Tensesed to:Describe an action/activity that not only startedbut also ended in the past.The action completed at a specific time in the past)alaysia gained independence in 1957.
Forming Simple Past Tensee verb:as: used with singular subjects and the subject I.g.:I was impressed by his performance yesterday.Ahmad was in the class 10 minutes ago.
ction verb:egular Verbs. Add –ed to most regular verbxample:
2. Add –d to verbs which have already end with –eExample: Dance-DancedThey danced at the festival last night. Walk-walkedI walked to school yesterday.
3. If the verbs end with –y and a consonant precedes the –y, change the –y into –ied. Cry-criedThe boy cried last night Simplify-simplified The teacher simplified the formula for the students yesterday.
rregular Verbs:There are no specific rules or pattern.ou will have to memorise the changes for thepast tense of these verbs..g.:
Negative form of Simple Past Tensee Verbs:asWas nothe child was not happy to receive the gift.ere Were not
Action Verbs: Did+not+verbe.g.:• Ben did not surf the Internet until late last night.• Krish and Ravi did not go to Australia last week.• The wedding gown did not cost RM 2000.
Forming question using Simple Past Tensee Verb: e verb+subject+(the rest of the question)as the child happy to receive the gift?as he impressed by the performance?
Action Verb: Did+subject+base verb+(question)Examples:Did Ben Surf the Internet last night?Did he come to class?Did the gown cost RM2000?
Present Continuous Tenseused to:1. Express any activities or situation which are happening:• At the moment of speaking• Over a period of time Some of the time expressions used with this tense are still, now, at present, currently, and at the moment.
e.g.:• I am making the cake and my sister is preparing the icing.• Mrs. Lam is feeding her cat.• At the moment, the florist is arranging the flowers.P.C.T is used to indicate the action started some time in the past, is in progress now and will probably end in the future.
Negative Form of Present Continuous Tense m/is/are+not+verb+-ingxamples:iti is not reading now.
Forming question using Present Continuous Tense be verb+subject+verb+-ing+(rest of the question)Am I interrupting your discussion?Is Jean talking on the phone?Are the customers buying our new products?
Past Continuous Tensesed to :. describe an action/activity that was in progress ata particular time in the past.The action/activity had started but had not beencompleted at that particular time.Usually used with time expressions like:
e.g.:• The school gardener was sweeping leaves in the school compound from four to six o’clock yesterday afternoon.• The students were studying for their examinations the whole of last month.• The workers were very busy renovating the building from June to September.
. To describe two or more actions that were inprogress at the same time in the past.e.g.: Ahmad was working in the garden whenhis wife was cooking in the kitchen. The clerk was typing the reports and the
3. To describe action/activity that was still in progress when another activity took place.simple past tense: activity that occurred while the first activity is still in progress.e.g.:• Shahirah was telling a joke when the teacher called him.• The reporter was interviewing the minister when the photographer took a picture.
HOWEVER!• If the first action was completed before the second action, simple past tense should be used for both actions. When the director arrived, the meeting started When the show ended, we left the hall.
Forming Past continuous tense as+(verb+-ing) ere+(verb+-ing).g.: Hiking- Aishah was hiking in Taman Negara when she came across a 20-foot python.
Negative form of Past Continuous Tense as+not+(verb+-ing) ere+not+(verb+-ing).g.:he detective was not watching the house thewhole night.
Simple Future TenseUsed to:• To express an action or a situation that will occur at the same time in the future (any time after the moment of speaking). *when we want to express an action that will happen in the future, we usually indicate it by the following time expressions:• In a few minutes next year/month/week• In two weeks/month this semester• Tomorrow next Sunday
e.g.:• Colline will move to her new home next month.• I will purchase the tickets this afternoon.• The manager will attend the meeting shortly.• My parents will move to their new house next week.• Aisha and Adam will start packing tonight.
2. To express habitual action in the futuree.g.:• He will coach the football players for the next two months.• Razman will be in the UK for the next two weeks.
3. To express instant decision (When we decide on something or agree to do it at the moment of speaking)e.g.: The phone is ringing. I will get it. I have no plans for this evening. I know, I will call Suzie over for coffee. We will come to the party tonight.
4. To express offers, invitations, and promisese.g.: I will carry your bags. Will you come to Japan with me? I will do my homework right away.
Forming simple future tense using “will/be going to”• The simple future tense can be expressed in the following verb forms: • Will/shall • Be going to
ill/Shall+ verb (in present tense).g.:e will visit Aunt Mary tomorrowhey will study the subject tonightshall cook dinner for my family tomorrow
Negative form of Simple Future Tense Will + not + (verb) Shall + not + (verb)e.g.:• The lecturer will not return the test papers tomorrow.• Shahida will not come to the party tonight.• I shall not do that to her.
