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Electric Vehicle University - 210a EV BATTERY TECHNOLOGY

Since the battery is pivotal to my EV, what are the core issues that will allow me to understand battery technology?

A discussion of battery components and fabrication approach, the reasons that building higher capacity batteries are constrained by geometry and technological factors, the key characteristics to assess when comparing battery chemistries, and new battery tech that may lead to significant improvements in those characteristics. To obtain a copy of the EVU study guide for this and other available EVU courses, please complete the form on this page.

Course level: Intermediate

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Electric Vehicle University - 210a EV BATTERY TECHNOLOGY

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  2. 2. 2 EV Battery Technology, part 1 EV-210a This course is presented as part of Evannex University—a free, open learning environment that presents concise, video-based mini-courses for those who have interest in electric vehicles (EVs) …
  3. 3. EV Batteries Baseline requirements: handle high power (up to 100 kW) input from charging from regenerative braking have significant storage capacity small EV, between 4 and 30 kWh larger BEVs, over 60 kWh two major battery chemistries Lithium Ion, Li-ion Nickel metal hydrid, NiMH 3
  4. 4. The challenge Gasoline’s energy density—13 kWh per kilogram over 100 times more energy density than a modern Li-ion battery! BUT … electric propulsion is much more efficient than ICE 80% for BEVs vs. 20% for ICE store 1/4 the energy, get the same range 4
  5. 5. Battery Basics “Batteries are devices that convert stored chemical energy into useful electrical energy.” U.S. DoE Batteries are built from cells that contain conducting material, called an electrolyte, and electrodes, and a separator A cathode is a metal electrode that is negatively charged and is a source of electrons An anode is an electrode and is a sink for electrons, that is, electrons flow into the anode A separator is a permeable membrane that separates electrodes and allows electrons to flow between them 5 Source: Wikipedia
  6. 6. Battery Basics Cell—a complete battery Module—cells connected together as one addressable unit Pack—a set of modules that are organized so that they can be managed by a BMS 6 electrolyte, anode, cathode, separator module pack
  7. 7. Building an EV Battery Component production—anodes, cathodes, electrolytes and separators Cell production—creating an individual cell Module production—grouping the cells for control by an appropriate management subsystem Pack assembly—combining modules with appropriate management subsystems Integration into the EV with appropriate hooks for a battery management system within the vehicle 7
  8. 8. Battery Capacity Capacity is measured in kWh small: 4 - 15 kWh moderate: 16 - 35 kWh large: >35 kWh Why can’t we build a higher capacity battery? 8 Chevy Volt battery: 17kWh
  9. 9. 9 … a free study guide for all EVU mini-courses is available for download from our website … For a complete list of mini- courses and the study guide, visit: