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Network topologies


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Network topologies

  1. 1. Network Topologies
  2. 2. Introducing Topologies• Topology refers to physical or logical arrangement of network• Physical topologies are – Single Node – Bus – Star – Ring – Mesh – Tree – Hybrid
  3. 3. Single Node Topology• Single device, at times device called dumb terminal is connected to the server• Devices operates on files from server and returns them back after completing task
  4. 4. Single Node Topology• Advantages: – Easy to install, configure and manage – Least expensive – Single cable is required• Disadvantages: – Network consists of single device – Dumb terminal is dependent on server
  5. 5. Bus topology• All devices are connected to a common cable called backbone/trunk• Operates in daisy chain fashion• Medium is shared that’s why creates collision
  6. 6. Bus topology• Server is at one end and devices are at different positions• 50 ohm terminators are used• Devices are not responsible for data transmission
  7. 7. Bus topology• Advantages: – Installation of devices is easy – Works better for smaller network – Less expensive• Disadvantages: – If backbone breaks, entire network gets down – Difficult to isolate problems – Limited number of devices can be attached
  8. 8. Star Topology• Each device is connected to a central device called hub through cable• Data passes through hub before reaching destination
  9. 9. Star Topology• Advantages: – Easy to install, configure, manage and expand – Centralized management – Addition or removal of device does not affect the whole network• Disadvantages: – Requires more cable – Failure of hub affects entire network – More Expensive
  10. 10. Ring Topology• Devices are connected in a closed loop• All devices have equal access to media• Device waits for its turn to transmit• Most common type is Token Ring network
  11. 11. Ring Topology• Advantages: – Reliable and offers greater speed – No collisions – Handles large volume of traffic• Disadvantages: – More cabling is required compared to bus topology – One faulty device affects the entire network – Addition of devices affect network
  12. 12. Dual Ring Topology• Consists of two independent primary and secondary rings• Secondary ring is redundant, used only when primary stops functioning
  13. 13. Mesh Topology • Used in WANs to interconnect LANs • Every device is connected to every other device • Use routers to determine the best path of communication
  14. 14. Mesh Topology Types Full mesh Partial mesh• Full mesh topology – All devices are connected to each other• Partial mesh topology - Some devices are connected to only those with whom they exchange most of the data
  15. 15. Mesh Topology• Advantages: – Improves fault tolerance – Failure of one link does not affect entire network – Centralized management is not required• Disadvantages: – Difficult to install and manage – Each link from one device to other requires individual NIC – Expensive
  16. 16. Tree Topology - I • Combines the characteristic of linear bus and star topology • Devices are wired to root hub • Twisted pair cable is commonly used • Lowest level devices are smaller computers
  17. 17. Tree Topology• Advantages: – Easy to expand the network – Point-to-point wiring for each device – Fault detection is easy• Disadvantages: – Difficult to configure – If backbone breaks, entire network goes down – More expensive
  18. 18. Hybrid Topology• Combines two or more different physical topologies• Commonly Star-Bus or Star-Ring• Also known as special topology and useful for corporate offices
  19. 19. Hybrid Topology• Advantages: – Used for creating larger networks – Handles large volume of traffic – Fault detection is easy• Disadvantages: – Installation and configuration is difficult – More expensive than other topologies – More cabling is required