Jean Jacques Rousseau


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The educational philosophy of Rousseau, Pestalozzi and Mann in brief.

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  • “The Age of Reason” was an age when science reigned supreme. If we were to pick symbol of “The Age Of Reason”, it would be the machine. Romanticism was a backlash against Rationalist thought. Rousseau advocated the beauty and goodness of nature. Education through the senses and self-discovery.
  • Rousseau denounced the practice of swaddling since it limited contact of the infant with the environment.
  • Developmental Learning-child has to pass from one stage to another, cannot skip stages. The child learns best by doing.
  • Rousseau’s love of nature came from his long walks searching for places of employment-50 mile to 75 mile walks were not uncommon. Pestalozzi’s love of nature came from time spent on his grandfather’s farm.
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau

    1. 1. Child Centered Education- A Noble Idea
    2. 2. Romanticism (Naturalism) <ul><li>Romanticism was a reaction against Rationalism. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Noble savage”-belief in the essential goodness </li></ul><ul><li>of natural man. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Staying Alive”-Primitive man is occupied with </li></ul><ul><li>self-preservation. His senses are heightened. </li></ul><ul><li>Primitive man is not evil, cannot be evil, </li></ul><ul><li>because he is ignorant of vice. </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Christian view-man is essentially </li></ul><ul><li>evil. </li></ul><ul><li>Civilization is the root of all evil. </li></ul><ul><li>Getting back to nature is the solution. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Rousseau-The Social Contract <ul><li>“ Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains.” </li></ul><ul><li>For a man to give up his liberty is to act against his </li></ul><ul><li>nature and act immorally. </li></ul><ul><li>Social contract- man while uniting himself with </li></ul><ul><li>all, may still obey himself alone. </li></ul><ul><li>How do we make man overcome private interests and </li></ul><ul><li>to look only to their common interests? </li></ul><ul><li>By social reconstruction through education- Emile (1762) </li></ul><ul><li>published 6 months after the Social Contract. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Rousseau- Emile (1762) <ul><li>Emile is a fictional student who is educated by Rousseau’s </li></ul><ul><li>methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Child-centered education </li></ul><ul><li>Learn by doing -active participation </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of play-”Let the child be a child.” </li></ul><ul><li>Let him learn with his senses. </li></ul><ul><li>Emile reads his first book at 13. </li></ul><ul><li>Novel education-rejection of ancient hero, bourgeois and </li></ul><ul><li>religious man as well. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Rousseau- Early Education <ul><li>Education begins at birth- Emile (1762) </li></ul><ul><li>The child learns through the senses. </li></ul><ul><li>As an infant the child is attentive only to the </li></ul><ul><li>sensations of the moment. </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is only by movement that we learn that there </li></ul><ul><li>are things that are not us.”-p.64 </li></ul><ul><li>There is a universal language-one that infants </li></ul><ul><li>speak and nurses understand. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Heinrich Pestalozzi <ul><li>Protested against the denunciation of Rousseau upon </li></ul><ul><li>the publication of The Social Contract (1762). </li></ul><ul><li>Learning through the senses. </li></ul><ul><li>Play is a form of learning, you can learn without words. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Anschauung- experience based learning technique. </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of self learning and free investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Practical application of knowledge. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Pestalozzi-Early Education <ul><li>“ The first hour of its teaching is the hour of its birth. </li></ul><ul><li>Impressions should progress in a developmentally </li></ul><ul><li>appropriate sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>One should begin to teach with picture books before </li></ul><ul><li>teaching the child to spell or read. </li></ul><ul><li>A need of a guide to names. The child should </li></ul><ul><li>name objects as well. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Orphan’s Home at Stanz- <ul><li>Opened Orphan’s Home at Stanz- 1/14/1799 </li></ul><ul><li>First official “poor “ school </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy was focused on the individual and upon </li></ul><ul><li>his individual development. </li></ul><ul><li>Each child was seen as a flower with potential to bloom and grow. </li></ul><ul><li>Education as a means of social reform. </li></ul><ul><li>Assist the poor to improve their lot in life by improving their </li></ul><ul><li>individual skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons geared towards economic and social viability instead of rote Catechisms and abc’s. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Pestalozzi- Method of “ Anschauung” <ul><li>All learning began with sensory impression. </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract thought was a product of assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>of sensory data and appropriate oral expression. </li></ul><ul><li>Our experience is the basis of our interpretations of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>We articulate our thoughts through language, </li></ul><ul><li>number and form. </li></ul><ul><li>Order of learning from the simple to the complex. </li></ul><ul><li>Order of learning from the known (prior knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>to the unknown. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Proponents of Active Learning <ul><li>Rousseau - Emile (1762) </li></ul><ul><li>Pestalozzi- How Gertrude Educates Her Children (1801) </li></ul><ul><li>Dewey- The Child and Society (1901) </li></ul><ul><li>Kilpatrick </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget- Stages of Developmental Learning (1950’s) </li></ul>
