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Paraphrasing&summarising

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Paraphrasing&summarising

  1. 1. Paraphra sing
  2. 2. What is Paraphrasing?o To restate an idea/information by using OTHER words.o A rewriting of text in your own wordso Used to clarify meaningo Used to shorten a longer statement but keeps the main ideas
  3. 3. • The meaning of the idea/information = NOT CHANGED AT ALL. Reason?we wish to use ideas and information that come from other people.  avoid plagiarism.To understand and answer multiple choice questionsHelping in writing summaries.
  4. 4. • Develops and reinforces understanding of the text• Allows comprehension of grammatically or conceptually complex sentences• Forces engagement with the text• Builds and reinforces vocabulary• A necessary building block for summarising
  5. 5. So, How Do We Do It?o Read the passage carefullyo Decide the main ideas of the passage PARAPHRASEo Highlight important ME! words or phraseso Put the main points in your own words
  6. 6. 6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing1. Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning.2. Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card.3. Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase.4. Check your version with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form.
  7. 7. Remember… Read the selection several times until you understand it fully. Take notes of important words such as scientific terms, names of places, people, events, etc. Look up any words you do not understand and find synonyms for them. Also find other ways to express potentially unfamiliar information such as “since the time of Descartes” in the 2nd example. Rewrite each sentence, one after the other. Simplify the sentence structure of each sentence and use synonyms. Review your sentence!
  8. 8. • When we paraphrase, we use OUR OWN words, maintaining the original meaning of the idea/information. Susan found Muthu lying on the floor. A kitchen knife could be sticking out of his chest. He was dead. The television set was still on and the kettle on the stove was whistling.
  9. 9. Susan found Muthu lying on the floor. A kitchen knife could be sticking out of his chest. He was dead. The television set was still on and the kettle on the stove was whistling. Susan found Muthu on the floor. Someone had stabbed him in the chest with a kitchen knife. The TV set was on and the kettle was boiling on the stove.
  10. 10. How to Paraphrase?• Using synonyms of words in the original statement. Among this garbage were floating gobs of oil. Among this rubbish were floating gobs of oil. Included in the wastes were floating blobs of oil.
  11. 11. 2. Change Word Order Because air is lighter than water, air bubbles float to the surface Air bubbles float to the surface because they are lighter than water
  12. 12. 3. Change sentences in the active voice to the passive voice and vice versa. The problem is aggravated by the presence of many other toxic materials in the seas. The presence of many other toxic materials in the seas aggravates the problem. The existence of other toxic substances in the sea worsens the problem.
  13. 13. 4. Using different signal word to indicate the relationship of ideas in the sentence or paragraph. Although some of these materials have provided sheltering reefs for fish, other entangle or poison birds and mammals. Some of these materials are a home to fish while others entangle or poison birds and mammals.
  14. 14. 5. Combine sentences that were originally separated. Oil is a collection of hundreds of substances such as hydrogen and carbon that react with the environment. When released in water, it spreads in a film over the surface. Oil, a collection of hundreds of substances such as hydrogen and carbon that react with the environment, spreads in a film over the surface when released in water. Oil which is made up of numerous substances such as hydrogen and carbon that react with the environment, forms a thin layer on he surface when released in water.
  15. 15. Try to paraphrase the passages:• “People wish for virtue and the absence of vice, no less than pleasure and the absence of pain.” People want morality just as much as they want happiness.
  16. 16. • In general, male birds’ feathers are more colorful than its female counterpart.Male birds are more colourful than female birds.• A smile does not mean the same thing around the world.Internationally, a smile may convey a different message, based on cultural factors.
  17. 17. • Our life is defined by the quality of our choices.Our decisions influence the nature of our life.• Climbing mountains is a dangerous activity. Mountain-climbing can be a perilous sport.
  18. 18. • His position was not very interesting and fun, but it enables him to earn a handsome income.Although it is quite boring, his job earned him a lot.
