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Method For Measuring Tsa

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Ketut Sulistyawati

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Method For Measuring Tsa

  1. 1. Methods for Measuring Team Situation Awareness Ketut Sulistyawati M6603 class presentation 22 March 2006
  2. 2. Situation Awareness (SA) <ul><li>SA is “the perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future” (Endsley, 1995) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Team <ul><li>two or more people </li></ul><ul><li>interact dynamically, interdependently </li></ul><ul><li>a common and valued goal/objective/ mission </li></ul><ul><li>specific roles or functions </li></ul><ul><li>limited life span of membership </li></ul><ul><li>(Salas et al., 1992) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Team Situation Awareness <ul><li>mental model of situation (i.e., SA) that is partly shared and partly distributed between team members, which are integrated and coordinated to anticipate important status in the near future (Artman & Garbis, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration for measurement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual or team level ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If individual: method of aggregation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Highest/ lowest/ average/ similarity? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Measuring TSA: Considerations Individual A’s SA Individual B’s SA Individual C’s SA Team process: e.g., communication, coordination, feedback Team Situation Awareness
  6. 6. Measuring TSA: Considerations Individual A’s SA Individual B’s SA Individual C’s SA Team Situation Awareness Aggregation Method ???
  7. 7. This presentation <ul><li>Coordinated Awareness of Situation by Teams (CAST) (Gorman et al., 2005) </li></ul><ul><li> team process </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires for Distributed Assessment of Team Mutual Awareness (MacMillan et al., 2004) </li></ul><ul><li> individual level </li></ul>
  8. 8. CAST - overview <ul><li>Introduce roadblocks at some points during team performance </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to team communication during the glitch period </li></ul><ul><li>Check appropriate boxes on a CAST score sheet </li></ul>
  9. 9. CAST score sheet
  10. 10. CAST - method <ul><li>For each component (perceived firsthand, coordinated perception, coordinated action) </li></ul><ul><li>Higher PF along with lower CP & CA  highest team performance </li></ul><ul><li>CAST scores = checked boxes </li></ul><ul><li> total boxes </li></ul>
  11. 11. CAST - review <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide understanding on the dynamic process of TSA development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used regardless of team size and distribution of expertise of a team </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limitations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Validity & reliability (??) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively time-consuming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May not account for implicit coordination </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Questionnaires for Distributed Assessment of Team Mutual Awareness <ul><li>Using three concepts: </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring team mutual awareness  congruence in team members’ perception </li></ul>Mutual Awareness Workload Awareness Taskwork Awareness Teamwork Awareness
  13. 13. QDATMA – Task Awareness <ul><li>e.g., Think back to when elements of the team had just completed taking the North Beach. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What task were you performing at that time? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What tasks did you believe each of the other positions in your team were performing? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Asks team members to assess the most important task that each member is performing at selected point in time </li></ul>
  14. 14. QDATMA – Workload Awareness <ul><li>Part 2: estimate overall workload experienced by each of other team members </li></ul><ul><li>(WL A – WL A’ ) + (WL B – WL B’ ) </li></ul><ul><li> 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Part 1: rate own awareness using traditional NASA TLX items (i.e., mental, temporal, performance, effort, frustration </li></ul>√ 2 2
  15. 15. QDATMA – Teamwork Awareness <ul><li>e.g., To what extent was team’s behavior coordinated? </li></ul><ul><li>| | | | | | | </li></ul><ul><li>2 3 4 5 6 7 </li></ul><ul><li>poor good </li></ul><ul><li>Asks team members to rate four dimensions of teamwork behaviors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination & information management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership/team orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back-up </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. QDATMA - review <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick and easy to complete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inexpensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require little training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limitations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Validity & reliability (??) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congruence ≠ accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In some circumstances, SA does not necessarily be shared by all members </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusion <ul><li>There are still many unresolved issues regarding TSA measurement methods </li></ul><ul><li>Validation studies required </li></ul><ul><li>Each method has its advantages and limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Need to use more than one methods and compare the results </li></ul>
  18. 18. References <ul><li>Artman, H., & Garbis, C. (1998). Situation Awareness as Distributed Cognition. In T.Green, L.Bannon, C.Warren & J.Buckley (Eds.), Cognition and cooperation. Proceedings of 9th Conference of Cognitive Ergonomics. (pp. 151-156). Limerick: Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>Endsley, M. R. (1995). Toward a theory of situation awareness in dynamic systems. Human Factors, 37 , 32-64. </li></ul><ul><li>Gorman, J. C., Cooke, N. J., Pederson, H. K., Connor, O. O., & DeJoode, J. A. (2005). Coordinated awareness of situation by teams (CAST): Measuring team situation awareness of a communication glitch. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 49th Annual Meeting . </li></ul>
  19. 19. References <ul><li>MacMillan, J., Paley, M. J., Entin, E. B., & Entin, E. E. (2004). Questionnaires for Distributed Assessment of Team Mutual Awareness. In E. Salas (Ed.) Distributed Assessment in The Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomic Methods , Taylor and Francis. </li></ul><ul><li>Salas, E., Dickinson, T. L., Converse, S. A., & Tannenbaum, S. I. (1992). Toward an understanding of team performance and training. In R. W. Swezey & E. Salas (Eds.), Teams: Their Training and Performance (pp. 3-29). Norwood, NJ: Abex. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Thank you!! Any question??

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