Forming questions using simple future tense ill + subject +verb + question?.g:ill she meet me tomorrow?
Using “be going to” to express the future…• Be going to is used to show future activities, predictions based on foreseen and current situations and strong intentions. Am + going to + verb Is + going to + verb Are +going to + verb subject + ‘be’ going to + verb
e.g.:I need money. I am going to sell my motorbike this week.Sharifah is a hardworking student. I am sure she is going to make it to the dean’s list.The twins’ room looks very messy. They are going to clean it up this weekend.
Negative form of “be” going to… m + not + going to + verb s + not + going to + verb re + not + going + to subject + “be” verb + not + going to + verb.g.:
Forming question using “be” going to… “be” verb + subject + going to + questione.g:• Am I going to pick you up after work?• Are you going to join us for lunch?• Is she going to let him go this time?• Are they going to accept this as a mistake and not putting the blame on me?
Present Perfect Tense Has/have + past participleBase Present Perfect ExamplesForm Has + cleaned Nurul Has cleaned her room. Nurul and her sisters have cleanedClean Have + cleaned their rooms I have mailed the letter Has + been Farisya has been to Hong Kong several times Be They have been to Hong Kong several Have + been times You have asked that question twice.
Used to:1. Describe and activity/situation that occurred in the past. The time it happened is not important and need not be mentioned. The activity is connected to now.e.g.: The droning of the aeroplane has awakened the baby. I have put the icing and the cherries on the cake.
2. To describe an activity/event which began at specific time in the past and continues to now.Since: activity started at a particular time in the past and has continued until now.For: to show how long an action has taken place from the past until now.e.g.: I have been awake since 5 a.m. this morning I have been awake for four hours. I have been working here since 2009.
3. To show an activity that happened in the past. The time expressions used do not show specific time. Use recently and latelye.g.:• Recently, the prices of goods have remained high.• It has been so hot lately.• I have been coming to class early lately.
4. To describe repeated actions in the past which are likely to continue in the future.Use so far and up to nowe.g.:• So far, they have had three concerts to raise funds for the orphans.• Up to now, she has submitted five of her lattest designs to the lecturer.
5. To describe an activity that started in the past but has not been completed. The –ve form of the tense is used. The activity may be completed in the future.Use still and yete.g.:• Ilham has been in Karate class since 8 this morning. It is noon now and he has still not returned home.• Aisha has taken a piece of paper on how to write to her penpal. However, she has not yet written anything on it.
6. To show an activity that has neither happened at any time in the past nor at the time of speaking. The negative form of the tense is used.Use never and ever. Never ever: to emphasize that it has not happened at all.e.g.:The twins have never attended dancing class.They have never liked acting.Karimah has never ever met her real parents.
Negative Form of Present Perfect Tense Has/Have + not + past participle Base Present Perfect Examples Form TenseFulfil Has + not + fulfilled Faris has not fulfilled his ambitionPaint Have + not + They have not painted painted the old fence yet.
Forming questions using present perfect tense Has/have + subject + verb (past participle) + Qe.g.:Has Razak cleaned the mess in the kitchen?Have they made the phone call to their parents?
Difference between SPT and PPT Simple Past Tense Present Perfect TenseShe checked out if the hotel She has just checked out ofyesterday afternoon the hotelThey bought a lot of They have bought a lot ofsouvenirs when they were in souvenirsCanadaA thief stole her purse last A thief has stolen her pursenightShe had a medical check up She has already had alast week medical check up
Simple Past Tense are usually used with a specific time.Present Perfect Tense are usually used when a specific time is not mentioned.
Past Perfect Tense Had + verb(past participle)e.g.:Nancy had been a teacher before she became a nurseThe doctor had arrived before the ambulanceMy mother had forgotten her keysAfter I had left the place, Sarina arrived
• Used to show an earlier action when we talk about two actions in the past.The earlier action: use Past Perfect.The later action: use Simple Past.• Use time expressions like before, after, when, as soon as, by the time and until to show the relationship between the earlier events and the later ones.• IF you use before or after is used, simply use the Simple Past.
e.g.:• Before I went to the Post Office, I had deposited some money in the bank.• When I arrived at her room, she told me that nobody had come to visit her.• By the time I reached home, the show had already started.• As soon as I arrived, the students told me that they had already paid the fees.
Negative Forms of Past Perfect Tense Had + not + verb (past participle)The children has not gone to bed when I came homeWe had not finished cooking when the guests arrivedAs soon as I arrived at the school, the teacher told me that he had not had the time to collect the fees.