. The essential goal of government-sponsored science is to link science to decision making so that the inevitable tradeoffs across the multiple goals of natural resource management —that is, the exploration, use, conservation, and restoration of our natural resources — are informed and fully considered. . This is a central goal for the USGS. From Alaska’s North Slope to the Wyoming Green River Basin to Florida’s Everglades, we want the best science to be readily available so that it can routinely and effectively be used in making decisions that affect people and the environment.
. Using science to understand the land is our heritage at USGS. The USGS was created 133 years ago to conduct “the classification of the Public Lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.” We have more than 9,000 science and science-support staff work at 340 USGS science centers across the Nation. They conduct hundreds of research projects and maintain tens of thousands of sampling and monitoring sites. Over the years, our researchers have developed a worldwide reputation for objective, unbiased science.
. Historically, research agencies, including the USGS, have used the classic university model of discipline-based departments. But the problems we work on today don’t fit that model. . For years we have attempted to find ways to work more collaboratively across traditional disciplines to better understand these complex systemic problems. We changed our organizational structure at several points to encourage more cross-disciplinary collaboration, but we were still, at the highest levels, discipline based in our organizational culture. . It was difficult to break down long-standing relationships and processes and build new ones. But it was critical, because, externally, it was challenging for our stakeholders - Congress, DOI, partners with funding, etc. - to find evidence we had vital information to contribute to pressing societal issues such as energy, or climate change. Nor was it easy for them to figure out who was in charge of those areas for USGS. . The aim in realigning our organizational structure with our Science Strategies is to make the USGS more relevant to more Americans by aligning our multiple capabilities around issues they can understand and appreciate. It demonstrates to anyone inside or outside the USGS that we are ready to collaborate on the most pressing environmental and science issues of our day and deliver the full force of our expertise and resources.
The recent USGS “mantra” has been “Start with Science”. With the idea that policy making and resource management decisions, (urban planning, emergency response planning, etc.) should begin with a firm understanding of the science behind the issue. If you think of Science as a value chain: Beginning with data collection, then hypothesis, collaboration, analysis and synthesis, conclusion and then finally visualization and communication: The programs in Core Science Systems Underpin all phases of the process - and advance new discovery and insights through innovation applications, tools and integration. Throughout the presentation we will look at examples like 3D Geologic Mapping, Hydrologic Modeling and National Vegetation Classification They also provide myriad tools, products, data and information to the public at large supporting countless applications.
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are assessing the potential to store carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in underground rock formations, which is known as geologic carbon sequestration, as well as the potential to store it in vegetation, soils and sediments, which is known as biological carbon sequestration. Research conducted by USGS scientists on the carbon cycle and potential to store carbon in these formations is being used to facilitate the control of CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere under the requirements of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Geologic Carbon Sequestration Using a new methodology developed by the USGS Energy Resources Program, the USGS is conducting a national assessment of the resources for geologic carbon sequestration that can characterize the storage potential in a uniform manner across the United States. Geologic carbon sequestration, or the injection of liquid CO 2 into the pore space of subsurface rocks, can be used to store CO 2 rather than vent it to the atmosphere. This USGS methodology will also serve as the first step in developing a global sequestration roadmap by the International Energy Agency and an international standard for global geologic carbon sequestration assessment potential. For more information on the USGS methodology for geologic carbon sequestration, visit http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1127/. Graphic Caption USGS graphic shows the concept of geologic carbon sequestration.
Under Secretarial Order No. 3289, the Department of the Interior is expanding the scope and geographic reach of climate-science efforts by establishing eight regional Climate Science Centers (CSCs). These CSCs will provide scientific information, tools and techniques that land, water, wildlife and cultural resource managers and other interested parties can apply to anticipate, monitor and adapt to climate and ecologically-driven responses at regional-to-local scales. Each CSC will be a partnership between federal and state agencies and an academic institution or consortium of universities. The CSCs will also work closely with a network of “Landscape Conservation Cooperatives” (LCCs) in which federal, state, tribal and other local sectors and scientists will develop conservation, adaptation and mitigation strategies for dealing with the impacts of various stressors such as climate change. The U.S. Geological Survey’s National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center, established by Congress in 2008 is taking the lead on establishing the CSCs and providing initial staffing. Research conducted through the NCCWSC will support the CSCs and LCCs by helping implement partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change; develop relevant climate and land use forecasts; and identify lands, resources, and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale. DOI has already announced the Alaska CSC to be hosted in Anchorage by the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; the Southeast Climate Science Center hosted by North Carolina State University; the Northwest Climate Science Center led by a consortium of three universities; the Southwest Climate Science Center with a large consortium including Univ. of Arizona-Tucson; and the North Central Climate Science Center with nine universities headed by Colorado State University. Interior will invite proposals for the three remaining centers, which will be the Northeast, South Central, and Pacific Islands Climate Science Centers. For more information, visit - http://www.doi.gov/whatwedo/climate/strategy/CSC-Map.cfm Photo Captions Upper Left Graphic Caption – This graphic shows the eight locations where eight Climate Science Centers will be established throughout the nation. Lower Left Graphic Caption – This Graphic shows the 22 Landscape Conservation Cooperative regions that are established throughout the nation. Right Photo Caption - Cutting the ribbon to dedicate the new Alaska Climate Science Center on Feb. 24, 2011 were (left to right) Fran Ulmer, Chancellor of the University of Alaska Anchorage; Brian Rogers, Chancellor of the University of Alaska Fairbanks; Anne Castle, Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Water and Science; and John Pugh, Chancellor of the University of Alaska Southeast. University of Alaska photo.
