Affective Interaction

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  • Good evening everyone ! Today our discussion will focus on affect in interaction. This emerging field of HCI considers more than traditional usability precepts can say the next generation HCI. I call this concept as NEU (Never Ending Usability)  Let us see why it is never ending in the following discussion through the latest research models and methods. The discussion gives an overview of thought flow of researchers and scientists to lay a foundation to the emerging HCI.
  • Affective Interaction

    1. 1. Affective Interaction Karthi Subbaraman
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Affect and Interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Affect in HCI </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed research methods and models for interface design in terms of affect. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible measurements of Affect (X-factor) </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughts & Conclusion </li></ul>
    3. 3. Usability is prime (Study by Murphy, Stanney, Hancock 2003) <ul><li>Good usability in interfaces avoids pain in most cases. </li></ul><ul><li>For measurement and evaluation of usability we have a big list. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heuristic Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Walkthrough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Claims Analysis …… </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Beyond usability … <ul><li>X- factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beauty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading to market competition ( Branding, product styling…) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Measurement of Affect <ul><li>Measurement approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All approaches above are explicit and intrusive. </li></ul><ul><li>X-factors cannot be recognized otherwise. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Measurements : Physiological <ul><li>Physiological : measurement of valence and arousal (Lang et al., 1993, Gomez & Danuser, 2002), </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin conductanc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pupillary dilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electroencephalography (EEG) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle action potentials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide information regarding the intensity and quality of an individual’s internal affect experience </li></ul>
    7. 7. Measurement : Psychological <ul><ul><li>Verbal descriptions of an emotion or emotional state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rating scales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardized checklists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaires, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic and graphical differentials based on “Dimensional model” of affect (Mehrabian and Russell (1974) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projective methods </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Methods - Psychological <ul><li>Self report methods </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Assessment-Manikin (SAM), devised by Lang (1980) tested with Graphical version of International Affective Picture System (CSEA, 1999). </li></ul><ul><li>Adjective pairs from “Mehrdimensionaler Befindlichkeitsfragebogen” (MDBF) (Steyer, 1997). </li></ul>
    9. 9. Measurement - Behavioral <ul><li>A reaction of the body to the emotion is behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice modulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor behavior (e.g. hand muscles, head movement), etc. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Methods - Behavioral <ul><li>Face recognition and voice intonation analysis (Cowie et al., 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>The analysis of mouse clicking behavior after frustrating events during a computer task (Scheirer, 2002), </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse movement patterns on a e-commerce site for user modeling (Lockerd & Mueller, 2001) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Moods in HCI <ul><li>Affect is the general terms for moods and emotions (Forgas, 1995). </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions generally are a result of reaction. A cause, stimulus or preceding thought ends up in an intense experience for a short duration. (User is Aware) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific in nature , focused </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moods are little long lasting, less intensive, subtle, more in the background giving an affective state to user leading them in +ve/-ve direction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non specific in nature, unfocused </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Research findings about Moods <ul><li>In psychological research, it has been shown that mood affects memory, assessment, search strategy judgment, expectations, opinions and motor behavior (Derbaix, 1999). </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion causes moods. </li></ul><ul><li>Moods tend to bias which emotions are experienced, lowering the activation thresholds for mood-related emotions or serve as an “affective filter”. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Beauty – Research model <ul><li>Definition of beauty has a long history (Phytogorous 6 BC, Kant 1750) </li></ul><ul><li>Norman’s model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visceral (aesthetics) - Subconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral (Expectation) - Subconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflective (deep meaning) – Conscious </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiological measurements (+ve / -ve valence measurement) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Beauty (Cont…) <ul><li>Hassenzahl’s study [2003], User – Product relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key concepts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basic theory behind for predicting their relationship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Schenkman Jonsson (2000) </li></ul>
    15. 15. User Product Product Characters Product attributes Expectation Features Pragmatic Hedonomic Stimulation Identification Goodness USability Cognitive Structure
    16. 16. Idea generation <ul><li>Use dynamic measures of user behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas are important for designers for enhancing the X-factors than data </li></ul><ul><li>“ Inspirational Engineering ” (based on ideas) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Where does all the theory take us to? <ul><li>Induce moods in users through interfaces – to take advantage of the bias nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Capture emotions of users through possible methods and use them to improvise or handle situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Generate more ideas and metaphors to induce affect in the user interfaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Usability + Ideas + X-factors = Affective </li></ul>
    18. 18. Conclusion – A designer’s question <ul><li>How accurate are the measurements and methods ? </li></ul><ul><li>Which emotion should I concentrate in the user interface? </li></ul><ul><li>Should I try to change the user’s mood ? </li></ul><ul><li>How does a computer recognize what exactly the user feels </li></ul>
    19. 19. Thank you By Karthi Subbaraman

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