Declaration of independence

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Declaration of American Independence presented by Elena Bogoeva English Teacher at "P. Movila" lyceum

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Declaration of independence

  1. 1. Declaration of Independence<br />
  2. 2. Declaration Of Independence – “the expression of the American mind” (T. Jefferson)<br />90% of today’s Americans have never heard of what you are to study about <br />In 1776 90% of Americans had a basic understanding of what you are about to study.<br />
  3. 3. Declaration – a formal announcement, either spoken or written: a declaration of war, the Declaration of Human Rights<br />
  4. 4. 1760 October 26, George III becomesking. <br />1764 April 5,ParliamentpassestheSugarAct, whichraisestaxesonitemsshippedtothecoloniesonsugar, wine, coffee, dyesandcloth. <br />
  5. 5. 1764 April 19, ParliamentpassestheCurrencyAct, prohibitingthecoloniesfromissuingpapermoney. Becausesilverandgoldcannotbeimportedintothecolonies, itbecomesdifficulttoconductbusiness. <br />* 1765 StampAct- TheEnglishimposedataxonmostpapersinvolvingbusinesstransactions, newspapers, playingcardsandotheritems.<br />
  6. 6. 1767 TownshendDuties - TheEnglishimposeddutiesonthecoloniesonimportsoflead, glass, paint, paperandtea.<br />1770 BostonMassacre- EnglishtroopsoccupiedBostonbecauseofAmericanoppositiontotheTownshendDuties. ThehostilityofthecitizensonMarch 5, 1770, causedacrowdtopeltthesoldiersinthefrontoftheBostonCustomhousewithsnowballs, sticks, andotherthings. Thesoldiersfiredkillingfiveandwoundingsixothers. 1772 CommitteeofCorrespondence - BeguninMassachusetts. Throughcorrespondencethoughtsandgrievancesweresharedbythecolonies.<br />
  7. 7. 1773 TeaAct - EmpoweredtheEastIndiaTeaCompanytoexportteadirectly. ThiscauseddamagetoAmericanmerchants.<br />1774 IntolerableActs<br />1. AllowedcertainpeopleaccusedofcrimestobetriedinEnglandratherthanlocaltrials. <br />2. Providedforthequarteringoftroopsinthehomesofcitizens. <br />3. AllowedtheKingtoappointmembersoftheGovernor'scounselratherthanbeelected.<br />
  8. 8. 1774 FirstContinentalCongress- AllcoloniesexceptGeorgiawererepresentedinPhiladelphia. Thecoloniesproblemswerediscussed. <br />A messagewassenttoKingGeorge III statingthecolonistswereloyaltohim, buttherightsofthecolonistsmustberespected. TheCongressdecidedtostoptradingwithEnglanduntiltheywereallowedtotakepartingoverningthemselves.<br />
  9. 9. 1775 LexingtonandConcord- TheBritishsent 700 soldierstoConcordtoseizearmsstoredthere. AstheypassedthroughLexingtontheywerefacedwithcolonialmilitia. A shotwasfiredcausingtheBritishtoopenfirekillingeightAmericansandwoundingten. TheBritishfoundfewmilitarystoresinConcord, butontheirwaybacktoBostontheywererepeatedlyambushedbycolonialmilitia. TheBritishlost 73 killed, 174 woundedand 26 soldiersmissing.<br />
  10. 10. 1775 SecondContinentalCongress- Allcolonieswererepresented. A ContinentalArmywasdecideduponandGeorgeWashingtonwaschosenCommander-in-Chief.<br />1776CommonSensebyTomPainewaspublished - TomPainestatedthatKingGeorge III wasatyrantanditwastimeforthecoloniestobreakawayfromEngland.<br />
  11. 11. 1776 July 2nd - CongressadoptedamotionmadebyRichardHenryLeeofVirginia "thattheseUnitedColoniesare, andoughttobefreeandindependentstates; thattheyareabsolvedfromallallegiancetotheBritishCrown, andthatallpoliticalconnectionbetweenthemandthestateofGreatBritain, is, andoughttobe, totallydissolved."<br />
  12. 12. 1776 July 4th - TheDeclarationofIndependencewassigned.<br />
  13. 13. John AdamsThe Second Continental Congress<br />
  14. 14. Thomas Jefferson<br />
  15. 15. THE UNANIMOUS DECLARATION OF THE THIRTEEN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,<br />IN CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776.<br />WHEN intheCourseofhumanevents, itbecomesnecessaryforonepeopletodissolvethepoliticalbandswhichhaveconnectedthemwithanother, andtoassumeamongthepowersoftheearth, theseparateandequalstationtowhichtheLawsofNatureandofNature'sGodentitlethem, adecentrespecttotheopinionsofmankindrequiresthattheyshoulddeclarethecauseswhichimpelthemtotheseparation.<br />
  16. 16. Weholdthesetruthstobeself-evident, thatallmenarecreatedequal, thattheyareendowedbytheirCreatorwithcertainunalienableRights, thatamongtheseareLife, LibertyandthepursuitofHappiness. Thattosecuretheserights, GovernmentsareinstitutedamongMen, derivingtheirjustpowersfromtheconsentofthegoverned, ThatwheneveranyFormofGovernmentbecomesdestructiveoftheseends, itistheRightofthePeopletoalterortoabolishit, andtoinstitutenewGovernment, layingitsfoundationonsuchprinciplesandorganizingitspowersinsuchform, astothemshallseemmostlikelytoeffecttheirSafetyandHappiness. <br />     Prudence, indeed, willdictatethatGovernmentslongestablishedshouldnotbechangedforlightandtransientcauses; andaccordinglyallexperiencehathshewn, thatmankindaremoredisposedtosuffer, whileevilsaresufferable, thantorightthemselvesbyabolishingtheformstowhichtheyareaccustomed.<br />
