Human Factors In Groupware Applications


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  • Human Factors In Groupware Applications

    1. 1. Human Factors in Product Data Management Lakshmanan Lakshmanan M6603 – Human Factors Methods
    2. 2. Life Cycle of a Product
    3. 3. Why PDM? <ul><li>Large companies have TB (Terabytes) of data (1TB=1,000 GB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One company estimated 250,000 pages to describe a new product </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of control over engineering data and engineering process </li></ul><ul><li>Finding the right data or right version of data is not possible. Many times data is recreated </li></ul><ul><li>Design history not maintained. Past experience unavailable. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Why PDM? <ul><li>Engineering changes are poorly coordinated. All copies of drawings are not changed </li></ul><ul><li>Time taken for raising, approving & implementing ECOs much longer </li></ul><ul><li>All the above lead to increase in costs associated to engineering and development </li></ul>
    5. 5. Industry Problems Suppliers & Customers <ul><li>Poor design re-use - Overwritten / lost data -Costly versioning </li></ul><ul><li> mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Manual Data Entry -Part number and revision -Paper ECOs and </li></ul><ul><li>errors out of sync BOMs </li></ul><ul><li>Slow Paper/eMail -Data Errors -No version history </li></ul>Designer Designer Designer Test Engineering Production Control Purchasing Sales Manager Design & Engineering Manufacturing
    6. 6. What is PDM? <ul><li>Groupware system that manages engg. data </li></ul><ul><li>Data related to a product & process used to design, manufacture & support the product </li></ul><ul><li>Data may be product specifications, plans, geometric models, CAD drawings and images </li></ul>
    7. 7. What is PDM? <ul><li>Usually a complex software framework that enables intelligent sharing of information </li></ul><ul><li>Increased complexity leads to unmanageable systems and failures in implementation </li></ul>Application of Usability Methods is a powerful way to improve efficiency of PDM systems
    8. 8. HF Methods for PDM <ul><li>HF evaluation of a groupware application is different as compared to single-user application </li></ul>
    9. 9. HF Methods for PDM <ul><li>Overview of steps to evaluate the HF efficiency of a PDM system </li></ul><ul><li>Based on CUA ( Pinelle, et. all, 2003) & SUMI (Dr. Eric, 2002) </li></ul>
    10. 10. HF Methods for PDM - 1 <ul><li>Determine user profiles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CAD Designer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAD Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase Engineer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shop floor Engineer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QC Engineer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support Engineer, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Could be further broken down to 4 user classes based on domain & system knowledge </li></ul>
    11. 11. HF Methods for PDM - 2 <ul><li>Identify scenarios based on user profiles and classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check-in, Check-out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X-reference documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search for documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Release/publish a document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approve a document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ECO – raise, approve, implement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And more… </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. HF Methods for PDM - 3 <ul><li>Collaboration Usability Analysis (CUA) Format: </li></ul><ul><li>Scenario : High-level description of activities related to achieving a specific outcome. Scenarios contain the following information: high level activity description, user specification, group goal, set of circumstances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks : Basic components of scenario, usually explicitly stated in scenario activity description. Describes what occurs in a scenario event, but not how it occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual subtasks : The loosely-coupled, individual work in a task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative subtasks : The tightly-coupled work in a task. Carried out more than one person </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actions : Common ways to perform a collaborative subtask </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. HF Methods for PDM - 4 <ul><li>Perform evaluation of scenarios: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Document all the scenarios as per Collaboration Usability Analysis (CUA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare questions/pointers on the tasks, sub-tasks & group tasks in terms of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are user interfaces task oriented? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ease-of-learning (for laypersons) & ease-of-use (for experts) addressed? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customisable interfaces for all tasks to cater to all classes? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. HF Methods for PDM - 5 <ul><li>High quality user interfaces: Does the UI follow standards and norms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform heuristic evaluation or user surveys on the seven fundamentals of ISO 9241 (Part 10) adherence for all identified tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suitability for the task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suitability for learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suitability for individualisation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conformity with user expectations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self descriptiveness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controllability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Error tolerance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyse the evaluation results </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. HF Methods for PDM - 6 <ul><li>Task oriented user interfaces can further be studied for the compliance of following standards (optional): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product Usability (ISO/CD 20282) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User-centred Design for Interactive Systems (ISO 13407 and ISO TR 18529) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Evaluate each task and its HF elements on a 5 point scale </li></ul><ul><li>Tabulate the results of all the tasks of each scenario </li></ul><ul><li>Identify tasks with low scores in each scenario </li></ul>HF Methods for PDM - 7
    17. 17. Recommendations <ul><li>PDM as an application has a wide coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on studying user profiles, scenarios and tasks as a whole </li></ul><ul><li>Design the interactions / workflow </li></ul><ul><li>Provide pre-built interfaces based on user profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to customise </li></ul>
    18. 18. References <ul><li>Dr. Erik P.W.M. van Veenendaal CISA, Low Cost Usability Testing , Software Quality and Software in Internet Time, Springer Publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Mutschler, B, Bumiller, J, Improving the Return-on-Investment of Product Data Management-Systems using Usability Engineering , DaimlerChrysler AG Research & Technology, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Pinelle, D, Gutwin, C, Greenberg, S, Task Analysis for Groupware Usability Evaluation: Modeling Shared-Workspace Tasks with the Mechanics of Collaboration , 2003, ACM Transactions on Human Computer Interaction, 10-4, 281-311 </li></ul><ul><li>Rosson, M.B, Carroll, J.M, Usability Engineering – Scenario-Based Development of Human-Computer Interaction, Academic Press, 2002 </li></ul>Questions?