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The Regulatory Perspective Towards GNSS Adoption in Rail- ERA



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The Regulatory Perspective Towards GNSS Adoption in Rail- ERA

  1. 1. The Regulatory Perspective Towards GNSS Adoption in Rail Space for Innovation in Rail, Vienna, 19 March, 2019 Josef Doppelbauer, Executive Director
  2. 2. 2 Background – why Rail Needs to Innovate? • Mobility and Transport are essential for society and economy • The transport system needs to be efficient, environmentally friendly, and non-intrusive • In order for Rail to play a key role in the transport system of the future, rail needs to be competitive: – Make rail more attractive (accessible, comfortable, reliable) – Take CAPEX and OPEX out – Become part of the integrated multi-modal transport chain to deliver "Mobility as a Service (MoaaS)"
  3. 3. 3 The Regulatory Context for Rail • Quality of rail services in Europe depends on excellent compatibility between the characteristics of the network and those of the vehicles • Performance levels, safety, quality of service and cost depend upon that compatibility • Fixed subsystems shall comply with the TSIs and national rules in force at the time of the request for authorisation of placing in service • Vehicles shall comply with TSIs and national rules in force at the time of the request for authorisation of placing on the market • In carrying out their duties and fulfilling their responsibilities, infrastructure managers and railway undertakings should implement a safety management system Interoperability and Safety
  4. 4. 4 Towards Autonomous Trains Secure Wireless Communication (bidirectional) Control and Automation Geographic Safety Logic Sensors Energy (Battery/Fuel) Energy density (MJ/kg) • Batteries < 1 • Gasoline (Diesel) 47,5 • Hydrogen 142 Position Time Speed • Simplification • On-board becomes more important
  5. 5. 5 Space-based Technology Helps to Decrease Costs and to Increase the Efficiency of Railways Odometry Wheel sensor, Doppler RADAR, etc. Balise Reader Balises Odometry Wheel sensor, Doppler RADAR, etc. GNSS Receiver Current Systems With GNSS Less CAPEX and OPEX The receiver uses GNSS data to determine position, velocity and time Train positioning is currently based on balises mounted at specific intervals along the railway track (massively redundant system - frequent reading vs. balise linking) Example: Signalling No trackside infrastructure for positioning
  6. 6. 6 ERTMS: Compatibility is Key to Success Single European Railway Area ERTMS Eliminate barriers between networks Establish strong separation between network and onboard ERTMS (European Rail Traffic Management System) is a major industrial project aiming to replace Europe’s different national train control and command systems with a single, coordinated solution GNSS technology has the potential to revolutionize ERTMS. The position (of a train/vehicle) will be ultimately be measured in geographic coordinates (cross-modal coordination).
  7. 7. 7 The Future of Train Operation Train 2Train 1 safe distance to go safe distance to go Switch 2Switch 1Speed v1 Speed v2 Wireless communication train to train TMS Wireless communication track to train to other TMSsto other TMSs Rail is one-dimensional – unlike car or aircraft, no possibility to change course ”Safe distance to go” is braking distance to standstill With quasi-continuous availability of GNSS signal, safety principles of rail (fail stop) can be reconsidered (”time to alarm”/failure detection time). This also makes the system more resilient in degrade mode.
  8. 8. 8 Train Dynamics v x Coasting/gliding Deceleration/braking Speed (km/h) Speed (m/s) D brake (m)* t brake (s)* 350 97,2 9452 194 300 83,3 6944 167 200 55,6 3086 111 100 27,8 772 55,6 40 11,1 123,5 22,2 *) Deceleration 0,5 m/s2 D brake
  9. 9. 9 Example of GNSS Requirements for Rail Source: GRAIL project In GNSS applications, Rail relies on systems that are not controlled by Rail – need for SLA
  10. 10. 10 Technical Challenges for GNSS in Rail • Time and space dependency of the Signal • Along-track accuracy and track discrimination (≤ 3 m) • Multipath Non-Line-of-Sight Interferences • Degraded performances • Obscuration (tunnels, deep cuttings, shade of high hills/mountains) • High latitudes or out of coverage for EGNOS obscuration GNSS applications in other sectors must be monitored (air, automotive), these could provide economy of scale for the user equipment
  11. 11. 11 We Need to Think Systems Carbody – 30 years Bogies – 15 years Propulsion – 5 to 10 years Interiors – 5 to 10 years SW – 1 to 3 years Average life-time in rail Fixed infrastructure – 100 years Modularity is vital Innovation and Interoperability are no contradiction – there is no innovation without interoperability
  12. 12. 12 Compatible Evolution of the ERTMS Onboard Modularisation vs. Black Box: need to define the appropriate system building blocks and its associated interfaces
  13. 13. 13 The Agency as System Authority for ERTMS Article 27, Regulation (EU) 2016/796 1. The Agency shall act as the system authority to ensure the coordinated development of the ERTMS within the Union, in accordance with relevant TSIs. To that end, the Agency shall maintain, monitor and manage the corresponding subsystem requirements, including the technical specifications for ETCS and GSM-R. 2. The Agency shall define, publish and apply the procedure for managing requests for changes to the ERTMS specifications. To that end, the Agency shall set up, maintain and update a register of requests for changes to ERTMS specifications and their status, accompanied by the relevant justifications.
  14. 14. 14 Security Civil GNSS signals have not been designed to be resilient to intentional attacks such as spoofing - a common receiver can be tricked to accept a counterfeit GNSS signal. Galileo incorporates in its service baseline Navigation Message Authentication (NMA) service to ensure data authenticity, and a Commercial Authentication Service (CAS) Accurate position, time, and speed are vital for safe train operation
  15. 15. 15 Innovation, Interoperability and Safety Step 1: Laboratory evidence (confined/isolated areas) Step 2: Supervised field trials Step 3: Restricted deployment (defined groups of users in defined areas) Step 4: General deployment › Rules vs risk based (TSI OPE vs SMS) › Design Organisation Approval › Staged (safety) authorisation (cf. Cybersecurity) Innovation allows the mitigation of hazards Innovation needs to be supported by regulation Rail AutomotiveLand Transport Aviation We need to achieve consistency across modes of transport and mutual recognition