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Motivation

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Motivation

  1. 1. MOTIVATION
  2. 2. Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? Motivation and individual needs – Motivation—the forces within the individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work. Needs – Unfulfilled physiological and psychological desires of an individual. – Explain workplace behavior and attitudes. – Create tensions that influence attitudes and behavior. – Good managers and leaders facilitate employee need satisfaction. 2
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  4. 4. Figure 13.1 Opportunities for satisfaction in Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs. 4
  5. 5. Study Question 2: What are the different types of individual needs?  Hierarchy of needs theory – Deficit principle • A satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior. – Progression principle • A need at one level does not become activated until the next lower-level need is satisfied. 5
  6. 6. Study Question 2: What are the different types of individual needs? Hierarchy of needs theory – Developed by Abraham Maslow. – Lower-order and higher-order needs affect workplace behavior and attitudes. – Lower-order needs (satisfied internally): • Physiological, safety, and social needs. • Desires for physical and social well being. – Higher-order needs (satisfied externally): • Esteem and self-actualization needs. • Desire for psychological growth and development. 6
  7. 7. Study Question 2: What are the different types of individual needs? Acquired needs theory – Developed by David McClelland. – People acquire needs through their life experiences. – Needs that are acquired: • Need for Achievement (nAch) • Need for Power (nPower) • Need for Affiliation (nAff) 7
  8. 8. Study Question 2: What are the different types of individual needs? Acquired needs theory – Need for Achievement (nAch) • Desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks. – People high in (nAch) prefer work that: • Involves individual responsibility for results. • Involves achievable but challenging goals. • Provides feedback on performance. 8
  9. 9. Study Question 2: What are the different types of individual needs? Acquired needs theory – Need for Power (nPower) • Desire to control other persons, to influence their behavior, or to be responsible for other people. • Personal power versus social power. – People high in (nPower) prefer work that: • Involves control over other persons. • Has an impact on people and events. • Brings public recognition and attention. 9
  10. 10. Study Question 2: What are the different types of individual needs? Acquired needs theory – Need for Affiliation (nAff) • Desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with other persons. – People high in (nAff) prefer work that: • Involves interpersonal relationships. • Provides for companionship • Brings social approval. 10
  11. 11. Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? Process theories of motivation … – How people make choices to work hard or not. – Choices are based on: • Individual preferences. • Available rewards. • Possible work outcomes. Types of process theories: – Equity theory. – Expectancy theory. – Goal-setting theory. 11
  12. 12. Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? Equity theory – Developed by J. Stacy Adams. – When people believe that they have been treated unfairly in comparison to others, they try to eliminate the discomfort and restore a perceived sense of equity to the situation. • Perceived inequity. • Perceived equity. 12
  13. 13. Figure 13.3 Equity theory and the role of social comparison. 13
  14. 14. Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? Equity theory – People respond to perceived negative inequity by changing … • Work inputs. • Rewards received. • Comparison points. • Situation. 14
  15. 15. Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation?  Managerial implications of equity theory— – Underpaid people experience anger. – Overpaid people experience guilt. – Perceptions of rewards determine motivational outcomes. – Negative consequences of equity comparisons should be minimized, if not eliminated. – Do not underestimate the impact of pay as a source of equity controversies in the workplace. • Gender equity. • Comparable worth. 15

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