NounsA noun is a name given to a person, an animal, a place or a thing.• There are generally 4 classes of nouns: Class Definition Examples Common Noun Common names Son, bird, village Proper Noun Names of PARTICULAR Johari, MARA, people, places or things Deepavali, Klang Collective Noun Group of things that are Jury, Congregation, regarded as one team, staff Abstract Noun Quality, feeling, action or Professionalism, beauty, state of mind that are respect, calm, anger intangible
Formation of Nouns• Sometimes, nouns are formed by adding suffixes to verbs, adjectives, or other nouns.• Examples: –ment: Appointment, Compartment, Development –ness: Cleverness, Happiness, Greatness –hood: Childhood, Motherhood, Neighbourhood
Numbering Nouns:• A noun is singular if it refers to one person, place, animal or thing.Architect, Handbag, Key• It is plural if it refers to more than one person, place, animal or thing. Architects, Handbags, Keys
RULES FOR FORMING PLURAL NOUNS• Adding suffix –s to the singular form e.g.: telephone-telephones Bag-bags• Add –es for nouns ending with s, sh, ch, x, z and o e.g.: brush-brushes dress-dresses watch-watches fox-foxes potato-potatoes
• For nouns ending with f and fe, the plural form is written by changing f or fe to –ves e.g.: knife-knives wolf-wolves wife-wives thief-thieves• Change the ending y to –ies for nouns ending with y e.g.: country-countries reply-replies baby-babies city-cities
1. Some nouns have the same singular and plural form. e.g.: sheep-sheep deer-deer swine-swine4. Some nouns have irregular plural forms. e.g.: child-children man-men goose-geese7. Some nouns have no singular form, only a plural form since they are always used in plural form. e.g.: trousers politics scissors shears
Possessive form of nouns Rule Example• When a sing. noun refers to a person or Aida’s purse animal, the possessive form is written by the cat’s food adding (‘s) Mother’s voice• When a plu. noun ends in –s, the Students’ attire possessive is written by adding an Ladies’ fashion apostrophe (‘) Scientists’ prediction Boys’ clothing• When a plu. noun does not end in –s, the Children’s party possessive is written by adding (‘s) Women’s shoes Firemen’s truck• When a name end in –s, the possessive is Keats’ poetry usually written by adding (‘s) Charles’ reign
• The manager recruits all workers• Jannah owns a red Kenari.• Farid and Ismail decorated the hall.• The car was sent to the workshop.• They consulted the lecturer on that matter.• Bravery makes a great man.• She taught the students patiently.• Munirah will go to Australia next week.• An heir inherits money.• The monkey danced in the street.
PRONOUNS Replace nouns• Personal Pronouns• Can be singular or plural Singular Plural Subject Object Subject Object I Me You You You You We Us He Him They Then She Her It It
• * The vast oil palm plantation is an enchanting sight to behold. It is an enchanting sight to behold. It = the vast oil palm plantation (a subject pronoun)• Mr. Idris will visit his daughter in Australia next week. Mr. Idris will visit her in Australia next week. Her = his daughter (an object pronoun)
Possessive Pronoun• Used to show that something belongs to a person or an animal. Possessive Pronoun Singular Before a noun After a noun I My Mine You Your Yours He His His She Hers Hers It Its - Possessive Pronoun Plural Before a noun After a noun You Your Yours They Their Theirs We Our Ours
• This is my pen – This pen is mine• That is her house – That house is hers• It is our report – The report is ours• the lady took their bags – The lady took theirs
Reflexive Pronoun• To refer to a noun or a personal pronoun which is both the subject and the object of a sentence.(the subject & object refer to the same noun/pronoun) Singular Pronoun Reflexive Pronoun My Myself Him Himself Her Herself It Itself You Yourself
Plural Pronoun Reflexive Pronoun Our Ourselves Them Themselves Your Yourselves Ali promised himself that he will study hard next semesterHimself = Ali They did the homework themselvesthemselves = They
Relative Pronoun• Refers to a noun/pronoun in a complex sentence.e.g.: Shakespeare wrote sonnets and plays.Shakespeare was born in Stratford-upon-Avon, England.Shakespeare, who wrote sonnets and plays, was born in Stratford-upon-Avon, England. Hang Tuah was a famous Malay warrior. Hang Tuah was from Malacca. Hang Tuah, who was a famous Malay warrior, was from Malacca.
