GIS in South America


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GIS in South America

  1. 1. GIS inSouth AmericaApril 2013
  2. 2. GIS in South America  April 2013 2Table of Contents 2GIS in South America  April 20133 What Is GIS?4 Participatory GIS7 Amazonian States MapThreatened Borderlands11 Argentine Land RegistryLaunches TerritorialInformation System14 Bolivian Pipeline CompanyExpands into Mobile AssetManagement17 City of Córdoba, Argentina,Modernizes Its Land RegistryAdministration21 Uruguay StreamlinesLivestock TraceabilityTable of Contents
  3. 3. GIS in South America  April 2013 3What Is GIS?Making decisions based on geography is basic to human thinking.Where shall we go, what will it be like, and what shall we do whenwe get there are applied to the simple event of going to the storeor to the major event of launching a bathysphere into the ocean’sdepths. By understanding geography and people’s relationshipto location, we can make informed decisions about the way welive on our planet. A geographic information system (GIS) is atechnological tool for comprehending geography and makingintelligent decisions.GIS organizes geographic data so that a person reading amap can select data necessary for a specific project or task. Athematic map has a table of contents that allows the reader toadd layers of information to a basemap of real-world locations.For example, a social analyst might use the basemap of Eugene,Oregon, and select datasets from the US Census Bureau to adddata layers to a map that shows residents’ education levels, ages,and employment status. With an ability to combine a variety ofdatasets in an infinite number of ways, GIS is a useful tool fornearly every field of knowledge from archaeology to zoology.A good GIS program is able to process geographic data froma variety of sources and integrate it into a map project. Manycountries have an abundance of geographic data for analysis, andgovernments often make GIS datasets publicly available. Mapfile databases often come included with GIS packages; otherscan be obtained from both commercial vendors and governmentagencies. Some data is gathered in the field by global positioningunits that attach a location coordinate (latitude and longitude) toa feature such as a pump station.GIS maps are interactive. On the computer screen, map users canscan a GIS map in any direction, zoom in or out, and change thenature of the information contained in the map. They can choosewhether to see the roads, how many roads to see, and how roadsshould be depicted. Then they can select what other items theywish to view alongside these roads such as storm drains, gaslines, rare plants, or hospitals. Some GIS programs are designedto perform sophisticated calculations for tracking storms orpredicting erosion patterns. GIS applications can be embeddedinto common activities such as verifying an address.From routinely performing work-related tasks to scientificallyexploring the complexities of our world, GIS gives people thegeographic advantage to become more productive, more aware,and more responsive citizens of Planet Earth.What Is GIS?
  4. 4. GIS in South America  April 2013 4Participatory GISThe nation of Suriname is tucked up against the Atlantic Ocean innortheastern South America. Southern Suriname is covered withcontinuous tracts of unspoiled tropical forest, and it is the homeof approximately 2,000 Wayana and Trio indigenous peoples.The area is currently remote, and economic development ispractically nonexistent, which has helped it remain intact.However, several economic development projects for the areaare becoming priorities for the national government, includingmining, hydroelectric dams, and road construction. While theseinvestments may benefit Suriname, they also pose a threatto Suriname’s ecosystems and local communities’ livelihoods,fundamentally in the lack of socioecological information. In theabsence of reliable information, the decision-making process willfail to include local people’s needs in terms of land and naturalresources, bringing further inequity and poverty to vulnerablepeople in the country.Conservation International Suriname (CI Suriname) is workingwith five indigenous communities in southern Suriname toproduce maps depicting perceived importance for landscapeservices. Through this work, the organization is supporting thedevelopment of a visual tool for tribal communities to facilitatetheir interaction with government planners and externalinstitutions in all issues related to their territory.Participatory GISIndigenous Communities in Suriname Identify Key Local SitesSara O. I. Ramirez-Gomez and Christian MartínezMap of the Sipaliwini villages perceived importance of the landscapefor subsistence, based on the count of overlapping locations.