Civil space dialog – Because of the Landsat program within USGS, the USGS is invited by Department of State to participate in international civil space dialog meetings along side NASA and NOAA
. All USGS science data and the findings of our science investigations are freely available to a global audience. This information is in the public domain with no copyright restraints. Across many fields of investigation, we’ve found that free data often accelerates science. . Starting in October 2008, USGS opened the Landsat archive of over 2 million images to free access over the internet. In just the first year we distributed 1.14 million Landsat images to 180 countries. That figure was up to 4 million in November 2010. . The USGS policy of releasing the full Landsat archive at no cost allows researchers with limited funds in the private sector and at smaller universities around the globe to generate even more applications of Landsat data.
Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) have been thru the European Space Agency (ESA). The Kiruna ground station has been used extensively most recently for Landsat 5 (L5) Global Land Survey (GLS) seasonal campaigns. We don't routinely downlink to Kiruna, except for these seasonal campaigns at this point in time. SSC is a strong International Cooperator (IC), and they hosted a Landsat Technical Working Group (LTWG) meeting in Kiruna in May 2006. They regularly send attendees to our meetings and are quite involved.
Fire - BIA, USFWS, NPS, and particularly the BLM - propose to create the USGS Arid Lands Fire and Restoration Team to investigate fire ecology and restoration problems in the Great Basin, Mojave and Sonoran Deserts, and southern California chaparral. Landscape Ecology - FWS, NPS, States, BLM - Integrating ecological and hydrological processes through geographic tools (e.g., remote sensing) to evaluate patterns of connectivity for vegetation, habitat, species distribution and land use change. LMV, Prairie Pothole Region, Great Basin Wetland and Coastal Ecosystem Research – (FWS, NPS, BLM, BOR) – develop and implement adaptive management strategies to sustain wetland function, structure, and ecosystem services (agricultural lands; sea level rise; fluctuating water levels; storm protection). Prairie Pothole Region and western semi-arid lands, Great Lakes, Gulf Coast and Atlantic Coast. Biofuels - Develop and validate models that simulate the effects of increased biofuel production on ecosystem services, forecast land use changes under climate change scenarios, address how biofuel production effects water quality, wetlands and stream flow as well as groundwater availability and terrestrial and aquatic habitat; Arid Lands – Western and southwest U.S. – understand the importance of the interaction of climate, soil moisture, and geomorphic surfaces on ecosystem function; Develop protocols for monitoring long-term ecosystem change; create spatial models of vulnerability and recoverability in these areas that are undergoing great change due to climate change and increasing land use.
Photos – anadromous species, Gulf Sturgeon, VHS locations - an emerging aquatic disease Emerging Diseases – VHS Viral hemorrhagic septicemia, an aquatic invasive virus causing fish mortalities, is found in locations across the Great Lakes and is spreading. USGS science leadership role in Great Lakes Regional Collaboration includes Deep Water Science and biotic/abiotic links to lake ecosystem health & fisheries USFWS, GL fish commission and GL committee Imperiled species – Gulf sturgeon in the Suwannee River, state and local water managers Website access to maps and lists of imperiled aquatic organisms of NA Endangered pallid sturgeon research in the Missouri River with USACE aids water managers, shad in the Connecticut River, Atlantic & Pacific salmon NFHAP – National Fish Habitat Action Plan partnering with DOI, states, Tribes Science and data expertise for the National Fish Habitat Assessment Fish Passage Research –USACE, BOR, state funded - Evaluations of passage efficiency for restoration of connectivity for important river and anadromous fisheries. Evaluation of passage performance of adult American shad at lower Connecticut River mainstem fish passage facilities. Integrated Science – National Water Availability and Ecological Use: Biological, Hydrological, Physical Links in a suite of projects with Reclamation, USACE, Tribes, states and other federal agencies, e.g. Science for Conservation Planning for Aquatic Habitat - NFHAP Research for Regional Water Management for Imperiled Species (Florida) USGS/USFWS/NOAA Climate Change Symposium
USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center has a 30+ year history of working with Institute for the Biology of Inland Waters in Russia
Important issues for which we are providing science: Leading identification and response to emerging disease threats to wildlife and its overlap with humans e.g. vaccines to protect black-footed ferrets and prairie dogs against plague, avian influenza and pioneering research on a fungus in bats that causes white nose syndrome that has quickly spread and resulted in mortality of thousands of bats. Leading development of decision making tools for natural resource managers that function in both conventional resource management scenarios and adaptive management contexts e.g adaptive harvest management process for migratory birds, land use decisions & Endangered species on federal lands, m naging natural resources in the face of competing objectives and limited data—wind energy development. Climate Change: developing significant new ways to