Marine Cartography as a Management Tool

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Presentation by MARM on Esri European User Conference 2011.

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Marine Cartography as a Management Tool

  1. 1. MARINE CARTOGRAPHY MARINE CARTOGRAPHYAS A MANAGEMENT TOOL
  2. 2. MARINE CARTOGRAPHYOCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OF THE GENERAL SECRETARIAT OF THE SEA
  3. 3. MARINE CARTOGRAPHY VIZCONDE DE EZA Characteristics Overall Length 53 meters Breadth 13 meters 7,55 metersfreeboard deck pillar 1.800 Power horsepower Moulded draught 4,5 meters Tonnage 1.400 GT’sSpeed at 100% power 13 knots
  4. 4. MARINE CARTOGRAPHY EMMA BARDÁN Characteristics Overall Length 29 meters Breadth 7,5 metersfreeboard deck pillar 3,9 meters 900 Power horsepower Moulded draught 2,6 meters Tonnage 200 GT’sSpeed at 100% power 12 knots
  5. 5. MARINE CARTOGRAPHY MIGUEL OLIVER Characteristics Overall Length 70 meters Breadth 14,4 metersfreeboard deck pillar 5,8 meters 2720 Power horsepower Moulded draught 5,5 meters Tonnage 2495 GT’sSpeed at 100% power 14 knots
  6. 6. MARINE CARTOGRAPHYPURPOSE OF THE PROJECT:The aim of the project for the study of the SpanishSlope and the Continental Shelf is the detailedmapping, along with combined seismic studies andthe sampling of the seabed, in order to acquiresystematic and detailed information aboutbathymetry, bottom quality, morphology andbionomics of the continental shelf and slope.
  7. 7. MARINE CARTOGRAPHY METHODOLOGY:The systematic investigation of the characteristics of the seabedrequires the use of indirect methods of data acquisition, such asMultibeam Echosounder and Parametric Sub Bottom Profiler, aswell as sampling survey and direct observations of the bottomof the sea.
  8. 8. MARINE CARTOGRAPHY INDIRECT METHODS OF DATA ACQUISITION MULTIBEAM ECHOSOUNDERThis kind of echosounder provides information about bathymetry (depth) and reflectivity of thebottom, which will allow to identify the different composition of the bottom. This is a high-resolution system that calculates the depth by transmitting acoustic pulses.The multibeam echosounder emits multiple beams of acoustic pulses that enables to scan thebottom of the sea in the navigation direction, ensuring 100% coverage of the survey area. Theswept area increases with depth.
  9. 9. MARINE CARTOGRAPHY INDIRECT METHODS OF DATA ACQUISITIONPARAMETRIC SUB BOTTOM PROFILERThe Parametric Sub Bottom Profiler makes possible to see the subsurface structure andto know the composition and distribution of the different materials of the seabed.
  10. 10. MARINE CARTOGRAPHYPARAMETRIC SUB BOTTOM PROFILERSince the parametric acoustic signal is transmitted with low frequency, is able topenetrate the bottom, and outline with high resolution the surface structure, givinginformation about the distribution of geologic features existing in the seabed. ANCINET REEFS GENERATED BY SILICA SPONGES IN ICE AGE submarine channel TRACES OF GAS LEAK
  11. 11. MARINE CARTOGRAPHYDIRECT METHODS OF DATA ACQUISITION ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle) The ROV is an underwater robot connected to the vessel by a cable that transmites energy and orders. Through the cable are also transmitted images from the ROV camera. Up to 450 m depth
  12. 12. MARINE CARTOGRAPHYDIRECT METHODS OF DATA ACQUISITION Underwater Camera Gorgonians, sponges and brittle stars Up to 2.000 m depth
  13. 13. MARINE CARTOGRAPHYDIRECT METHODS OF DATA ACQUISITION Towed video cameraUnderwater video transects with towedunderwater video camera are used for thebiological characterization. The imagesare displayed instantly on board and arevideotaped. Posidonia Oceanica meadows. Underwater video image. Region of Murcia
  14. 14. MARINE CARTOGRAPHY DIRECT METHODS OF DATA ACQUISITION Dredges soft and semiconsolidated Rock samples sediment column sediments The use of dredges enables to obtain bottom samples, which allows to obtaindata of the seabed through physical contact with it. Depending on the kind ofbottom, a different dredge is used. The sample is representative of theenvironment surrounding the sampling point.
