IDs 221-242 A powerpoint by Alex Baughman
Mechanism <ul><li>Philosophy which expresses that all natural processes are explicable using Isaac Newton’s laws of mechan...
Sir Francis Bacon <ul><li>English Member of Parliament (MP) who perfected Galileo’s empiricism which became the INDUCTIVE ...
Empiricism <ul><li>Galileo’s experimental method basing science on  observations and evidence   rather than  suppositions ...
Novum Organum <ul><li>Bacon’s philosophical work which details a new system of logic including  reduction  and  induction ...
Renee Descartes <ul><li>Master of DEDUCTIVE reasoning ( if it can’t be proven- it’s not true!/ don’t believe it till you s...
Inductive Reasoning  back to Bacon… <ul><li>Experience things with an open mind </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized or specific ...
Thomas Hobbes  sort of pessimistic next to Locke… <ul><li>Human nature was the law- without government, people would be qu...
William Harvey <ul><li>Think BLOOD </li></ul><ul><li>Studied the circulation and movement of blood in the body </li></ul><...
John Locke  this is better! <ul><li>Government based on contract to create authority, yes, but people must also be able to...
Margaret Cavendish <ul><li>Daughter of Royalists </li></ul><ul><li>English aristocrat, scientist, and mainly WRITER </li><...
“On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres” <ul><li>By Nicholaus Copernicus </li></ul><ul><li>Published posthumously  </li...
“ Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems”  or “systems of the world” <ul><li>By Galileo Galilei </li></ul><ul><li>Defende...
Blaise Pascal <ul><li>Jansenist (hates Jesuits, extreme Catholics) </li></ul><ul><li>French mathematician </li></ul><ul><l...
Witch Hunts <ul><li>Women feared for sexual insatiability (figure it out for yourself) </li></ul><ul><li>Men thought women...
Baroque Art <ul><li>Uses a lot of light/ shadows to contrast and make certain things more expressive or stand out </li></u...
Peerage <ul><li>System of titles in British Nobility  </li></ul><ul><li>Basically, upper class/ nobility of Britain </li><...
Nobles of the Sword <ul><li>The French nobles with the  family name , money in the family, going back for years, etc. </li...
Nobles of the Robe <ul><li>Basically, new nobles that Louis XIV appointed in his own system </li></ul><ul><li>NOT  the fam...
Robot <ul><li>Serf system in Eastern Europe! </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants owed the lord about 3-4 days a week of forced labo...
Pugachev’s Rebellion <ul><li>Rebellion against Catherine the Great of Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Uprising of the serfs, Puga...
Neoclassicism <ul><li>New movement around 18 th  century in art and culture that drew upon Ancient or Classical Greek and ...
Agricultural Revolution <ul><li>18 th  century improvements in agricultural production and technology ( Jethro Tull, Enclo...
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221-242

  1. 1. IDs 221-242 A powerpoint by Alex Baughman
  2. 2. Mechanism <ul><li>Philosophy which expresses that all natural processes are explicable using Isaac Newton’s laws of mechanics </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(probably already explained) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Whoa...