predict distributions of species and their habitats, identify correlates of habitat use and selection, and forecast impacts of habitat change, including change due to altered climate e.g. Wildlife Program is leading modeling and predictions to assess the impacts of climate change on arctic, ice-dependent species, e.g. population status review for Walrus, unprecedented in marine mammal population assessment Leading the incorporation of genetics, genomics and associated tools to assist Bureau partners in making ESA listing decisions and developing conservation measures, for wildlife and habitat management, and overall ecosystem health Contributions to other DOI Bureaus: Contributes scientific information regarding species managed under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, Marine Mammal Protection Act, Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, and Endangered Species Act, as well as species which occur on Federal Lands (Refuges, National Parks, BLM lands, etc). e.g. FWS collaborative activities such as the Black Duck Joint Venture, NPS management of elk introduced into their historical range on Theodore Roosevelt National Park, FWS managing WNS in bats. BLM-- livestock grazing operations and wildlife impacts, wild horses, FWS endangered species management --e.g. grizzly bear listing, recovery planning and management, reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone, red knots. Most recent focus is on assisting FWS and other DOI bureaus in predicting the impacts of climate change on ice dependent and alpine species to inform potential management choices and on alternative energy development to allow for progress while protecting key habitat requirements for wildlife—sage grouse, migratory birds. 37.0 FY 2004 Enacted; 39.9 FY 2005 Enacted; 45.1 FY 2006 Enacted; 44.1 FY 2007 House; 44.6 FY 2007 Senate; 45.0 FY 2008 to OMB 12.3 High Priority Wildlife Research for the FWS - FWS Science Support Partnership (3.2) - Quick Response Program (0.3) 6.8 Endangered Wildlife and Terrestrial Species 1.3 Wildlife and Terrestrial Species at Risk 7.3 Migratory Birds 2.7 Natural Resource Preservation Program (NRPP) 9.3 Wildlife Disease: - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (3.7) - West Nile Virus (1.0) - Chronic Wasting Disease (2.6) 3.0 Amphibian Research and Monitoring
Recent advances in flood-frequency estimation in the United States include, from top left: A) The ability to accommodate more general data types through the Expected Moments Algorithm (EMA). This permits use of interval data that arises in the context of information about historical floods, paleoflood information, and flood data where the precise magnitudes of events cannot be accurately estimated. The new procedures are a generalization of existing methods, thus not affecting most existing frequency studies, and are statistically efficient. Figure shows extended record from Boxelder Creek, North Dakota, where a large and uncertain 1972 flood in a short historical record (1966-2011) had complicated frequency analysis. However, when paleoflood data became available in 2010, that 1972 flood became recognized as just one of many extreme events that can occur at the site. Note that green lines indicate flood-data intervals; data known precisely appears as a black point on graph. New means for estimating accurately the uncertainty in our flood-frequency estimates have been developed. Unlike previous approaches, the new method recognizes all forms of information, at-site and regional, about past flooding. A new test has been developed to detect lack of model fit where multiple observations fail to conform to the LP3 population. Such data are now re-coded as interval observations. Figure shows Sacramento River below Shasta Dam, where new technique identifies 3low outliers (in red); old technique identified only 1 low outlier. A new Bayesian/GLS procedure for estimating regional skew typically transfers almost 3 times as much information as the previous method. In effect this adds approximately 30 years of equivalent record to our information about the log-skewness at streamgages. The slide here shows the southeastern United States, where a new skew study reduced the MSE of skew estimates from 0.302 to 0.086.
Climate and groundwater issues are interconnected, but we can’t ignore land use and demographic changes. New USGS studies on effects of climate variability and change: -- Snowmelt-dominated GW resources in New England (ME, NH, VT) -- GW recharge of seasonally frozen ground using remote sensing (WA) -- Statistical toolkit for climate analysis of hydrologic time series (AZ)
One of the primary new capabilities of the Water Census will be a nationwide system to deliver information about the key water availability accounting components that every manager needs to know when dealing with availability questions. How much of our water resides in each one of these components as we move across the nation and throughout the seasons? We plan to answer that question through the Water Census.
Within the focus area studies, the USGS will work with stakeholders to define the technical questions to which we can contribute meaningful information and then bring all of the Survey’s tools to bear on those technical issues. These studies will be conducted over a three year period of time and each study will be funded at $1.5M over the three year period. We strongly encourage looking for areas where collaborations can occur with other activities in these basins, such as the Bureau of Reclamation’s River Basin Supply and Demand Studies and the various climate science efforts.