People Things & animal Uses who That Refers to subject & object of the sentenceWhose Which Indicates possessionWhom Refers to the object That Whose Refers to the subject and object
Who and Whom? Who : as subject Whom : as objecte.g.:• Who is at the door?• Whom did you see at the door?• Whom did you recommend for the job?• Are there any people whom you would recommend?• Whom do I love?
ADJECTIVE• To describe nouns. It tells you more about a person, an animal, a place or a thing. Zaki went to an expensive restaurant for dinner. The hungry lion attacked the villager. My boss sounded angry this morning. Raziah looks sad since that incident.
Word order of adjective• My uncle brought back a beautiful small vase from China.• She stuffed the money into a cheap plastic bag.• My uncle brought back a beautiful small blue vase from China.• She stuffed the money into a cheap small plastic bag.• My uncle brought back a beautiful small blue seramic Ming vase from China.• She stuffed the money into a cheap small black plastic bag.
OPINION SIZE AND SHAPE AGECOLOUR ORIGIN MATERIAL PURPOSE GROUP ADJECTIVES EXAMPLESOpinion Nice, great, The house has beautiful, kind, interesting tall expensive, happy pillars. etc.Size and shape Small, big, long, The tailor lost(size precede thin, square her long thinshape) ruler.Age New, old, young, A kind old lady middle-aged etc. gave me the money.
Colour Red, blue, green The thief etc. snatched the big blue bagOrigin/ Malaysian, She married aNationality Chinese, Indian handsome etc. African man.Material Gold, glass, He found an wooden, old gold coin.Purpose Bath (towel), She bought a fishing (rod) set of expensive bath towels as a gift
Other parts of speech used as adjective• Sometimes, other p.o.s can be used as adjective to describe something.2.Nouns as adjective*He went to the college library to get some books for his research.*The lorry driver was fined for exceeding the speed limit.*That souvenir shop sells t-shirt at a very reasonable price.
1. Present participle and past participle forms of verbs used as adjective*The exciting game thrilled many spectators.*She used some cooking oil to fry the onions.*The doctor treated the injured man.*The children were afraid to enter the haunted house. Usually: adj ending with –ing describes a situation/a thing. adj ending with –ed often describes how a person feels.
Superlative form of adjective• it is used to compare three or more nouns.Adding –est to an adjectiveAdding most in front of the adjective Adjective Superlative Adjective with Sweet Sheila is the one syllable Wise sweetest girl in Kind my class. Adjective that Pretty Roy is the ends with –y Silly funniest man I Funny have ever met.
Adjective SuperlativeAdj. with 2 or That is themore syllables most boring Wonderfuland adj. book that I Boringending with have ever crowded-ful,-les,-ing,- read.edIrregular form Good She got the Bad worst result far last semester.
Verb• A verb is a word that expresses what someone or something does, what they do or what happens to them. Action Verb Expresses what someone or something does. The baby cries in his sleep He wakes up His mother sings him lullaby. She hugs him tightly and kisses his cheeks. The baby looks at his mother He laughs and gurgles contentedly His mother gazes at him adoringly
• Action verbs can be written in several forms.e.g.:carry-carries-carried-to carry-will carry Non-Action Verb DO NOT express any action.They are used to refer to physical characteristics and conditions.
be Verb Am is are was were been being• A be verb usually comes immediately after the subjects in statements. It takes a different form after different subjects. I am confident I She He tired He is exhausted She was It It We We They are intelligent They were shy You You
• Linking verb used to link the subject of a sentence with a complement. A linking verb is followed by a complement rather than an object.The complement gives more information about the subject. Expressing feelings Expressing Expressing sensory and thoughts possession perception Appear seem Own Feel Believe need Owe Hear Know mean Have Look Understand Possess See Like love belong Smell taste
ADVERBGives additional information about a verb. Adverb of manner• To describe the way a certain action or event occurs.• Answers the question “HOW?”• We normally form adverbs of manner by adding –ly to an adjective. Slow-Slowly Patient-Patiently Careless-Carelessly• Sometimes, additional change spelling! Tragic-Tragically Simple-Simply
Adverbs of Time• Used to indicate when something occurs.• Answers the question “when?”• They can be single words or phrases.
