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Stereotype & Prejudice

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Stereotype & Prejudice

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Stereotype & Prejudice

  1. 1. STEREOTYPES AND PREJUDICE
  2. 2. STEREOTYPES are… Topic 8 STEREOTYPES AND PREJUDICE 1) generalizations, usually exaggerated or oversimplified and often offensive, used to describe or distinguish a group; 2) fixed, over generalized beliefs about a particular group of people; 3) qualities assigned to groups of people related to their race, nationality, sexual orientation etc.
  3. 3. PREJUDICE is… Topic 8 STEREOTYPES AND PREJUDICE a rigid attitude that is based on group membership and predisposes an individual to feel or think in a negative way toward another person or group. DESCRIMINATION… involves a negative action toward a social group or its members based on a stereotype and prejudice.
  4. 4. PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCE IN THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Topic 9Topic 9
  5. 5. Sponsored Medical Lecture Notes – All Subjects USMLE Exam (America) – Practice
  6. 6. Topic 9 PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCE IN THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS PSYCHOLOGICAL MANIPULATION is a type of social influence that aims to change the perception or behavior of others through underhanded, deceptive, or even abusive tactics. By advancing the interests of the manipulator, often at the other's expense, such methods could be considered exploitative, abusive, devious, and deceptive. Social influence is not necessarily negative. For example, doctors can try to persuade patients to change unhealthy habits. Social influence is generally perceived to be harmless when it respects the right of the influenced to accept or reject and is not unduly coercive. Depending on the context and motivations, social influence may constitute underhanded manipulation.
  7. 7. Basic ways that manipulators control their victims (according to Harriet Braiker) are: Topic 9 PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCE IN THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS •Positive reinforcement •Negative reinforcement •Intermittent or partial reinforcement •Punishment •Traumatic one-trial learning
  8. 8. Manipulative techniques (according to Simon) Topic 9 PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCE IN THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS •Lying •Lying by omission •Denial •Rationalization •Minimization •Selective inattention or selective attention •Diversion •Playing the victim role ("poor me") •Vilifying the victim •Playing the servant role •Seduction •Feigning innocence •Brandishing anger
  9. 9. Manipulators can have various possible motivations, including: Topic 9 PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCE IN THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS •the need to advance their own purposes and personal gain at virtually any cost to others •a strong need to attain feelings of power and superiority in relationships with others •a want and need to feel in control •a desire to gain a feeling of power over others in order to raise their perception of self-esteem
  10. 10. PRINCIPLES OF INFLUENCE RECIPROCATION Topic 9 PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCE IN THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS COMMITMENT AND CONSISTENCY AUTHORITY SOCIAL VALIDATION SCARCITY LIKING AND FRIENDSHIP

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