  5. 5. GIS in South America  April 2013 5Participatory GISTo foster progress with informed decision making, CI Surinameis undertaking participatory mapping processes that producespatial information to support a community bottom-up approachin the land-use decision-making process. To do this, the projectteam looked for a way to combine community mapping withGIS technology to put people’s spatial knowledge into digitalmaps that could be incorporated into conservation planning. Asa longtime user of Esri technology, CI Suriname chose ArcGISto build a tool to effectively count the times that thousands ofpolygons were overlaid to produce maps showing the frequencyof landscape services polygons as surrogates of importance;the more overlays, the more use of the area and thus the moreimportant the landscape for the indigenous people.To produce these maps, the development of an operational toolwas needed to count the number of times that the landscapeservices polygons were overlaid. This tool combined severalArcGIS tools to effectively map intensity of use. The input datawas obtained through social mapping workshops with communityparticipants in five Amerindian villages of South Suriname.During the data collection process, people were prompted toindividually indicate, by drawing polygons on a georeferencedlandscape map, the areas that they use for four distinct landscapeservices. The services were distinguished by using different colormarkers: subsistence (red), income-generation-related services(blue), culture (orange), and life-sustaining services (green). Thenumber of maps produced during the workshops coincided withthe number of participants. The polygons in each of these mapswere then digitized in ArcGIS, queried by the landscape servicethey represent, and prepared for the data analysis process. Atthis stage, thousands of polygons were processed.Using the ModelBuilder environment in ArcGIS, a tool wasdeveloped to count overlapping polygons inside a shapefile, andA village woman drawing polygons on an elevation map.
  6. 6. GIS in South America  April 2013 6Participatory GISa new shapefile was created with polygons whose attributes arethe number of overlaps identified in that specific spatial unit. Thedeveloped tool has a simple user interface: it first asks for aninput shapefile, which has all the polygons mapped in the area,and then it asks the name and location of the output shapefile. CISuriname uses this tool to identify concentrations of importantplaces for provision of landscape services according to theperceptions of local people.ModelBuilder flexibility lets CI Suriname integrate availabletools to create a new user-designed tool able to process alarge amount of information and with a user-friendly interface.Identification of the areas important to local people is usefulinput to develop sustainable action plans and support decisionmaking. Indigenous communities see the importance of themaps to facilitate dialog with outsiders. Some of the villagershighlighted the importance of the maps for tourism, while othershighlighted their importance for future generations.Kapitein Euka, the chief of Sipaliwini village, is a firm advocateof ensuring that the natural environment remains intact so thathis village can continue to exist. At a meeting with CI Suriname,with whom villagers have created maps showing the areas andecosystems they depend on, he said, “It is important for us to beable to show the government what parts of land are necessary forour way of life and are important to us.” He added that he thinksthe maps are vitally important to this cause, especially if futureinfrastructural development takes place. “It’s good that everyoneknows about these maps and is aware of how important this landis to our village.”About the AuthorsSara O. I. Ramirez-Gomez is South Suriname project coordinatorfor Conservation International Suriname. Christian Martínez isthe land-use planning coordinator for Conservation InternationalEcuador.(This article originally appeared in the Spring 2013 issue of ArcNews.)
  7. 7. GIS in South America  April 2013 7Amazonian States Map Threatened BorderlandsThe 800 kilometers of boundary separating the Peruvian regionof Ucayali from the Brazilian state of Acre crosses some of thewildest landscapes left on earth. The lush rain forests of thisborderland region still resound with the low grunt of jaguar, whiletheir canopy sways with acrobatic troops of woolly monkeys.Underneath the canopy roam hundred-strong herds of white-lipped peccary and the elusive and elegant ocelot.This biodiversity inspired parks such as the Sierra del Divisor,Alto Purús, and Chandless reserves, but these forests also holdhumans. The “uncontacted” Mashco Piro, Murunahua, andIsconahua indigenous people still move stealthily through thetrees, seeking no contact from outsiders or their goods otherthan the occasional machete. As these people migrate throughtheir reserves and neighboring parks, other traditional peoples,such as the Ashéninka, Yaminahua, and descendants of rubbertappers, live along neighboring rivers and adjacent lands. Morerecent arrivals include loggers, miners, and drug traffickersseeking to exploit these remote areas for high-value timber,minerals, and trafficking routes.Improving Transboundary PlanningRecently, the Regional Initiative to Integrate South Americahas begun promoting a transboundary road that would bisectthe forested borderlands and connect the two largest citiesin the region, while the state governments seek to promotea direct ecological railroad alternative. Both transportationAmazonian States Map Threatened BorderlandsDavid S. Salisbury, A. Willian Flores de Melo,Jorge Vela Alvarado, and Bertha Balbín OrdayaA river in the transboundary region.