Time Expression ExamplesLast night/week/year The examination result was better last year.Next The bus fares may be increased nextweek/year/semester month.Today The class went smooth todayYesterday They presented the talk yesterdayTomorrow We will meet again tomorrowThe day after The driver will pick her the day aftertomorrow tomorrow
ARTICLES AND DETERMINERARTICLES• Indefinite article: a, anA• -placed before a sing. countable noun begins with a consonant sound.• -used if there is an adj which begins with a consonant sound before a sing. countable noun.
AN• -Placed before a sing. countable noun that begins with a vowel sound• -Also used if there is an adj which begins with a vowel sound before the sing. countable noun. An industrious worker An active student -Also placed before an adj/noun which begins with a silent h
Definite Article: the• -used before singular countable nouns• -plural countable nouns• -uncountable nouns• E.g.: The sun is shining brightly The students are in the class The sugar is in the jar
Difference between Indefinite and Definite Article• The maid is ironing a dress.• The maid is ironing the dress I bought yesterday.
Basic Uses of the Definite Article The:• 1. Use the before singular or plural definite (specific) nouns. Their identity is already known to the reader for one of the following reasons: a. The noun has already been mentioned. b. The noun is followed by a phrase or clause which identifies the noun. Example: A journalist interviewed the engineer who designed the plane.
c. A superlative adjective precedes the noun. Example: John is the fastest runner on the team. (There can be only one fastest runner.)• Note: An adjective before a plural or non-count noun does not make the noun specific (definite). The noun is specific because it is preceded by the.d. The noun is unique; there is only one in existence. Example: Thousands of tourists visit the Statue of Liberty yearly.e. The context makes the noun’s identity clear. Example: My friends bought movie tickets at the box office’s line.
2. Do not use the beforea. Plural nouns meaning “all” or “in general:” Example: People look forward to vacations from their jobs. b. Most singular proper nouns (See “Special Rules” for exceptions). Example: Remember to call Maria in two hours.
Special Rules in Using Articles1. Places: a. Names of countries: Do not use the unless the name refers to a group or has the word “of” within the name. Examples: I traveled to China last summer. The United States of America was established in 1776.
b. Cities and streets: Do not use articles before cities and streets. Example: The shop is located at 3572 Avenue K in Kuala Lumpur.c. Rivers, oceans, seas, groups of mountains and islands: Use the before nouns naming these geographical features. Example: The Petronas and Me! Expedition traveled up the Tahan River.
d. Schools: Use the when “of” is part of the school’s name. Otherwise, omit the article. Examples: She plans to attend the University of Malaya. My two friends both received scholarships to MSU.
e. Location vs. Activity (for a few nouns): 1) When a noun naming a place is used in a phrase referring to an activity, no article is needed before the noun.. Examples: “to school”: Most children ride the bus to school. “to church”: The family goes to church regularly. 2) When the same noun is used simply to name the location, use either a definite or indefinite article as usual. Examples: The workers arrived to remodel the school. The new family visited a church in their neighborhood.
2. Titles of People: a. A title followed by a name: Do not use an article. Example: On Monday, President Hosford will meet with his advisors. b. A title without a name: Use the. Example: The committee members met with the president of the company.
3. Numbers: a. Cardinal numbers: Do not use an article before cardinal numbers (number words that name a quantity) when the number word functions as a noun. Examples: The customer admired the artist’s paintings enough to buy one. He removed thirty of the fifty trees on his property. (In this sentence “thirty” is a noun whereas “fifty” is an adjective modifying trees.) b. Ordinal numbers: Use the before ordinal numbers (number words such as “first,” “second,” and “third” that indicate order in a sequence. Examples: The fifteenth page is missing. (“Fifteenth”functions as an adjective.) Mary was the third to drop out of the race. (“Fifteenth”
4. Things shared by a family or community: Use the before these nouns. Examples: Many homes have a microwave in the kitchen. Citizens are invited to speak to the city council about problems. The mayor visited the library.
5. Expressions that identify part of a larger group: Use the before the nouns in these expressions. Examples: “one of the (plural noun)” One of the students was absent. “both of the (plural noun)” She enjoyed both of the performances. “some of the (plural noun)” The instructor returned some of the essays today. “some of the (noncount noun)” Some of the stolen money was recovered.
6. Second mention as a synonym: Use the before a noun used as a synonym for a word or words that have already been mentioned. Example: Please buy fruit, vegetables, meat, and milk; deliver the groceries to your uncle.
PREPOSITION Used to show the relationship or connection of a word with other word.Examples:Do not lean against the wallShe leaned on him for support.