Slide shows how we design the deployment of sensors (small picture includes nitrate and organic matter sensors in the Potomac River); Fact sheet on building a USGS National Network of in situ optical sensors (work originally funded by the USGS Climate Effects Network, now funded in part by Climate and Land Use and NAWQA); Bottom figure shows 1.5 years of continuous water quality data in the Connecticut River – dissolved organic carbon (as measured by fluorescence, inset figure) varies in very different ways in response to big discharge events (like the three tropical storms, early 10/2010 and two in early 9/2011). Why does this data matter? Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays an important role in watersheds through constituent transport, energy for foodwebs, and effects on drinking-water quality. In addition, accurate fluxes of DOC and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) are critical for global and regional carbon budgets. Measurements that capture the variability in freshwater systems over time help to assess how shifts in seasonal runoff, changes in precipitation intensity, and increased frequencies of disturbances, such as fire and insect outbreaks, affect the storage, production, and transport of carbon and nitrogen in watersheds. Real-time sensors also provide tools for early trend detection, help identify monitoring gaps, and ensure timely data for science-based decision support across a range of issues related to water quality, freshwater ecosystems, and human health.
The USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) is collaborating with the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany on bat white-nose syndrome (WNS) research and surveillance in Europe. WNS is a newly-emerged disease of hibernating bats in North America, and the recently-discovered fungus, Geomyces destructans , is causative of the skin infection that is hallmark of this disease. There have been recent of reports of European bats presenting with gross clinical signs consistent with WNS but without associated mortality in several European countries. A collaborative G. destructans phylogeographic study is being planned to explore the hypothesis that WNS in North America may have a European origin.
USGS is collaborating with several scientists in Canada (coordinated by the Canadian Wildlife Health Centre), the United States, and potentially Iceland to conduct surveillance for avian influenza viruses in Eastern Canada, Greenland, and possibly Iceland. The major purpose of this research is to determine the extent of viral genetic interchange in migratory birds between Eastern North America and Europe. The Erasmus Medical School in The Netherlands will also be doing counterpart surveillance in northern Europe.
The newly established USGS Natural Hazards Mission Area has direct responsibility for six programs that were formerly in the Geologic Discipline. These include Coastal and Marine Geology, Earthquake Hazards, Geomagnetism, the Global Seismographic Network, Landslide Hazards, and Volcano Hazards. In addition, the mission area is responsible for coordinating and supporting the broader hazards vision of the USGS, including activities related to floods, hurricanes and severe storms, tsunamis and wildfires. Many of the activities in those hazard areas are funded through programs in other mission areas. Finally, the mission area will take on responsibility for coordinating USGS response activities following disasters.
The USGS maintains the GSN in partnership with NSF and the IRIS Consortium. The 150-station network provides data to the USGS National Earthquake Information, which provides 24/7 earthquake reporting. The USGS earthquake website delivers information to millions of visits following damaging earthquakes; over 200,000 people have signed up for email or text alerts; tens of thousands worldwide have filled out Did You Feel It reports. GSN data also go directly to the NOAA tsunami warning centers providing the trigger for global tsunami alerts. The GSN partnership with NSF reflects the network’s value for fundamental seismological research. The network also provides supplemental data for test-ban treaty monitoring.
Space weather is a little-recognized hazard for which the USGS-operated observatories provide the ground-based component of monitoring with data going to support tracking operations at NOAA and the US Air Force. In March 1989, a solar storm much less intense than the perfect space storm of 1859 caused the Hydro-Quebec (Canada) power grid to go down for over nine hours, and the resulting damages and loss in revenue were estimated to be in the hundreds of millions of dollars. The USGS observatories are part of the global Intermagnet consortium of observatories.
He’s since begus to look at shoreline change annually
Ingrid verstraeten presentation usgs-eu partmerships
USGS-EULand CoverApplied Research –EROS Transatlantic The Way ForwardEU Science Counselor Meeting, Washington DC Dr. Ingrid Maria Verstraeten U.S. Geological Survey March 1, 2012 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey
The Role of Government-Sponsored Science Linking science to decision making to ensure trade offs among multiple goals are fully considered.
133 Years of USGS Science USGS established by the Organic Act of March 3, 1879, which mandated "the classification of the public lands and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain." ~9000 Employees 340 Locations $1.4 Billion Annual FundingClarence KingFirst USGS Director, 1879 -1881
USGS Structural OrganizationFollows our Science Strategy Ecosystems Energy and Minerals, and Environmental Health Natural Hazards Science Quality and Integrity Water Climate and Land-Use Change The Earth behaves as a system in which oceans, atmosphere and land, and the living and Core Science Systems non-living parts therein, are all connected.