  17. 17.   But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world. <br />
  18. 18.   HehasrefusedhisAssenttoLaws, themostwholesomeandnecessaryforthepublicgood. <br />     HehasforbiddenhisGovernorstopassLawsofimmediateandpressingimportance, unlesssuspendedintheiroperationtillhisAssentshouldbeobtained; andwhensosuspended, hehasutterlyneglectedtoattendtothem. <br />     HehasrefusedtopassotherLawsfortheaccommodationoflargedistrictsofpeople, unlessthesepeoplewouldrelinquishtherightofRepresentationintheLegislature, arightinestimabletothemandformidabletotyrantsonly. <br />     Hehascalledtogetherlegislativebodiesatplacesunusual, uncomfortable, anddistantfromthedepositoryoftheirpublicRecords, forthesolepurposeoffatiguingthemintocompliancewithhismeasures. <br />    <br />
  19. 19. HehasdissolvedRepresentativeHousesrepeatedly, foropposingwithmanlyfirmnesshisinvasionsontherightsofthepeople. <br />     Hehasrefusedforalongtime, aftersuchdissolutions, tocauseotherstobeelected; wherebytheLegislativepowers, incapableofAnnihilation, havereturnedtothePeopleatlargefortheirexercise; theStateremaininginthemeantimeexposedtoallthedangersofinvasionfromwithout, andconvulsionswithin. <br />     HehasendeavouredtopreventthepopulationoftheseStates; forthatpurposeobstructingtheLawsforNaturalizationofForeigners; refusingtopassotherstoencouragetheirmigrationshither, andraisingtheconditionsofnewAppropriationsofLands.<br />
  20. 20. He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers. <br />     He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. <br />     He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance. <br />     He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures. <br />     He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power. <br />     He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation: <br />     For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:<br />For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:<br />
  21. 21. For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: <br />For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: <br />For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury: <br />For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences: <br />For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies: <br />For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments: <br />For suspending our own Legislatures and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.<br />He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us. <br />     He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.<br />
  22. 22. He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation. <br />     He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. <br />     He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.<br />
  23. 23. IneverystageoftheseOppressionsWehavePetitionedforRedressinthemosthumbleterms: OurrepeatedPetitionshavebeenansweredonlybyrepeatedinjury. A Prince, whosecharacteristhusmarkedbyeveryactwhichmaydefineaTyrant, isunfittobetherulerofafreepeople. NorhaveWebeenwantinginattentionstoourBrittishbrethren. Wehavewarnedthemfromtimetotimeofattemptsbytheirlegislaturetoextendanunwarrantablejurisdictionoverus. Wehaveremindedthemofthecircumstancesofouremigrationandsettlementhere. Wehaveappealedtotheirnativejusticeandmagnanimity, andwehaveconjuredthembythetiesofourcommonkindredtodisavowtheseusurpations, which, wouldinevitablyinterruptourconnectionsandcorrespondenceTheytoohavebeendeaftothevoiceofjusticeandofconsanguinity. Wemust, therefore, acquiesceinthenecessity, whichdenouncesourSeparation, andholdthem, asweholdtherestofmankind, EnemiesinWar, inPeaceFriends.<br />
  24. 24. WE, THEREFORE, theRepresentativesoftheunitedStatesofAmerica, inGeneralCongress, Assembled, appealingtotheSupremeJudgeoftheworldfortherectitudeofourintentions, do, intheName, andbyAuthorityofthegoodPeopleoftheseColonies, solemnlypublishanddeclare, ThattheseUnitedColoniesare, andofRightoughttobeFREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES;thattheyareAbsolvedfromallAllegiancetotheBritishCrown, andthatallpoliticalconnectionbetweenthemandtheStateofGreatBritain, isandoughttobetotallydissolved; andthatasFreeandIndependentStates, theyhavefullPowertolevyWar, concludePeace, contractAlliances, establishCommerce, andtodoallotherActsandThingswhichIndependentStatesmayofrightdo. AndforthesupportofthisDeclaration, withafirmrelianceontheprotectionofdivineProvidence, wemutuallypledgetoeachotherourLives, ourFortunesandoursacredHonor.<br />

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