  3. 3. Sir Francis Bacon <ul><li>English Member of Parliament (MP) who perfected Galileo’s empiricism which became the INDUCTIVE METHOD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiment/Observe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start it Again! </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Empiricism <ul><li>Galileo’s experimental method basing science on observations and evidence rather than suppositions and theories </li></ul>
  5. 5. Novum Organum <ul><li>Bacon’s philosophical work which details a new system of logic including reduction and induction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumental in helping science develop and grow </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Renee Descartes <ul><li>Master of DEDUCTIVE reasoning ( if it can’t be proven- it’s not true!/ don’t believe it till you see it) </li></ul><ul><li>Cartesian Dualism : divides everything into spiritual and material spheres ( what you should do when studying and such ) </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalist who advocated the perfectibility of society </li></ul>
  7. 7. Inductive Reasoning back to Bacon… <ul><li>Experience things with an open mind </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized or specific observations… everything based on observations though! </li></ul>
  8. 8. Thomas Hobbes sort of pessimistic next to Locke… <ul><li>Human nature was the law- without government, people would be quarrelsome. </li></ul><ul><li>Order must be maintained through contracts so people “surrender” to the ruler (ABSOLUTE POWER) </li></ul><ul><li>Government must be a Leviathan </li></ul>
  9. 9. William Harvey <ul><li>Think BLOOD </li></ul><ul><li>Studied the circulation and movement of blood in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Obviously helped scientists out a lot with progress! </li></ul>
  10. 10. John Locke this is better! <ul><li>Government based on contract to create authority, yes, but people must also be able to express themselves and be entitled to life, liberty, and property. </li></ul><ul><li>Education! Enlightened life! </li></ul><ul><li>Government must behave or else people may rebel! ( BIG DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HOBBES! ) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Margaret Cavendish <ul><li>Daughter of Royalists </li></ul><ul><li>English aristocrat, scientist, and mainly WRITER </li></ul><ul><li>Mingled with Royal Society of London, topics included gender, power, manners, scientific method, sci fi, and animal protection. </li></ul>
  12. 12. “On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres” <ul><li>By Nicholaus Copernicus </li></ul><ul><li>Published posthumously </li></ul><ul><li>Heliocentricity- Basically details a humongous universe where the earth is not the center, but rather the sun or any sun anywhere </li></ul>
  13. 13. “ Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems” or “systems of the world” <ul><li>By Galileo Galilei </li></ul><ul><li>Defended the Copernican view of the universe , which the Catholic church rejected in 1616. </li></ul><ul><li>Pitted science against religion, and had to recant </li></ul>
  14. 14. Blaise Pascal <ul><li>Jansenist (hates Jesuits, extreme Catholics) </li></ul><ul><li>French mathematician </li></ul><ul><li>Man is inherently evil, God only saves a select few! </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be falsely optimistic, be religious </li></ul>
  15. 15. Witch Hunts <ul><li>Women feared for sexual insatiability (figure it out for yourself) </li></ul><ul><li>Men thought women were weak </li></ul><ul><li>Paranoia (accusing neighbors, older widows, getting rid of non-conformists) </li></ul><ul><li>Happened here and there </li></ul>
  16. 16. Baroque Art <ul><li>Uses a lot of light/ shadows to contrast and make certain things more expressive or stand out </li></ul><ul><li>Overt emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Late 16 th century to early 18 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Opulence, grandiosity </li></ul>
  17. 17. Peerage <ul><li>System of titles in British Nobility </li></ul><ul><li>Basically, upper class/ nobility of Britain </li></ul>
  18. 18. Nobles of the Sword <ul><li>The French nobles with the family name , money in the family, going back for years, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Louis XIV hates them </li></ul><ul><li>They go to Versailles to live in paradise… hooray… </li></ul>
  19. 19. Nobles of the Robe <ul><li>Basically, new nobles that Louis XIV appointed in his own system </li></ul><ul><li>NOT the family name </li></ul><ul><li>Honorary titles with appointment to a specific office (judge, councilor, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Age of Louis XIV’s intendant system </li></ul>
  20. 20. Robot <ul><li>Serf system in Eastern Europe! </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants owed the lord about 3-4 days a week of forced labor </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to work more and more for lord and got less and less time for their well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Bad  </li></ul>
  21. 21. Pugachev’s Rebellion <ul><li>Rebellion against Catherine the Great of Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Uprising of the serfs, Pugachev claimed to be “true tsar” and the violence that occurred prevented Catherine from reforming serfdom </li></ul><ul><li>Put DOWN </li></ul>
  22. 22. Neoclassicism <ul><li>New movement around 18 th century in art and culture that drew upon Ancient or Classical Greek and Roman themes </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly in art! </li></ul>
  23. 23. Agricultural Revolution <ul><li>18 th century improvements in agricultural production and technology ( Jethro Tull, Enclosure, Crop Rotation, Selective Breeding) </li></ul><ul><li>Occurred mainly in England, helped spark the industrial revolution years later </li></ul>

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