  8. 8. GIS in South America  April 2013 8Amazonian States Map Threatened Borderlandsinitiatives promise to alter forests and rivers and transformeconomies and cultures, but these projects also lack the basegeographic information necessary to understand their potentialtransboundary impacts and benefits.To improve transboundary planning, a grant from the Pan-American Institute of Geography and History was obtained tolead the Workshop to Integrate Data and Improve TechnicalCapacity to Mitigate Environmental Challenges in the Brazilianand Peruvian Amazon in June 2012.The workshop used GIS as a common language and sharedframework to bring together 16 GIS professionals from13 institutions and two different countries to the NationalUniversity of Ucayali (UNU) in Pucallpa, Peru. Each of theparticipants relied on ArcGIS in its home institution and broughtwork laptops to allow maximum flexibility for organic group workwithin UNU’s Amazon Borderlands Research Center.Bringing Diverse Areas TogetherIn the last decade, the Brazilian and Peruvian states haveincreasingly targeted the borderlands for conservation anddevelopment projects but with almost no knowledge of what lieson the other side of their respective boundaries. At the sametime, the impacts of illegal logging and drug trafficking havespilled across borders, causing damage to the environment, locallivelihoods, and diplomatic relations.During this weeklong workshop, participants used ArcGIS tocreate a database and representative map integrating spatialdata from both countries. However, before beginning thetechnical workshop, participants and invited speakers held aconference to educate the public and local policy makers onthe importance of geographic information for conservationand sustainable development. Indigenous leaders, universityprofessors, GIS technicians, nongovernmental organizationdirectors, and government officials shared their insights:ArcGIS is used to create a thematic map showing threats to protectedareas.
  9. 9. GIS in South America  April 2013 9Amazonian States Map Threatened Borderlands• How ecological and cultural diversity permeate internationalboundaries• How the environmental challenges on both sides of theboundary are similar• How local and indigenous populations have been historicallymarginalized in the borderlands despite their local knowledgeand leadership potential to reach transboundary sustainabilitygoalsThe conference ended with all participants empowered bythe importance of the workshop in providing the informationnecessary to make informed decisions about natural resourcesmanagement, development, and conservation along and acrosspolitical boundaries.A Common Platform to Standardize ManagementDespite their enthusiasm, participants quickly faced numerouschallenges, such as different spatial representations of theirinternational boundaries; outdated national datasets; low-qualityand missing geographic information; and data with variablescales, datums, and projections. Undaunted, the assembledGIS technicians utilized ArcGIS to standardize the best availabledata. The participants decided their efforts would focus oncreating a capacity-building process and products for improvedtransboundary management rather than one flawless map. Tothis end, they divided into three mapmaking groups: threats,protected areas, and ethnogeography.Each group contained representatives from both Brazil and Peruand used ArcGIS as a common language and arena to make theimportant decisions necessary for transboundary mapmaking.At the conclusion of the five-day workshop, the interdisciplinaryteam of participants named itself the Acre-Ucayali TransboundaryGeography Working Group and held up three uniquetransboundary maps as examples of its craft and camaraderie.However, the greatest result of the workshop was the formationof a transboundary network of professionals taking the first steptoward an integration based on geographic understanding ratherthan speculation and uncertainty.To continue building on the workshop, the participants signeda document declaring their intention to meet annually tocontinue to build a transboundary network of geographicinformation interchange and improve the technical capacity tosolve transboundary socioenvironmental challenges. A weekfollowing the declaration, the governor of Ucayali underscoredthe utility of the workshop by using the workshop maps in apresentation to Brazilian, Bolivian, and Peruvian delegates at aPan-Amazonian seminar focused on tourism and commerce. Amonth later, the governor and his Brazilian counterpart in Acresigned the agreement of cooperation formalizing the interchangeof geographic data across their shared border.
