Advance ethernet


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Advance ethernet

  1. 1. Ethernet Advanced
  2. 2. Introduction to Advanced Ethernet• Ethernet is most widely used network technology• Introduced by IEEE 802.3• Ethernet systems are 10Base-T and 10Base-FL• High speed Ethernet includes – 100Base Ethernet – Gigabit Ethernet – Switched Ethernet – Full Duplex Ethernet
  3. 3. Features of Advanced Ethernet• Advanced Ethernet would use a physical star to match the robustness of Token ring• It would not use more expensive coaxial cables and adopt inexpensive UTP cabling• It would use the same frame types and speeds of the older Ethernets so that new Ethernets will be compatible with older ones
  4. 4. 10BASE-T - I• Ethernet standard known as twisted pair Ethernet• Uses a star bus topology• Stations are connected to a hub using pairs of twisted cables• Features: – Failure of one system does not affect entire network – Easy troubleshooting – Addition and removal of device does not affect network
  5. 5. 10BASE-T Topology• Uses a physical star topology in which each node connects to a central hub• Hub is a multiport repeater. It receives the signal from one port, regenerates it and passes the signal to all the other ports
  6. 6. Meaning of 10BASE-T• 10 refer to 10 Mbps transmission speed, Base is for baseband signaling and T stands for twisted pair cable
  7. 7. 10Base T Specifications and Limitations• Specifications include: – Fault Tolerant – Easy Troubleshooting – Easy Moves and Changes• Limitations include: – Distance – Sensitive to noise – Number of computers connected is limited to 1024
  8. 8. Cabling Consideration• Cable testers can be used to check the parameters of the cable• UTP cables use stranded kevlar fiber which gives better strength to the cable• 10 Base T requires only 2 pair cabling• RJ45 connectors used to connect UTP cables• Maximum length of cable is 100m from hub to a node
  9. 9. Wiring Standards
  10. 10. 10BASE-FL• Ethernet standard that operates over fiber optic cable and covers a distance up to 2 k.m.• Multimode fiber and Straight Tip (ST) connector are used to build 10Base-FL segment 10Base FL components Medium Attachment Network Medium Unit (MAU)
  11. 11. 10 Base FL Components• Network Medium – Uses 62.5/125 micrometer multimode fiber optic cables• Medium Attachment Unit (MAU) – Used for link integrity test.
  12. 12. Connecting Ethernet Segments• Maximum number of ports available on a hub is 48• Coaxial or cross over cables are required to connect two or more hubs• Most hubs use BNC or AUI connector to connect with other hubs• Crossover ports are also known as uplink or out port
  13. 13. 5-4-3 Rule - I• Developed to limit the size of an Ethernet collision domain.• Implemented by Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) for number of repeaters and segments on shared access• The rule states that: Any two nodes in the network should not be separated by more than 5 segments, 4 repeaters and 3 populated segments
  14. 14. 5-4-3 Rule - II• Categories of physical segments: – User segments - Used to connect the systems in the network. These segments are also known as populated segments. – Link segments - Used to connect repeaters in the network. These segments are also known as unpopulated segments.
  15. 15. Network using 5-4-3 rule• 5 – Specifies that maximum 5 segments can be used in the network• 4 – Specifies the number of repeaters/concentrators used to connect the network segments• 3 – Specifies the number of populated segments
  16. 16. High Speed Ethernet• Developed to increase connectivity speed between the terminals or computers in a network. Ethernet Standards Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet 10-Gigabit Ethernet (100Base Ethernet)
  17. 17. 100Base Ethernet• Supports data transfer rate up to 100 Mbps• Also called as Fast Ethernet• Makes use of CAT 5 cable and fiber cable
  18. 18. Types of Fast Ethernet• Copper cabled Ethernet• 100 Base TX – uses two pairs of CAT5• 100 Base T4 – uses 4 pairs of CAT3• 100 Base T2 – uses 2 pairs for data, 4 bits per symbol• Fiber Cabled Ethernet• 100 Base FX – uses 2 strands of MM fiber cable• 100 Base SX – uses 2 strands of MM fiber cable (SW)• 100 Base BX – uses single strand of SM fiber cable
  19. 19. Advantages and Disadvantages• Advantages• Speed – Ten times faster than regular 10Base-T network• Throughput – Faster for video, multimedia, graphics, Internet surfing and other applications that require high speed• Disadvantages• Mode of data transfer – 100Base-T4 Ethernet cannot support full duplex mode of data transfer• Wiring – 100Base-T4 requires four pair of wiring for data transfer
  20. 20. Gigabit Ethernet• Supports data transfer rate up to 1000 Mbit/s• Also called as 1000BASE-T Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet Standards 1000Base-SX 1000Base-LX 1000Base-CX 1000Base-T 1000Base-TX
  21. 21. 10-Gigabit Ethernet - I• Was developed by IEEE 802.3ae in 2002.• Supports data transfer rate that is ten times faster than Gigabit ethernet• Supports segment length up to 40 Kms• Uses Media Access Control (MAC) protocol• Uses full-duplex mode of transmission and mostly run on fiber
  22. 22. 10-Gigabit Ethernet - II• Standards included: – 10GBASE-CX4 – 10GBASE-T – 10GBASE-SR (Short Range) – 10GBASE-LRM (Long Reach Multimode) – 10GBASE-LR (Long Range) – 10GBASE-ER (Extended Range) – 10GBASE-LX4
  23. 23. Switched Ethernet• Employs a switch instead of a repeater or a hub• Operates at layer 2 of OSI model• Offers guaranteed bandwidth per port• Each port is a separate collision domain• Used to connect segments to a backbone• Machines such file and print server directly connected to the backbone for better performance
  24. 24. Types of Switching• Uses three types of switching: – Cut-through – Store and forward – Fragment-free
  25. 25. Full-Duplex Ethernet• Devices at both ends can send and receive data at the same time• Provides twice the bandwidth of normal (half duplex) Ethernet• Each pairs of wires acts as a separate channel and allows the devices at each end to communicate with one another in full duplex mode