• Preposition of Position• To indicate/show the location of a person, a place, or an object in relation to another person, place or object in a sentence. Above across along against Below behind beside between In down from inside Over around into under
AT, IN, ONPreposition Use Examples • Specific street addresses She lives at No.32, • Places Jalan Brickfields. AT • Events and specific I saw him at the locations wedding. • Before buildings, towns, Amirah is studying in cities, countries. England IN • 3-d spaces like The box is in the room classroom • Before streets, roads, The clinic is on the rivers, and floors third floor of this ON (1st,2nd,3rd) building • 2-d spaces like wall and The picture is on the floor wall
1. Preposition of Time• To indicate the concept of time or the duration of time From…to for science until/till During before by while after
AT, IN, ONPreposition Use Examples • AT+ clock time/ meal time The meeting is at 3 • AT+expressions like “at o’clock AT present/ at the same I am staying with him at time/ at that time/ at the moment night • IN+a month/ ayear Sheena was born in April IN • IN+ (number) week She was here in the • IN+(part of the day) morning • ON+day/date/a weekday Aiman was born on the • ON+day/part of day first of April, 2009 ON • ON+special day or Mother will serve occasion lemang on Hari Raya
CONJUNCTION Conjunction is used to joined words, phrases or sentences.• To indicate ADDITION/SIMILAR IDEASJoining ideas and sentences: ANDe.g. : The Kuala Lumpur International Airport is clean and beautiful. Ben is a brilliant student and a talented artist.
Adding emphasis:Not only…but also, both…and, Neither…nor.e.g.: Karim is not only clever but also Hardworking. Nurin is both talkative and friendly. Neither Zureen nor Nadiah knows where he is.
• To indicate CHOICE We use or and either…or when we have to make a choice or when there are alternatives. e.g.: Do you live with your friends or with your family? We can do it either tomorrow or the day after tomorrow.
• To indicate CAUSE and EFFECTBecause, since, so that, so, so….that, as long ase.g.:• Many women stayed at home so that they can look after their children.• They cooked for the family and cleaned the house because the majority of them did not employ maids.• Some of the jobs are so demanding that they are expected to spend long hours at the office.
• To indicate TIMEConjunction Meaning ExamplesAfter Later After I took the medication, I went to sleepBefore At an earlier Students must revise time their work before taking any testWhen At the time Zeti was at a jamboree when the examination results were announced
While During a period of One of Julie’s contact time lenses came off while she was playing basketballUntil Up to the time Do not open the booklet until you are told to do soOnce The moment Once I have the money, I will leaveAs soon as Immediately after We are going to have a long break as soon as we complete this project
• To indicate CONDITION IF and UNLESS• e.g.: If you leave at 6 a.m., you will be able to catch the 8.30 a.m. train *IF is used to express a condition that will produce a possible result Unless you leave at 6 a.m., you will not be able to catch the 8.30 a.m. train.*UNLESS is used to mean ‘if not’
1. To indicate CONTRAST Although even though despite though but yet whereas Even though the test was difficult, the students managed to pass the subject. Despite the money that he has, loneliness makes him one cold man.
For the words in bold, choose the correct part of speech from the choices listed in a and b.1.Today, I will wear a. nounmy yellow skirt. b. adjective2. No, you may not a. interjectionclimb onto the roof. b. pronoun3. This warm a. verbbath will feel good b. adverbon my legs.4. This is a. adverba good movie. b. adjectiv
5. Throw the ball as hard as a. verbyou can. b. noun6. I am extremely excited a. adjectivefor our trip to Costa Rica. b. adverb7. Should be stay in a a. interjectionhotel or in a youth hostel? b. conjunction
8. Where is my a. verbsuitcase? b. adverb9. Your suitcase a. prepositionis in the closet. b. adjective10. Lets a. nounmake cookies! b. preposition
Choose the Right Word a. on1. I am doing ___________. b. well2. You play the piano a. beautiful__________. b. beautifully3. I would like two glasses of a. milk___________. b. milks4. ____________ is coming to a. Herthe concert. b. She5. Yesterday, I ___________ a. playfor two hours! b. played
6. This song is ___________ a. more betterthan that song. b. better7. I sat ______________ the a. incoffee shop. b. between8. My sister ____________ a. is learningto play the flute. b. have learned a. are9. I ____________ sleepy. b. am a. more10. This closet is organized___________ than my b. mostcloset! organized