  10. 10. GIS in South America  April 2013 10Amazonian States Map Threatened BorderlandsSharing Data Across BoundariesThe ability to comprehensively share transboundary dataacross Amazonian boundaries at the state and local scales isunprecedented and marks a major advance not only for thegovernments, institutions, and universities involved but also—hopefully—for the indigenous peoples, landscapes, and speciesin the bioculturally diverse borderlands of Amazonia. Only withimproved geographic data and transboundary GIS analysis canpolicy makers make the best decisions possible to mitigatetransboundary threats to the Amazonian rain forest.About the AuthorsDavid Salisbury is an assistant professor of geography at theUniversity of Richmond, Virginia; honorary professor at theNational University of Ucayali in Peru; and member of theUnited States National Section of the Pan-American Institute ofGeography and History. A. Willian Flores de Melo is an assistantprofessor in the Center for Natural and Biological Sciences atthe Federal University of Acre in Brazil. Jorge Vela Alvarado isprofessor of agronomy and director of the Amazon BorderlandsResearch Center at the National University of Ucayali. BerthaBalbín Ordaya is professor emeritus of geography at the NationalUniversity of San Marcos in Peru and a member of the PeruvianNational Section of the Pan-American Institute of Geography andHistory.(This article originally appeared in the Fall 2012 issue of ArcNews.)
  11. 11. GIS in South America  April 2013 11Argentine Land Registry Launches Territorial Information SystemThe Dirección General del Catastro Territorial (GeneralDirectorate of Cadastre Land [DGCT]) of the Province ofFormosa, Argentina, is responsible for managing, maintaining,and updating the geographic information and legal valuationof approximately 160,000 parcels that make up the province,contributing to traffic safety, secure land tenure, land-useplanning, and urban financing through property taxes. Tocontinue to fulfill these responsibilities, it was necessary to havereliable, high-quality land information that could be accessedeasily and efficiently.Officials implemented a new GIS to address these needs andrealize their vision of having a digital cadastre that is openand allows citizens easy access to the provincial land registryinformation. This project involved new technological advanceswithin the provincial administration.Choosing a PartnerFollowing careful examination of the available options, DGCT(which is integrated with the property registry systems of theDepartment of Revenue) and the Province of Formosa selectedAeroterra S.A., Esri’s distributor in Argentina, to update theterritorial information system of DGCT and build a multipurpose,modern, efficient, and web-integrated application linked to otherprovincial and municipal administrations, allowing graphic andalphanumeric information to be updated and easily accessible toboth the public and professionals.The comprehensive system involves the use of data, geographicdatabases, technologies, processes, and staff to generateArgentine Land Registry LaunchesTerritorial Information SystemThe territorial information systems management module links to digitaldocuments, such as these scanned cadastral surveys and the legaldocument that validates the transaction.
  12. 12. GIS in South America  April 2013 12Argentine Land Registry Launches Territorial Information Systemorganizational and interorganizational synergy needed toefficiently manage the new challenges facing modern states.Updating the Territorial Information SystemThe main activities included in the updating project were thefollowing:General Design of the Project—The project design began witha thorough description of the components of the architecture,both software and hardware, as well as the features of eachapplication and the system interfaces. The plan included themigration and integration of data, the training of staff, andchange management and implementation strategies.Administrative Reorganization and Redesign of Processes—Project deliverables included a survey report containing thedescription, processes, and tasks in each area and a proceduresmanual with an outline of the proposed procedures, along withthe proposed reorganization, justification for the proposedchanges, the organizational structure, and job descriptions ofeach area.Acquisition of GIS Licenses—Aeroterra S.A. and the Provinceof Formosa determined that ArcGIS software would ideally suitthe needs of the DGCT and the municipalities of Clorinda andFormosa. ArcGIS for Desktop and ArcGIS for Server connectedthese local governments in an enterprise system to efficientlymanage and edit the geodatabase and publish maps.Information System—The system consists of the followingcomponents or subsystems:• A web cadastral management system to support all thefunctions and operations performed in DGCT, which has morethan 160,000 parcel records and more than 80 jobs• A consultation and management web system to makeavailable to the community (via the Internet) informationresiding in the territorial database and facilitate theprocessing of survey plans by professionals who deal withthe provincial land registry (Interfaces will be fully integratedthrough the Department of Revenue, the Real PropertyRegistration, and Cadastre Municipality.)Data Migration and Integration—Aeroterra S.A. designed aprocedure for migrating data from its existing format to the newgeodatabase model based on data migration mapping withoutgenerating inconsistencies.Monitoring and Control—Supervision and quality control ofproducts are supported in SharePoint and the communicationprotocol designed for this project, speeding up decision making.The New System Goes OnlineThe updated Territorial Information System of DGCT was namedthe Land Information System and was inaugurated and becameoperational December 2, 2011. The event was chaired by the
  13. 13. GIS in South America  April 2013 13Argentine Land Registry Launches Territorial Information Systemminister of economy, treasury, and finance, Ms. Ines BeatrizVecchietti Lotto. Also participating were the director of cadastreRuben Dario Mirando Bobadilla, general director of revenueSergio Rios, and undersecretary of provincial unit systems andinformation technology Luke Vincent.“The development of new tools aims to facilitate citizen access toinformation and also enable the government to make decisionsin a timely manner, providing secure data necessary to carry outoptimal management,” said the minister, who also mentioned theprovincial state investment in computer equipment and softwareand the involvement and commitment of human resources inachieving success in implementing the new computer system.For more information, visit or DGCT of the Province of Formosa was a recipientof Esri’s Special Achievement in GIS (SAG) Award at the 2011 EsriInternational User Conference.(This article originally appeared in the Fall 2012 issue of ArcNews.)