    11. 11. 4 Common Themes in Active Learning <ul><li>Rejection of traditional teaching methods (lecture) </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in Cognitive Learning Paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>Faith in ability of students </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of Relationship of School to Society </li></ul><ul><li>1) Rousseau- The Social Contract (1762) </li></ul><ul><li>2) Dewey- The Child and Society (1901) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Aunschuung- Active Learning <ul><li>Science experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Outdoor Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Everyday uses of </li></ul><ul><li>math </li></ul><ul><li>Writing a play, performing a play, </li></ul><ul><li>writing poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Road trip </li></ul>
    13. 13. Principles Learned by Outdoor Education <ul><li>Rousseau and Pestalozzi advocated Outdoor </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>“ In touch with senses”- Nature as guide to : </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy in Action </li></ul><ul><li>Increased range of experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Physical ,social, emotional and aesthetic aspects </li></ul><ul><li>of living </li></ul>
    14. 14. Pestalozzi’s educational theory <ul><li>Pestalozzi believed that the combination of </li></ul><ul><li>Intellect </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Senses </li></ul><ul><li>would provide education for the young child. </li></ul><ul><li>Direction of education from” within oneself </li></ul><ul><li>to without”-Authentic Learning. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Horace Mann-Father of the American Public Schools <ul><li>“ When will society like a mother take care of all </li></ul><ul><li>her children?” </li></ul><ul><li>The structure of public education consisted of </li></ul><ul><li>important citizens in the town electing a school </li></ul><ul><li>committee which was responsible for schools </li></ul><ul><li>within the district. </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of education was dependent on the </li></ul><ul><li>degree of public responsibility of town citizens. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Secretary of Massachusetts School Board-(1836-1848) <ul><li>Brilliant orator,he delivered hundreds of speeches </li></ul><ul><li>to convince the populace of their duty to improve </li></ul><ul><li>the schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Famous Annual 12 reports awakened a sense of </li></ul><ul><li>personal and public obligation. </li></ul><ul><li>Tenth Annual report (1846)-The responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>of the State to insure that education was </li></ul><ul><li>provided for every child. This led to the First </li></ul><ul><li>State Law requiring compulsory attendance in </li></ul><ul><li>school in 1852. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Twelfth Annual Report (1848) <ul><li>Rationale for support of public education through </li></ul><ul><li>taxation. </li></ul><ul><li>Society improves as a result of an educated public. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-sectarian schools-separation of Church and </li></ul><ul><li>State. </li></ul><ul><li>Public school funding by private donors and that </li></ul><ul><li>was allocated to the state. The state then supported </li></ul><ul><li>the local communities. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Abolitionist and Feminist <ul><li>1848- elected to Congress where he fought </li></ul><ul><li>vigorously against slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>1854- named President of Antioch College. </li></ul><ul><li>First college in America to educate African-Americans and women as equal to white male </li></ul><ul><li>students. </li></ul><ul><li>These words are repeated at every Antioch </li></ul><ul><li>graduation. ”Be ashamed to die until you have </li></ul><ul><li>won some victory for humanity.” </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>The Educational Innovators </li></ul><ul><li>Rousseau, Pestalozzi and Mann called for public </li></ul><ul><li>education as a means of obtaining social reform. </li></ul><ul><li>Rousseau and Mann considered public education </li></ul><ul><li>the best means of creating a just society in </li></ul><ul><li>which people could be united and free. </li></ul><ul><li>Pestalozzi and Mann viewed education as a </li></ul><ul><li>remedy for social injustice and poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>We cannot go forward without looking back. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Bibliography <ul><li>Edgerton, S.G. ” Independence Through Sharing”:The Vocational Planning of Heinrich Pestalozzi.Renowned Swiss Educator. History of </li></ul><ul><li>Education Quarterly, Vol.14, No.3,403-406. </li></ul><ul><li>Hammerman,D.”Outdoor Education:A Product of the Times” Taft Campus Occasional paper no.19, </li></ul><ul><li>1974. </li></ul><ul><li>Hewes, D.W. “ Pestalozzi: Foster Father of Early Education .” Historical Materials 1992. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Bibliography <ul><li>Kramnick, Issac (editor) “The Portable Enlightenment Reader” Penguin Books ,NY 1979. </li></ul><ul><li>Nichols, M.P. “Rousseau’s Novel Education in the Emile” </li></ul><ul><li>Political Theory, Vol.13, No.4, 525-558. </li></ul><ul><li>Perkinson, H.J. “Rousseau’s Emile: Political Theory and Education “ </li></ul><ul><li>History of Education Quarterly, Vol.5, no.2 (June 1965) 81-96. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Bibliography <ul><li>Takaya, K “The Method of Anschauung: From </li></ul><ul><li>Johann H. Pestalozzi to Herbert Spencer” </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Educational Thought vol.37,No.1 </li></ul><ul><li>77-100. </li></ul>