  19. 19. Try to paraphrase…1. Many people fear snakes because they think all snakes are harmful. When they see a snake most people would try to kill or run away from it.3. More food-producing plants will have to be grown to feed the growing population of the world. In tropical countries, especially, people need plants that can supply protein. This protein is necessary for good nutrition.
  20. 20. 1. A library should provide information on various subjects, from ornamental gardens and shrubbery to women’s suffrage. It must also be well-supplied with reference books such as dictionaries and encyclopedias. The job of a librarian is to ensure that the library fulfils these functions effectively.3. Even though we did not managed to achieve the expected profits, it is enough to keep our heads above water.
  21. 21. Match the Paraphrased Sentence Original sentence: Paraphrased sentence: Like many animals, the You find the arrow bamboo giant panda needs a special in country that is below 35001 A environment to survive. metres high or that has farms. Its natural habitat is It lives best naturally in2 bamboo forest found in B bamboo forests in China. China. Whilst there are many The giant panda has to have3 varieties of bamboo, the C certain natural conditions to panda will eat only 4 types. live. Their basic diet is arrow The one they like to eat the4 D bamboo. most is arrow bamboo. The arrow bamboo will not It eats only 4 of the several grow in areas that are above types of bamboo.5 3500 metres or in the river E valleys or plains that have been farmed.
  22. 22. SummarisingTo restate MAIN POINTS of anidea/information (in any readingtext) by using OUR OWNwords.
  23. 23. • Why?o To simplify the text(easier to remember)o To answer exam questionso To report information• HOW?7.Read & make sure you understand the text.8.Find the topic sentence/main idea9.Leave out unnecessary details (e.g., numbers)10.Use your OWN words.
  24. 24. Main IdeaSupporting Supporting Supporting Detail Detail Detail
  25. 25. Examples… A tornado is a powerful, twisting windstorm. It begins high in the air, among the winds of a giant storm cloud. People who have watched a tornado’s howling winds reach down from the sky have said it’s the most frightening thing they have ever seen. In some parts of the United States, these windstorms are called twisters or cyclones.
  26. 26. Main idea and supporting details Tornado is powerful, twisting windstorm Also calledPart of giant Frightening twister storm cloud or cyclone
  27. 27. Sentence Summary…Tornadoes are frightening, powerful, twistingwindstorms sometimes called twisters orcyclones that start in giant storm clouds.
  28. 28. Try another oneTornadoes are not the only whirlingwindstorms that move through the earth’s air.Dust devils, hurricanes and typhoons all havetwisting winds. But these windstorms differfrom tornadoes in important ways.
  29. 29. Main idea and supporting details Dust devils, hurricanes, and typhoons have twisting windsWhirling windstorms Differ from tornadoes
  30. 30. Dust devils, hurricanes and typhoons alsohave twisting winds, but they are differentfrom tornadoes.
  31. 31. Try again… Dust devils are the weakest of the swirling windstorms. Their winds usually spin between 12 and 30 miles per hour. Most dust devils are less than five feet across, and few last more than a minute or two. They are often seen in the desert under clear skies. Dust devils form near ground when certain kinds of winds make hot, rising air start to spin.
  32. 32. Dust devils are weakest of swirling windstormsLess than 30 mph Five ft. across Last minute or two
  33. 33. Compared to other wind storms, dust devilsare the weakest and least severe.
  34. 34. Try… Hurricanes and typhoons are the largest of the swirling windstorms. The winds of these storms blow about 75 to 150 miles per hour. They form over warm, tropical oceans and cause heavy rains as well as strong winds. When a tropical storm like this begins over the Atlantic Ocean or the eastern Pacific Ocean, it is called a hurricane. The same kind of storm in the western Pacific Ocean or Indian Ocean is called a typhoon. Hurricanes and typhoons may be several hundred miles wide, travel thousands of miles and last for days.