  14. 14. GIS in South America  April 2013 14Bolivian Pipeline Company Expands into Mobile Asset ManagementLandlocked Bolivia is unique among nations for many reasons,not the least of which is its wide range of terrains, climates, andbiodiversity, which are in turn a consequence of precipitousaltitude changes within the country. From Andean glaciers toAmazonian rain forests, the country is a patchwork of varyingelevations, including dozens of active and extinct volcanoes andinnumerable rivers.YPFB Transporte S.A. (YPFBT) is Bolivia’s major hydrocarbontransportation company. YPFBT currently operates more than6,200 kilometers of natural gas and liquid pipelines throughoutBolivia, many of which traverse geologically active terrain that’ssubject to landslides and earthquakes.The pipelines range in size from 4 to 36 inches in diameter.Construction of some of the liquid pipelines dates back to 1955,while some of the gas pipelines were constructed as early as1968, causing YPFBT to face challenges that typically accompanythe maintenance and protection of an aging infrastructure in aninhospitable environment that includes dense vegetation, heavyrains and flooding, and mountainous terrain.Due to the limitations of its legacy CAD drawings, YPFBT madethe decision in 2009 to transition to an interactive, GIS-basedmapping system. With this, the company was able to better meetthe increasing requirements for data maintenance, mapping andreporting, and integrity management.The company selected Esri’s ArcGIS following a thoroughresearch process.Bolivian Pipeline Company Expandsinto Mobile Asset ManagementYPFBT pipelines traverse the beautiful, expansive, mountainous regionsof Bolivia.
  15. 15. GIS in South America  April 2013 15Bolivian Pipeline Company Expands into Mobile Asset Management“It used to take several months of drawing updates andcorrections to generate a new set of company operation mapswith our old CAD-based mapping system,” says GIS specialistGiovanni Rojas, who then explains that with the company’s newArcGIS software-based mapping system and other software, nowit only takes a couple of days.YPFBT has continued to expand on its Esri technology foundation.The ArcGIS Pipeline Data Model geodatabase schema has alsoproved to be an enormous boost to YPFBT’s GIS capabilities,since it was designed specifically for storing information specificto gas and liquid pipeline systems.Before YPFBT moved to its new mapping system and the In-LineInspection (ILI) tool, anomalies detected were located by amanual chaining method so the defects could be exposed andrepaired.“Locating a defect this way was inaccurate, labor-intensive, andvery expensive,” says Juan Hurtado, YPFBT’s ILI operationsmanager, “requiring pipeline maintenance crew members tochain the site and usually several verification digs. Now, with GPSand linear referencing, we can accurately locate the undergroundpipeline features and defects. This means that when the ILI toolreports a defect, a crew member can easily navigate to the siteand locate and mark the position for the excavation crew.”Enhancing Field Data CollectionIn 2011, YPFBT was looking for ways to build on the success it hadachieved with ArcGIS. The company wanted to enhance the levelof detail and integrity of its field asset data collection processesand was looking for a mobile solution that could support complexworkflows through standardized forms.“While collecting burial data for the geohazard risk assessmentproject, we encountered many undocumented reroutes andemergency works performed by maintenance crews,” saysGraciela Gutierrez, risk assessment operations manager. “Thisemphasized the need to add accurate field data collection toour GIS-based mapping system and risk assessment in order toensure precision and reliability.”The detailed requirements list for the mobile solution wasextensive and arrived at through a collaborative and iterativeprocess between YPFBT office and field personnel. The solutionhad to support ArcGIS for Server. It would have to supportrelational databases using globally unique identifiers for primaryand foreign keys, as well as support Oracle Spatial and SQLServer Spatial databases.YPFBT also wanted the mobile solution to integrate directly withthe ArcGIS Pipeline Data Model because it would enable thecompany to manage the pipeline data in standardized format.In the end, YPFBT chose CartoPac Mobile from Esri PartnerCartoPac International of Fort Collins, Colorado. The solution’s