Informatics – Core Sciences Informatics underpins all phases of the scientific process Create a more integrated and accessible environment for vast USGS data resources. International activities include Global Biodiversity Information Facility and Ocean Biogeographic Information System provides data, vocabularies, and standards. Global Earth Observations System of Systems (GEOSS) Charter member of OneGeology Partner in the development of the Global Map, 1: 1mil resolution. Cooperation with EEA. Fish and Real-time Migratory Bird Wildlife Aerial Earthquake Distribution Disease Land Cover Data Characterization Photography Mapping Studies
Climate and Land Use (CLU) Change Mission Area research, adaptation, mitigationUSGS Climate and Land Use Change programs help understandthese global changes and their impacts on society, resourceavailability, and economic development.•Research & Development•Geographic Analysis and Monitoring•Dept. of Interior Climate Science Centers•Carbon Sequestration•Land Remote SensingEarth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS) http://www.usgs.gov/climate_landuse
Research & Development International Activities in Polar Regions Arctic Paleoclimatology and Sea-Ice History Glacier Maps of Antarctica Satellite Glacier Atlases of the World WAIS Divide Project- West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide deep ice core Arctic Spatial Data Information (SDI) System
Research & DevelopmentInternational Paleoclimate Activities Sea Level Studies: Impacts of Climate Change on Coasts Holocene Climate: Pacific Coasts, Arctic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Climate Modeling and Model Verification: • Dynamically downscaled climate models • Exploring Future Flora, Environments, and Climates Through Simulations (EFFECTS) • PRISM3: Global Warming Analysis
Geologic and Biologic Carbon Sequestration Evaluation of the potential to store carbon dioxide (CO2) in underground rock formations and vegetation, soils and sediments. Stations in Norway, Sweden , & Yukon River Basin Alaska: collaborations to study small watershed carbon balance, carbon cycling, and greenhouse gasses - comparison of field data, information exchange on measurement instrumentation http://rmgsc.cr.usgs.gov/carbon_seq/
8 Climate Science Centers (CSCs) To provide scientific information, tools and techniques that land, water, wildlife and cultural resource managers can apply to anticipate, monitor and adapt to climate and ecologically-driven responses at regional-to-local scales. They will work closely with a network of “Landscape Conservation Cooperatives” (LCCs) to inform adaptation and mitigation strategies
Landsat Earth Observations •Free and open public access – over 4 million scenes downloaded •Continuous Earth Observation data since 1972 •Landsat Global Archive Consolidation Initiative •Bilateral Civil Space & GPS Dialogs
Landsat Web-Enabled Imagery: Expanded Worldwide Use Total Landsat Scenes Selected By Users Since October 1, 2008 ver 2.4 million images available 3M 70 times increase in educational users ata delivered to 186 countries ser shift to multi-year scenes at same locationScenes Selected 2M ighly favorable user response xceeded 1 million scenes selected on August 17, 2009, Daily Average ≅ 3,125 scenes of 2 million on March 13, 2010, web-enabled data selected 3 million on August 8, 2010 4 million on November 27, 2010 1M Daily Average = 53 scenes for best year of sales (2001) Daily Average FY 2008 = 38 FY-2009 FY-2010 scenes
Landsat Downloads - EU Countries andCandidate Countries 2011 Standard L1 Product Downloads by Country (European Union Member and Candidate Countries) MALTA 0 MACEDONIA CROATIA 6 10 Close working relationship with the Norwegian Space Agency as they are MONTENEGRO ICELAND 14 24 part of our Landsat Ground Network (LGN) and there is an agreement for LUXEMBOURG SLOVAKIA 25 69 downlinking our Landsat data to one of the ground stations in Sylbard. BULGARIA SLOVENIA 97 125 We do Landsat 7 (L7) downlinks with them to Svalbard and NSA is part of LATVIA LITHUANIA 139 153 our Landsat 8 (L8) LGN configuration. IRELAND 170 CYPRUS 224 ESTONIA 239 HUNGARY 492 FINLAND 605 CZECH REPUBLIC 627 ROMANIA 712 SWEDEN 1144 AUSTRIA 1306 PORTUGAL 1440 BELGIUM 1567 DENMARK 1665 GREECE 1799 POLAND 2104 TURKEY 2747 NETHERLANDS 3545 SPAIN 5533 FRANCE 6895 ITALY 7760 UNITED KINGDOM 8410 GERMANY 12295 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000
USGS - European Space Agency (ESA) Earth Observation• Landsat Global Archive Consolidation – Successful video conference with ESA – Sept 6, 2011 – Agreed to repatriate all Landsat 7 data and Landsat 5 data older than 3 year. – No need for formal Letter of Agreement• Multi – mission Landsat MOU negotiations – Landsat 8 annex final wording• Sentinel 2 and LDCM Collaboration • User products – processes used, product specifications, formats, cloud cover assessment • Data access and availability • Calibration between Sentinel 2 and Landsat 8 (planned for Spring 2012) • Ground segment capacities and ingest
Collaboration with German Space Agency (DLR)The USGS has developed a draft MOU with DLR focusingon possible collaborations in the following areas: – Partnership between the World Data Center for Atmospheric Observations (DLR responsibility) and the World Data Center for Land Data (EROS responsibility). – Increased access for the USGS to the TanDEM-X and TerraSAR-X satellite data for our volcanic and seismic hazards scientists. – Joint collaboration on remote sensing applications for emergency response, including the access to satellite data for International Charter for Space and Major Disasters.