  15. 15. MARINE CARTOGRAPHYThese dredges are formed by a rectangularmetal frame attached to a net. While navigatingby dragging on the seabed, the metal mouthshatters rock fragments that are deposited insidethe net and then collected on the surface to raisethe dredge.
  16. 16. MARINE CARTOGRAPHYThe Box Corer is used to take samples of soft or semiconsolidated sediments andis activated by collision with the bottom in a fast fall. At the moment of theimpact, a lid is pulled in a way that locks the box so it collects the sediment thatis trapped under the dredge.
  17. 17. MARINE CARTOGRAPHYThe dredger Shipeck, is a heavy rigid object activated by collision with the bottomin a fast fall. At the moment of the impact, a cup is placed upside down on thesurface, with the open side directed to the bottom, and suddenly turning in a waythat collects the sediment that is under the dredge.
  18. 18. MARINE CARTOGRAPHY After the treatment and processing of all the information collected onthe oceanographic research surveys, the data are incorporated into aGeographic Information System (GIS), which integrates, stores, edits, analyzesand displays all the geographically referenced information. Information layers are generated from the information stored in GIS: bathymetry, reflectivity, terrain shading, slope, geomorphology, seabed kind and bionomics. Sombreado del terreno Batimetría Geomorfología Pendientes Reflectividad
  19. 19. MARINE CARTOGRAPHYWith this information is possible to generate digital terrain models andthematic maps of the seabed kind, bathymetry, seagrass distribution anduses of the marine environment, providing valuable information forapplication both in research and in engineering works.
  20. 20. MARINE CARTOGRAPHY The information obtained is vital for the sustainable management of the resources: Protected areas of lay and nurseryDelimitation of Marine Reserves Beach regeneration Identification of marine habitats
  21. 21. MARINE CARTOGRAPHY ESRI Technology• The ESRI technology help us to make the most of the results of our work in an efficiently way.• When we organize a new oceanographic´s work, we use the ArcGIS tools to evaluate the number of days that we will work and to determinate which areas will be studied. For this work we use some ArcGIS online base maps, like the Oceans map or Imagery map. These base maps are very important to fix a geographic context to our work.• We can store our data in a geodatabase with their own georeferencing systems and then work with them on ArcMap.• With ArcMap we can create cartographic map series, thematic cartography and with the 3D Analyst and Spatial Analyst extensions we can elaborate digital elevation models, hillshades and slope models. We can also create and edit new feature classes that include new elaborated data.• With ArcGlobe we can build 3D scenes to show the resulting information in a spectacular way.• The ArcGIS data formats are almost a standard, so we can share our scientific knowledge with different entities and agencies.
  22. 22. MARINE CARTOGRAPHYRESULTS Bionomics Posidonia Oceanica meadows Posidonia oceanica Cymodocea nodosa Anthropic: dredgings
  23. 23. MARINE CARTOGRAPHY RESULTADOS Interpretation of the morphology of the seabed FaultSeabed mapRed:Shallow (140 m)Blue: Deep (1500) underwater channel meander
  24. 24. MARINE CARTOGRAPHYRESULTADOS Interpretación de la morfología del fondo Submarine canyons location of wrecks
  25. 25. MARINE CARTOGRAPHYRESULTS CartographyBanco de la Concepción Digital Terrain Model
  26. 26. MARINE CARTOGRAPHY CartographyRESULTS Mussel Raft Pontevedra Islas Atlánticas Mussel Raft Ría de Vigo
  27. 27. MARINE CARTOGRAPHYRESULTS Cartography Continuous digital model of the Mediterranean Southeast
  28. 28. MARINE CARTOGRAPHYUNDERWATER FLYING

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