  16. 16. GIS in South America  April 2013 16Bolivian Pipeline Company Expands into Mobile Asset ManagementGPS-enabled data capture process was designed specifically tomap, inventory, and manage field assets with very high accuracy.It allowed field teams to use intelligent, configurable workflowforms running on mobile devices to standardize the assetinventory efforts across all the field teams.YPFBT began implementation of its mobile solution with apilot program focused on field data collection related to classlocation and high-consequence areas. Prior to initiating the2011 pilot program, YPFBT personnel attended an in-depthtraining program on the solution to build competence in building,modifying, and managing their own workflow solutions.The objective of the pilot program was to capture field assetdata in two districts over the course of three months, evaluatingthe solution for accuracy, ease of use, and reliability. The resultsof the pilot program were a success, and in early 2012, fullimplementation began. The scalable architecture will eventuallysupport a growing number of mobile users from the Maintenance,Cathodic Protection, and Coating Departments.YPFBT’s expansion into mobile technology was methodical andprecise. This extensive, inclusionary selection process resultedin an enterprise approach to defining YPFBT’s mobile assetmanagement needs, extending and building on top of thecompany’s GIS system.(This article originally appeared in the Fall 2012 issue of ArcNews.)YPFBTs mobile devices exchange asset data with its GIS. Finding theright solution involved many entities within the organization.
  17. 17. GIS in South America  April 2013 17City of Córdoba, Argentina, Modernizes Its Land Registry AdministrationFounded in 1573, Córdoba is the second-largest city inArgentina and is home to 1.3 million people. It is located nearthe geographic center of Argentina, encompassing 576 squarekilometers, and its historical and cultural roots are a vital partof the city’s character. For example, the National Universityof Córdoba (founded in 1613 and the first in Argentina) is atthe heart of the city’s cosmopolitan flair. Economic activity isdiversified among the industrial, service, fruit horticultural (thegreenbelt of the city), and construction sectors.Presently, its land registry has more than 480,000 buildings and68 million square meters. Its annual rate of growth, averaged overthe last five years, is 7,300 new buildings and 1.7 million squaremeters.The city’s Local Land Registry, founded in 1930, is responsiblefor managing and updating all the geometric, valuative, andlegal information for the city’s many buildings and contributesto the safety of property trade, ownership of the land, territorialorganization, and urban financing through land-related tax.It is essential for the fulfillment of the Local Land Registry’spurposes to have not only quality territorial information butalso easy and efficient access to that information. Until 2005,the constraints on information by paper, file drawers, primitivecomputer maps, and manual processes combined to restrict theregistry’s ability to overcome new challenges.The City of Córdoba decided to develop its own land informationsystem on the Esri platform for several reasons—the high qualityof its products, corporate management of spatial data, cadastralmaintenance tools, and alternatives and possibilities to presentmaps of the city with high quality and design in both digital andprint format. It also provides a single platform with integratedfull-featured data management, maintenance, publication, andmass distribution without the need to move between systems,applications, and databases.Territorial Information ManagementBefore ModernizationThe last cartographic work developed by the Municipality ofCórdoba was the official map of the city in 1986. After that, therewas no training on, or updating of, the cartographic productiontools.A deeds register was made with the same techniques used in1940, when the first cadastral maps, detailed by block, wereCity of Córdoba, Argentina, ModernizesIts Land Registry AdministrationSonia Tobarez and Germán Cacciamano, Local Land Registry, Municipality of Córdoba
  18. 18. GIS in South America  April 2013 18City of Córdoba, Argentina, Modernizes Its Land Registry Administrationdrawn. Many of these documents were still used, and althoughdata maintenance continued, the register was unconnected, thedocuments showed isolated sections of the city that were oftendifficult to join, and the manual process did not allow staff toguarantee quality of data. The model and updating techniqueswere deficient for the city and its challenges and demands.Land Registry ModernizationIn December 2005, a project was begun to systematize themanagement of cartographic information with a view towardcomplete modernization of the Local Land Registry. This projecthad the financial support of the Inter-American DevelopmentBank (IDB). Activities included supplying computers, printers,plotters, and GIS software (ArcSDE and ArcIMS) and consultingservices for the implementation of specific work and training.The project focused on incorporating the great amount ofexisting graphic data and implementing it in an environmentbased on GIS technology, working with a single database onwhich data maintenance, cartographic printing, consultation,and land administration will run simultaneously. The first stage,lasting until the end of 2007, focused on database development,digitalization and integration of information, development ofcustom functionalities in ArcGIS for Desktop, and developmentof capacities in the organization. The second stage, withoutthe