Multi- Lateral Partnerships• Ongoing collaboration within international coordination groups: – Group on Earth Observation • Forest Carbon Tracking • Global Land Cover Change • Geo Hazards Monitoring – Committee on Earth Observation Satellites • CEOS Working Group (WG) on Climate • CEOS WG on Calibration and Validation • CEOS Land Surface Imaging Virtual Constellation • CEOS support to GEOs GeoHazards Supersites Initiative • CEOS support to GEOSS Common Infrastructure and GEOPortal – International Charter on Space and Major Disasters
GEO Global Terrestrial Ecosystem Mapping Efforts GEO Global 30m Land Cover Initiative Mid-decadal year land cover types Annual land cover continuous variables
USGS-EU Collaboration in Land Use and Climate Change• Development of Terrestrial Essential Climate Variable Standards, Calibration and Validation for Climate Observations• Collaboration on Global Land-Cover Data Initiative• Collaboration in Famine Early Warning System and• Collaboration on Crop and Rangeland Monitoring,• Coordinated engagement in multilateral initiatives.
Next Steps Land Use/Land Cover Change in Response to Climate• Negotiate an Implementing Arrangement between the USGS and JRC• Global Land Cover Initiative – 30 meter resolution – Multilateral Collaboration through new GEO Workplan task (2012-2015) on Global Land Cover – Bilateral Collaboration • Coordinate technical exchange meeting at Sentinel-2 Preparatory Symposium (April 2012) to define GLC specifications • Invite US participation in 6th GEO European Project workshop (Spring 2012 – Rome) • Plan Environment and Earth Observation workshop in conjunction with next JCG in 2012• Essential Climate Variables – – Continue multilateral collaboration through the Committee on Earth Observations (CEOS) working group on Climate – Move forward on the priorities and recommendations documented at the EU-US Space and Climate technical workshop held March 2011. 19
Terrestrial, Freshwater, & Marine EcosystemsUnderstand factors influencing ecosystem structure, function & condition to improve land management and restore degraded landscapes• Fire Ecology – Western non-forested• Wetlands and Coastal Ecosystems• Energy Development – Biofuels, Wind, Solar• High Altitude Systems• Landscape, System Modeling
Fisheries & Invasive Species• Emerging Diseases• Imperiled Species – Vulnerability Assessments & Climate Change, Water Use• Science & National Assessments• Fish Passage Research & Technology• Water Availability & Ecological Use• Improving forecasting and predictive modeling• Early Detection and Rapid Assessment• Understanding Effects• Developing effective restoration techniques• Developing innovative control & management techniques
Ecosystems Projects in Europe - Examples Institute for the Biology of Inland Waters, Russia Fisheries, environmental quality, biodiversity, infectious diseases
Wildlife: Terrestrial & Endangered Resources Focus on factors that determine the distribution, abundance, and condition of wildlife populations and their habitats• Emerging Diseases – WNS, Avian Influenza, Plague• Arctic ecosystems – Terrestrial, marine• Amphibians & ecosystem health, population declines• Environmental Change and imperiled species• Genetics and Comparative Genomics – distributions, populations, conservation, health, rapid diagnostics
New Flood Preparedness ToolsReal-Time Flood Inundation MappingChange views & see:Satellite imageryImpacted houses and streetsZoom to street levelUSGS-Norway collaborationon hydro-acoustics
Flood Frequency Analysis - New Statistical Procedures A) Paleoflood and Historical Information B) Improved Uncertainty Estimates C) Detection of Multiple Low Outliers D) More Accurate Regional Information
Groundwater and Climate More emphasis on unsaturated zone and shallow groundwater Monitoring potential impacts on groundwater resources Distinguishing climate from pumping New version of groundwater-flow simulator, SUTRA, simulates groundwater freeze/thaw. Physics Today, April 2008
Water Census - Nationwide System to deliverwater availability information Precipitation Ecological Needs Evapotranspiration Water Withdrawals Storage in Reservoirs, Return Flows Lakes, Snow and Ice Consumptive Uses River Flow Run-of-the- Groundwater River Uses Recharge rates Water level in aquifers
Focused Water Availability Assessments Water Quality Groundwater Resources Water Use Surface Water Trends, Precipitation, etc State, Local, Regional Global Change Stakeholder Involvement Eco Flows Defined Technical Questions to be Answered
Water UseLivestock Self-Supplied Domestic Public Supply Thermoelectric PowerLess than 1 percent 1 percent 11 percent 49 percent1 percent 2 percent 4 percent 31 percentMining Aquaculture Self-Supplied Irrigation Industrial
USGS Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring • Expanding the use of real-time sensors for rapid and reliable water quality data in rivers and streams throughout the US • Optical and wet chemical sensors for nutrients, organic matter, sediment, CO 2 , etc. • Applications from improving nutrient load estimates to coastal waters to real-time management of drinking water quality Continuous measurements of dissolved organic matter fluorescence (FDOM) – most strongly linked to DOC concentrations, mercury transport and drinking water concerns – showed that the magnitude of DOC response to changes in runoff can vary significantly within and between storm in large coastal basins like the Precip (in/d) Connecticut River. 0 2 4 7 6 y = 0.0862x + 0.616 120000 Discharge DOC (mg/L) 5 r² = 0.97 DOC 100000 4 6 3 DOC (mg/L) Discharge (CFS) 80000 2 20 30 40 50 60 In Situ FDOM (ppb QSE) 5 60000 40000 4 20000 0 3 -20000 -40000 2 10/1 11/1 12/1 1/1 2/1 3/1 4/1 5/1 6/1 7/1 8/1 9/1 10/1 11/1 12/1 1/1 2/1 2010 2011
USGS Energy Resources ProgramDomestic and Global Petroleum Resources Circum-Arctic Resource AppraisalUpdate of global conventional oil and gas resource assessmentsNew global shale gas, tight gas, coalbed methane, tight oil resource assessmentReleased Circum-Arctic oil and gas resource assessmentGas hydrate research - Alaska North Slope and Gulf of Mexico gas hydrate resourceassessmentCooperative projects with many countries including Sweden, Norway, Denmark,Netherlands, Germany, Poland, and many more…..
