Ana Condeço-Melhorado Javier GutiérrezEUROVIGNETTE IMPACTS ON ACCESS TO MARKETS
EUROVIGNETTEThe EU 99/62 y 2006/38 directives recommend the introduction oftolls to freight transport (lorries over 3.5 tones) in all member states • Network-wide: to all Trans-European roads and secondary roads in case of traffic diversion; • Kilometric charges; • Charges are estimated based on provision and operating costs of road infrastructure; • Differentiation between vehicles (according to EURO standard for vehicle emissions); • Some countries have already implemented it: Austria(2004); Germany (2005) and Czech Republic (2007). Outside EU also Switzerland (2001).
EUROVIGNETTEMain principles of 99/62 y 2006/38 directives- Ensures the recovery of infrastructure costs;- “Who uses, must pay “ and “Who pollutes, must pay”;- Environmental benefits: reduction of emissions; route optimization; efficiency; modal shift.OUR OBJECTIVE• Estimate the impact of Eurovignette policy on freight transport costs, using network analysis• Study the wider effects of this policy - Accessibility losses regarding access to markets (single market) - Effects on territorial cohesion. Winners and losers.
DATA FOR THE NETWORKANALYSIS Digital Network ² NUTS 2 Regions ² 0 125 250 500 Kilometers Network (roads + ferries) 377,797 arcs 0 125 250 500 Kilometers Arcs characteristics: link type; road class; speed; length; travel time, etc. 253 NUTS-2 regions (excluding Malta and Cyprus) Trade matrix (tones) among each NUTS-2 region (only road mode) Source: TRANS-TOOLS model
METHODOLOGY1) Minimum travel time routes Commercial flows through the network among NUTS 2 regions2) Assignment of trade flows(tones exported) to each OD ²route.3) Conversion of exported tons to Tonnes (thousands) < 4000number of trucks, considering: 4000 - 10000 10000 - 20000•40 tones standard truck (25 20000 - 30000 30000 - 50000 50000 - 70000tones of load) 70000 - 90000 90000 - 159785• 50% of empty trips (return trips).No data about empty trips for 0 125 250 500 Kilometerseach NUT 2 pair is available. This procedure gives us the information about : •The number of trucks shipped in each trade route •The most important infrastructure regarding the European freight market.
4) The fee Fijk paid in each arc of the route from region i to region j is calculated according to:METHODOLOGY Fijk = Kmk * Lij *F Kmk is the number of kilometers of the arc k; Origin i Lij is the number of trucks from i to j; F is the unit fee: 0.12€ per vehicle kilometer Country C1 (mean toll value currently being applied in Germany). 5) The fees paid by country C1 to country C2 are calculated as follows: Country C2 F12 = 2∑ Fijk ∀ i ∈ C1 ∀ j ∀ k ∈ C2 Being Fijk the fee in each arc k contained in C2 in all the routes ij with origin in C1 and any Destination j destination. 6) The same procedure is followed for every pair of countries in order to build a matrix of countries.
WEIGHTED TOLLS: PROGRESSIVE (positive sign) AND REGRESSIVE (negative sign)40000000003000000000 Mean -48637282000000000 Median 01000000000 ST 1638774979 VC -33694 0 Asymmetry -3-1000000000 Max 3304080513-2000000000 Min -5342242125 Sum positives 27980927027-3000000000 Sum negatives -30899163684-4000000000 Difference -2918236657-5000000000 Total abs 58880090711-6000000000
Conclusions• The EU recommends the introduction of kilometric charges to freight transport, in all Trans-European and some secondary roads;• This study shows the winners and losers of this policy.• Results depends on several factors: - The geographic location of the countries: central countries tend to receive more charges than peripheral ones (due to international crossing traffics) - The area of the countries: small countries tend to use more the infrastructure of neighboring countries and to pay more. - The export-import balance of the country: export oriented countries tend to use more the infrastructure of neighboring countries and to pay more.• Core-periphery patterns are observed: central countries will have more positive balances between received and paid tolls.• Regressive tolls are predominant, that is peripheral poorer countries pay more tolls to richer countries (negative effects on competitiveness of poorer countries and EU territorial cohesion)