EDF2014: Nikolaos Loutas, Manager at PwC Belgium, Business Models for Linked Government Data: What lies beneath?
About this work…
• A study delivered under
Action 1.1 on Semantic
Interoperability of the ISA
Programme of the
• Delivered by
o Phil Archer, W3C
o Makx Dekkers
o Stijn Goedertier &
Nikolaos Loutas, PwC
• Download the full report
• The LOGD ecosystem
1. The business need
• Detailed analysis of case studies using the Business Model Canvas TM
2. The methodology
• What value does LOGD bring to businesses, citizens, and public
• What does it cost to provide LOGD services?
• Who pays for the provisioning of LOGD?
• What are enablers and barriers with regard to the value creation of
3. Our main findings
The business need
…the LOGD ecosystem
• Data providers
• Data consumers
• Data brokers
Li Ding, Vassilios Peristeras, Michael Hausenblas: Linked Open Government
Data [Guest editors' introduction]. IEEE Intelligent Systems 27(3): 11-15
(2012) Roadmap of linked open government data from our editorial in IEEE IS
…the Business Model Canvas
Cost Structure Revenue Systems
All credits to businessmodelgeneration.com
…the case studies
• AT: Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency
• DE: German National Library;
• EU: Europeana;
• EU: European Commission Directorate-General
Health and Consumers;
• EU: European Environment Agency;
• EU: Publications Office of the European Union;
• IT: Agenzia per l'Italia Digitale;
• UK: BBC;
• UK: Companies House;
• UK: Department of Environment, Food and Rural
• UK: National Archives;
• UK: OpenCorporates;
• UK: Ordnance Survey;
• Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
• Flexible data integration: LOGD facilitates data
integration and enables the interconnection of previously
disparate government datasets.
• Increase in data quality: The increased (re)use of LOGD
triggers a growing demand to improve data quality. Through
crowd-sourcing and self-service mechanisms, errors are
• New services: The availability of LOGD gives rise to new
services offered by the public and/or private sector.
• Cost reduction: The reuse of LOGD in e-Government
applications leads to considerable cost reductions.
• LOGD is applied most successfully in reference data.
• URI design policies are generally in place, while
persistence is not often made explicit.
• Many organisations cite a lack of tools that meet their
specific need in their specific context.
• Skill and competencies are mostly acquired in-house
with some help from external consultants.
The European Environment Agency has a URI policy based
on Cool URIs.
…key partners & customer segments
• Most providers apply LOGD in the context of existing peer
networks of government and non-government organisations.
• There is little use of LOGD outside of those networks or
The key partners of the UK National Archives are the UK
Parliament and the Publications Office of the EU.
The most prevalent use in the case of the UK National
Archives is internal reuse.
…key activities & customer relationships
• Providers consider the development and maintenance of
LOGD services as part of their normal system
maintenance and operational activities.
• Only few invest in promotional activities, such as
branding or advertisement of LOGD services.
• There is little user support.
• Feedback is typically through informal communications
as part of institutional collaborations.
The German National Library is reaching out to reusers of its Linked
Data via presentations, its web page, articles in journals, participation
in book fairs, and library- and information-related fairs. 10
• Distribution channels include direct URI resolution and
• Bulk downloads are almost always offered.
• Proprietary apps and Web applications are less common.
The experimental SPARQL endpoint of Europeana is availabe
The SPARQL endpoint of EU Open Data portal, managed by
the Publications Office, is available at: https://open-
• Many providers consider LOGD activities as part of their
• No separate cost structure of the LOGD activities is
• In case figures in terms of finances or staff resources were
mentioned in the case studies, these spanned a wide range
depending on the approach taken.
It took the UK companies House about 2 person-months to
develop its Linked Data service, while the Linked Data
infrastructure of the FAO costed approximately EUR 100k.
• The predominant revenue model is public funding, as part
of the normal budgets.
• The data is provided free of charge.
• Licences are either open or not explicitly defined.
Linked Data provided by the BBC are available for non-
commercial use only.
Linked Data provided by the UK Companies House are
available under the UK Open Government Licence.
• Efficiency gains in data integration – the network effect.
• Forward-looking strategies.
• Increased linking and integrated services.
• Ease of model updates.
• Ease of navigation.
• Open licensing and free access.
• Enthusiasm from ‘champions’.
• Emerging best practice guidance.
• Necessary investments.
• Lack of necessary competencies.
• Perceived lack of tools.
• Lack of service level guarantees.
• Missing, restrictive, or incompatible licences.
• Surfeit of standard vocabularies.
• The inertia of the status quo.
• LOGD is becoming increasingly adopted, particularly
important in the provision and management of reference data.
• It is used to increase efficiency of internal data integration,
or to support data exchange in existing collaborations.
• Providers will have to develop a clear view of their
customers, as value lies in reuse.
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Project Officer Vassilios.Peristeras@ec.europa.eu
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ISA Programme Action 1.1 –
SEMIC 2014 – Athens, 9 April