USGS Energy Resources Program Uranium Assess uranium resource potential Support international uranium interactions Partner with DOE to track uranium resources, production, and explorationGeologic Carbon SequestrationAssess CO2 storage resource potential (climate change)Research on carbon sequestrationCoordination, both domestic and international, on assessmentmethodologies including Canada and Mexico Human Health Research Research impacts of energy resources extraction on human health and environment Develop collaboration between biomedical researchers and earth scientists Balkan Endemic Nephropathy •Study linkages among coal, ground water, and disease in rural villages. Study expanded to United States.
USGS Methodology & U.S. Analogs Can Be Usedto Assess European Shale GasCollaboration with Poland, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Ukraine, Germany,Netherlands, Belgium, Armenia, and EuroGeoSurveys in general.
Arctic Gas Hydrate Stability Conditions •USGS & Norway are interested in studying the Svalbard Margin
USGS Mineral Resources ProgramGlobal Mineral Resource Assessment International Minerals InformationProject Statistics and information on the worldwide supply of,Assess global resources of copper, potash, demand for, and flow of minerals and materials essential toand platinum-group elements the U.S. economy, the national security, and protection ofGlobal inventory of known resources the environment.Delineate permissive tracts for deposit types Collect, analyze, and disseminate mineral production,of interest consumption, and resource information for 180 countriesProbabilistically estimate undiscovered Produce annual Minerals Yearbook and Mineral Commodityresources in delineated tracts, where data SummariespermitsEngaged numerous internationalcooperators North American Soil Geochemistry Project Tri-national sampling and analytical protocol Providing unprecedented continental-scale baseline data Sampling in U.S complete; analyses underway
Zechstein Sediment-hosted Cu Tracts with deposits and occurrences European Collaborators• Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Germany Danish and North German Tract• Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), France• The Natural History Museum, London Center for Russian and Central Asian Mineral Studies (CERCAMS)• Charles University, Czech Republic• Geological Institute of Romania• Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS)• Geological Survey of Finland (GTK)• Geological Survey of Ireland• Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany• Polish Geological Institute
Critical Mineral Resources for the 21st Century A New USGS Effort as of October 2011 Collaborative Opportunities with the International Community Methods Development for Critical Mineral Designation Inventory and Characterization of Global and Domestic RareEarth Element Mineral Resources Inventory and Characterization of Domestic and GlobalLithium Resources Inventory and Characterization of Domestic and GlobalByproduct Critical Mineral Resources (Co, Ga, Nb, Re, Te, Ta…) Investigations of Unconventional and Emerging CriticalMineral Resources Pathways and Biogeochemical Behavior of Critical andAssociated Metals 100 tellurite tellurate 80 Percent sorbed 60 40 20 0 4 6 8 10 12 pH
Areas of Potential USGS-EU Cooperation on Critical Mineral Resources and Supply Chains Improved inventory of identified resources Improved modeling of critical mineral-bearing deposit types and assessment of undiscovered critical mineral resources Improved data on mineral supply chains concentrating on the initial stages of production including mining, processing through the production of a salable product, and initial fabrication Improved mineral end use data in order to better understand mineral supply chains and potential sources of recycled materials Link data analyses with future technologies Encourage networking activities that leverage existing investments
Next Steps Identified during the US-EU meeting, Brussels 2011 Transatlantic workshop bringing together expertise on collection, classification and analysis of materials end-use data . Lead US side: US Geological Survey. Lead EU side: to be identified Support for networks linking EU and US researchers for exchange of information and coordination of research in this area 39
U.S. Geological Survey Health Activities Human Health Wildlife HealthAirborne and waterborne pathogensNaturally occurring harmful minerals Environmental Health Ecological context of diseaseZoonotic diseases Disease mappingAnimal sentinels Groundwater contaminationContaminants Recreational water monitoring Emerging Infectious Diseases • White Nose Syndrome in Bats • Avian Influenza • West Nile fever • Chronic Wasting Disease • Monkeypox • Plague • Tularemia