financial support of IDB and run by trained staff from themunicipality, focused on data reorganization; increased processquality; and distribution of information, mainly through a webapplication based on ArcGIS for Server.Aeroterra S.A., Esri’s international distributor for Argentina andUruguay, located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, was key to theproduct’s implementation, because it provided the necessaryspecialized support and the formation of principal humanresources, both in administration and data maintenance, onthe application development. It was also responsible for GISsoftware training. Courses and practices were carried outthrough an inductive courses system, with GIS managementand development technologists in the company training centerfollowing the in-company model, which turned out to beextremely profitable for the municipality.The municipality considers the cost-benefit ratio very positive.IDB’s total investment was US$340,000, which accounted for75 percent of the funding, the remainder being the municipality’sown resources for satellite images and regularization ofinformal settlements. The involvement and commitment of theorganization’s human resources were key to the achievement ofsuccess in the reform.Management, Maintenance, andDistribution of Territorial InformationDatabase design was guided by the directives of Catastro 2014(FIG, 1998) and, in conjunction with a participatory process,
  19. 19. GIS in South America  April 2013 19City of Córdoba, Argentina, Modernizes Its Land Registry Administrationhelped staff achieve a solid database with current and futureneeds identified.The current database is georeferenced in the official systemof Argentina and has all the deeds register’s data (plots, plotboundaries, possessions, expropriations, width of publicstreets, etc.); land values (block by block); administrativedivisions; natural features; urban nomenclature (addresses,appropriate for geocoding); relevant facts (drawings that havenot been approved and irregular division of plots); more than30,000 scanned maps (cadastral and topographic); and threeorthorectified, high-definition satellite images (IKONOS 2005 andQuickBird 2007 and 2009). The model has more than 30 objects(types), about 200 descriptive data attributes, and a size of 40 GB.It is implemented in a geodatabase on ArcSDE 9.3 and SQLServer 2003, running on an IBM server, with four Xeon (dual core)processors with 3.16 GHz, 4 GB of RAM, a RAID SCSI mirroreddisk of 140 GB, and one nonmirrored disk of 280 GB.Another important aspect was map design, for which Esriproducts offered versatile and professional solutions. More than60 standard maps based on layout view were produced, allowingchanges only on feature content and location within the city, withpreestablished scales to achieve uniformity in print output andPDF documents.The content of each map comes from the geodatabase, whichis permanently maintained, so that all the information providedby the Local Land Registry is up-to-date, allowing a high-qualityservice. This updating requires a commitment to continuoustraining of GIS professionals and staying on top of innovationof Esri products used. In updating, six technicians use ArcGISfor Desktop Advanced and ArcGIS for Desktop Standardlicenses, working on a database versioned in multiple editingsessions, which allows editing without blocking the functions ofthe production version or impact on other users. The GIS staffis complemented by two developers and one geodatabaseadministrator.One of the main products developed in the second stage was eMAP, apowerful web system of territorial information management based onArcGIS for Server, which more than 500 internal users work with daily.
  20. 20. GIS in South America  April 2013 20City of Córdoba, Argentina, Modernizes Its Land Registry AdministrationeMAPOne of the main products developed in the second stagewas eMAP, a powerful web system of territorial informationmanagement based on ArcGIS for Server, which more than500 internal users work with daily.The data access diagram is complemented by ArcGIS for Desktopclients; AutoCAD clients through ArcGIS for AutoCAD; and otherGIS clients, such as open source gvSIG, through a web mapservice.The eMAP system has a wide range of functions, such as gettingcadastral information through multiple searches; cadastralmanagement tools, including reservation of the nomenclature;different map services (public lighting, private works, officialplan of Córdoba, values map); the ability to report incidents andchoose the quality of output maps; and links that associate themap with the bank of scanned maps.About the AuthorsSonia Tobarez, information system engineer, has been aprofessional in the GIS area of the Local Land RegistryDepartment, Municipality of Córdoba, since 2004. GermánCacciamano, a survey engineer candidate, has been a GISprofessional in the cartographic area of the Local Land RegistryDepartment, Municipality of Córdoba, since 2004.(This article originally appeared in the Spring 2012 issue of ArcNews.)
