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Affective Interaction


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Affective Interaction

  1. 1. Affective Interaction Karthi Subbaraman
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Affect and Interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Affect in HCI </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed research methods and models for interface design in terms of affect. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible measurements of Affect (X-factor) </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughts & Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Usability is prime (Study by Murphy, Stanney, Hancock 2003) <ul><li>Good usability in interfaces avoids pain in most cases. </li></ul><ul><li>For measurement and evaluation of usability we have a big list. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heuristic Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Walkthrough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Claims Analysis …… </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Beyond usability … <ul><li>X- factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beauty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading to market competition ( Branding, product styling…) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Measurement of Affect <ul><li>Measurement approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All approaches above are explicit and intrusive. </li></ul><ul><li>X-factors cannot be recognized otherwise. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Measurements : Physiological <ul><li>Physiological : measurement of valence and arousal (Lang et al., 1993, Gomez & Danuser, 2002), </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin conductanc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pupillary dilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electroencephalography (EEG) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle action potentials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide information regarding the intensity and quality of an individual’s internal affect experience </li></ul>
  7. 7. Measurement : Psychological <ul><ul><li>Verbal descriptions of an emotion or emotional state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rating scales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardized checklists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaires, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic and graphical differentials based on “Dimensional model” of affect (Mehrabian and Russell (1974) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projective methods </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Methods - Psychological <ul><li>Self report methods </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Assessment-Manikin (SAM), devised by Lang (1980) tested with Graphical version of International Affective Picture System (CSEA, 1999). </li></ul><ul><li>Adjective pairs from “Mehrdimensionaler Befindlichkeitsfragebogen” (MDBF) (Steyer, 1997). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Measurement - Behavioral <ul><li>A reaction of the body to the emotion is behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice modulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor behavior (e.g. hand muscles, head movement), etc. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Methods - Behavioral <ul><li>Face recognition and voice intonation analysis (Cowie et al., 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>The analysis of mouse clicking behavior after frustrating events during a computer task (Scheirer, 2002), </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse movement patterns on a e-commerce site for user modeling (Lockerd & Mueller, 2001) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Moods in HCI <ul><li>Affect is the general terms for moods and emotions (Forgas, 1995). </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions generally are a result of reaction. A cause, stimulus or preceding thought ends up in an intense experience for a short duration. (User is Aware) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific in nature , focused </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moods are little long lasting, less intensive, subtle, more in the background giving an affective state to user leading them in +ve/-ve direction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non specific in nature, unfocused </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Research findings about Moods <ul><li>In psychological research, it has been shown that mood affects memory, assessment, search strategy judgment, expectations, opinions and motor behavior (Derbaix, 1999). </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion causes moods. </li></ul><ul><li>Moods tend to bias which emotions are experienced, lowering the activation thresholds for mood-related emotions or serve as an “affective filter”. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Beauty – Research model <ul><li>Definition of beauty has a long history (Phytogorous 6 BC, Kant 1750) </li></ul><ul><li>Norman’s model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visceral (aesthetics) - Subconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral (Expectation) - Subconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflective (deep meaning) – Conscious </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiological measurements (+ve / -ve valence measurement) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Beauty (Cont…) <ul><li>Hassenzahl’s study [2003], User – Product relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key concepts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basic theory behind for predicting their relationship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Schenkman Jonsson (2000) </li></ul>
  15. 15. User Product Product Characters Product attributes Expectation Features Pragmatic Hedonomic Stimulation Identification Goodness USability Cognitive Structure
  16. 16. Idea generation <ul><li>Use dynamic measures of user behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas are important for designers for enhancing the X-factors than data </li></ul><ul><li>“ Inspirational Engineering ” (based on ideas) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Where does all the theory take us to? <ul><li>Induce moods in users through interfaces – to take advantage of the bias nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Capture emotions of users through possible methods and use them to improvise or handle situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Generate more ideas and metaphors to induce affect in the user interfaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Usability + Ideas + X-factors = Affective </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusion – A designer’s question <ul><li>How accurate are the measurements and methods ? </li></ul><ul><li>Which emotion should I concentrate in the user interface? </li></ul><ul><li>Should I try to change the user’s mood ? </li></ul><ul><li>How does a computer recognize what exactly the user feels </li></ul>
  19. 19. Thank you By Karthi Subbaraman