  35. 35. Hurricanes and typhoons are largest Several hundred Travel thousands ofWinds of 75-150 mph miles wide miles, last for days
  36. 36. In contrast, hurricanes and typhoons are thelargest windstorms since they may behundreds of miles wide, travel very fast forthousands of miles and can last for days.
  37. 37. Another one… Tornadoes are not as large as hurricanes and typhoons and they don’t travel as far. In fact, many tornadoes last only a few minutes. But the spinning winds of a tornado can rip through the air at up to 300 miles per hour. The winds of a large tornado are the fastest, most dangerous winds on earth.
  38. 38. Winds of large tornado are fastest, most dangerous winds on earthLast few minutes 300 mph
  39. 39. The bottom line is, although they are not aslarge as hurricanes and typhoons, tornadoesare the fastest, most dangerous windstorms.
  40. 40. Read the paragraph and underline the main idea:People involved in developing space tourism believe thatit can benefit society in several ways. First, space tourismmay create thousands of new jobs. Space tourismcompanies will need pilots, mechanics and many otheremployees. That is good for the economy. Second, outerspace is still a mystery. Space tourism can help usunderstand our world and universe better. Private spacetourism companies have a lot of money, and they canspend it on research. And finally, some people believethat we might have to live in outer space someday. Butwe don’t know what will happen to our bodies after longperiods of time in space. Space tourism can show us theeffects that space has on or bodies.
  41. 41. Read the paragraph and underline the mainidea:People involved in developing space tourism believe that itcan benefit society in several ways. First, space tourismmay create thousands of new jobs. Space tourismcompanies will need pilots, mechanics and many otheremployees. That is good for the economy. Second, outerspace is still a mystery. Space tourism can help usunderstand our world and universe better. Private spacetourism companies have a lot of money, and they canspend it on research. And finally, some people believe thatwe might have to live in outer space someday. But wedon’t know what will happen to our bodies after longperiods of time in space. Space tourism can show us theeffects that space has on or bodies.
  42. 42. Try…1. While on his way home, Afiq heard a loud screeching sound. He turned. He saw a car trying to avoid a dog that was crossing the road. The driver lost control of his car and hit another car coming from the opposite side of the road.
  43. 43. 2. One of the best methods of gathering information quickly is through face-to-face or telephone interviews. These methods provide greater flexibility than mail questionnaires. Through interviews, interviewers will be able to clarify complicated questions or questions which need more explanations. Also, interviewers can ignore irrelevant questions. In interviews we are able to obtain feedback immediately and this saves time. The data that is collected is more accurate and concise. Moreover, people respond better to interviews than mail questionnaires.
  44. 44. 3. Technological advancement has given us wonders like the Internet, notebook computers, knowledge of plastic surgery, satellites, space shuttles and antibiotics. Conveniences such as credit cards, handphones, television and automobiles are also the result of technological advancement. On the other hand, it has also produced horrors such as chemical weapons, nuclear missiles and hi-tech fighter planes.
  45. 45. Paraphrasing…Paraphrase when:• You plan to use information on your note cards and wish to avoid plagiarizing• You want to avoid overusing quotations• You want to use your own voice to present information
  46. 46. SummarizingSummarize when:• You want to establish background or offer an overview of a topic• You want to describe common knowledge (from several sources) about a topic• You want to determine the main ideas of a single source
  47. 47. TRY!Brushing your teeth twice a day should keep thedentist away. But if a group of scientificresearches have their wish, it will make the restof your body healthy too. A toothbrush thatchecks blood sugar and bacteria while youbrush is currently in development in the USA. Itis one of the many gadgets proposed byengineers and doctors at the Center for FutureHealth in New York-others include a pair ofspectacles that help to jog your memory, and ahome camera designed to check for cancer.
  48. 48. Another oneChildren who are dyslexic have problemsprocessing specific visual information,resulting in trouble reading and writing. Untilrecently, it was thought to be language-related areas of the brain which weredeficient, but new research suggests thatdyslexic have difficulty with the control of eyemovement, or ‘eye wobble’.

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