  21. 21. GIS in South America  April 2013 21Uruguay Streamlines Livestock TraceabilityUruguay is a small country of three million people and more than11.5 million livestock. Eighty-five percent of its surface area isdevoted to grazing. The quality of its livestock and its exceptionalsanitary conditions, as well as its derived products, have allowedthe country to earn a place among the major exporters of theworld.The Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fishery (MGAP) ofUruguay created the National System of Livestock Information(SNIG), a multipurpose system that gives support to operationaland strategic decisions for this important branch of the economy.SNIG was developed for tracing livestock. This traceability system,which is compulsory and has national scope, encompasses morethan 75,000 participants in the agricultural and industrial sectors,including all the breeders, intermediaries, livestock auctionlocations, and slaughter plants in the country.In a gradual process that began with the individual radiofrequency identification (RFID) and registration of all calves bornafter 2006 and culminated in July 2011 with the identification ofthe rest of the livestock population, SNIG incorporated more than11.5 million animals in its database, making Uruguay so far theonly country with full livestock population traceability.Each livestock transaction, both by transportation and ownershipchange, must be preauthorized and recorded in real time. Thisallows SNIG to receive information about 350,000 operationscarried out annually, verify that the actors are registered andUruguay Streamlines Livestock TraceabilityPablo Rebufello, Pablo Piperno, and Gustavo DretsResult of two distance searches for neighboring lands of a farm. Asanitary emergency is one of the possible uses for this tool. In the picture,neighbors pertaining to the first ring are shown. Note that when a farmhas lands within the red ring, all its parcels are shown, even if they falloutside the ring.
  22. 22. GIS in South America  April 2013 22Uruguay Streamlines Livestock Traceabilitydo not have any sanitary or legal prohibitions, and establishand register the origin and destination of each movement. Thisinformation is stored in a centralized database and managedthrough a web portal either from different offices of MGAPdistributed throughout the country or from the farms, possiblebecause most of the country has 3G/GPRS coverage.In short, this allows SNIG to store updated data on each bovineanimal in the country—who the owner is, where the animal is,where it was, and if it was in contact with other animals—frombirth until it is sent to slaughter.SNIG was designed by a consortium of companies, includingIngenieros Consultores Asociados (ICA), a GIS company andEsri international distributor. ArcGIS for Server was chosen asthe technology platform because it provides the functionalityto handle a significant amount of data that can be easilyintegrated in web solutions of the system. ArcGIS API forSilverlight 2.1 proved to be an excellent development platformfor this application. In other words, for the huge volumes of dataA traced calf, showing the RFID tag.Path of an RFID-identified animal. Each line segment shows a differenttransportation of the animal.
  23. 23. GIS in South America  April 2013 23Uruguay Streamlines Livestock Traceabilityinvolved, ArcGIS for Server was the perfect solution due to itshorizontal and vertical scalable architecture.To obtain geographic data providers, agreements wereestablished with the Uruguayan Spatial Data InfrastructureCommission and other institutions. The General Directorate ofthe National Cadastre provides GIS information for 200,000 ruralparcels. Additionally, the Ministry of Transportation provides GISinformation concerning roads, administrative divisions, locations,and 20 other layers of reference.The developed web application gives different involved actors(breeders, brokers, industry, veterinarian services, police, etc.)information related to their activities, providing transparencyto the system. Each participating actor has different privilegesthat give authorized access to distinct data and functionality.For example, breeders may access maps of their farmlands anddata on activities or animal species through their respectiveregistration numbers. Veterinarian services may access mapsshowing rings of neighboring farms, data used in case of animaldiseases.The quality of services and increasing development haveenabled SNIG to fulfill an important role in the construction ofan integrated vision from both external and MGAP informationsystems.About the AuthorsPablo Rebufello works for ICA as a software developmentmanager and GIS specialist consultant. He is also a professor ofGIS at the University of República Oriental del Uruguay. PabloPiperno is an architect with a degree in information systems.Gustavo Drets is a senior GIS consultant at ICA.(This article originally appeared in the Winter 2011/2012 issue of ArcNews.)
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