USGS Contaminant Hydrology and Biology –Examples Resolving Mercury Sources and Cycling at the Global Scale Acid Mine Drainage Sampling transectsUSGS is part of an international team studying current andfuture levels of mercury exposure from ocean fish Murray Assessing Endocrine Rainbow Fish Disruption in a Native Australian Fish Species Infectious pathogens Wastewater Mercury in Aquatic Systems-Consumption discharges directly to Murray River, of marine fish account for large percentage Australia of human methylmercury exposure Emerging Enviromental ContaminationAustralia Commonwealth Issues-Endocrine disruption studiesScientific and Industrial Watersheds and Regional Contamination-Research Organization (CSIRO) Watershed contamination from hard-rock mining
Ecosystems Projects - Example Leibniz-Institut für Zoo- und USGS National Wildlife Health Center Wildtierforschung Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research White-nose syndrome in bats may have been introduced to USA from Europe If emerging disease not stopped, potential billions of dollars damage to agriculture
Human Health Projects - Example Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam Avian influenza virus: investigating genetic exchange between North America and Europe
USGS Natural Hazards Mission Area• Has direct responsibility for these six programs: • Coastal & Marine Geology • Earthquake Hazards • Geomagnetism • Global Seismographic Network • Landslide Hazards • Volcano Hazards• Coordinates and supports the broader hazards vision of the USGS including floods, hurricanes and severe storms, tsunamis, and wildfires.• Coordinates USGS response activities following disasters.
USGS works with European and other countries to providerapid information on earthquakes worldwide USGS National Earthquake Information Center, Golden, Colorado
National Geomagnetism Program • As a member of Intermagnet: – Operates 14 geomagnetic observatories – Collects and distributes data in “real-time” on status of Earth’s magnetic field. – Develop models for the Earth’s secular field for navigation and mapping.
USGS response to Eyjafjallajokull eruption During the eruption • Provided advice to Iceland on interpreting radar imagery. Post eruption • Provided scientists for ICAO’s International Volcanic Ash Task Force Dordis Hogndottir, Nordic Volcanological Institute • Working with UK Met Office and European colleagues on improved ash cloud forecasting. • Participated in EU ash eruption exercise in Brussels in 2011. Sigrun Hreinsdottir, Nordic Volcanological Institute
Volcano Observatory Best PracticesWorkshop: Eruption Forecasting• Co-convened with Italy (INGV) to bring volcano observatories of 27 countries together to identify best practices• British Geological Survey, France’s IPGP, UNESCO, and the GEO Secretariat also participated
US-Russia Geo-Hazards Initiative• Under the aegis of the Science and Technology and Emergency Situations Bi-Presidential Commissions• Identify mutually beneficial activities in disaster risk reduction and resilience for Russian and American communities of the northern Pacific
Comparative work and personnel exchange on“twin” volcanoesTwo “world class” laboratory volcanoes: Kilauea, Hawaii and Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion
USGS and European agencies together ininternational geo-hazard risk reduction• Global Earthquake Model (GEM) for seismic hazard assessment and management (Secretariat in Pavia, Italy).• Global Volcano Model (GVM) for volcano hazard assessment and management (now forming with headquarters in UK).
Where does the U.S. have an ECS? 6 Areas Likely Arctic Atlantic Bering Sea Marianas (west) East GoMex West GoMex 9 Areas Maybe Need more work Aleutians Gulf of AK Pacific (3) Marianas (east) Kingman/Palmyra Hawaii (south) Johnston Atoll
USGS Engagement with UNESCO - Example USGS chairs the U.S. National Committee for the UNESCO IHP. USGS works with UNESCO IOC through OBIS-USA; we also serve as the US Node to OBIS. USGS collaborates with UNESCO to assess conditions and threats at World Heritage sites around the world. USGS together with UNESCO, DIVERSITAS, UNEP, and country reps aids participates in the Intergovernmental Science Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES).Other Int. Organizations include WMO, WHO, IAEA, FAO, GBIF, UNEP, World Bank,……
Overall Options for USGS – EU Collaboration • Exchanges of scientists with access to USGS research laboratories – PhDs & Post-Docs. • Leveraging of Scientific Programs • Mechanisms: – Letter of Agreements -12-18 month programs – MOUs – long-term programs – No international grant process in place
Summary USGS is a applied science natural resource agency engaged on a global, multilateral and bilateral levelThis often involves complementary work with European colleagues.Focus: Earth observations and climate, hazards, natural resources including water, energy, minerals, fish, birds, …., informatics USGS’s global involvement in selected mission areas will increase.International organizations (e.g., UNESCO, GEO), the European Union, national organizations, and individual scientists are driving globalization of monitoring, analysis, and mitigation practices. Multilateral Cooperation is key