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Edward Wilson1
and Philippe Morgan2
1 Director, Silviculture Research International and Faculty of Forestry, University of...
Outline of Presentation
• British Forestry – the drive for adaptation, resilience
and delivery of ecosystem services
• Wha...
Ecosystem Services
• Benefits to society from ecosystems
• Millenium Ecosystem Assessment, United Nations (2005).
1. Suppo...
Forestry is Multi-Functional
Thirlmere Forest – Stakeholder Engagement
Criteria and indicators of sustainable forest manag...
Independent Panel on Forestry (2012)
• Keywords:
– Climate change (43 mentions)
– Adapt/Adaptation (14 mentions)
– Woodlan...
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
< 15 15–50 51–100 > 100
Area('000ha)
Age Class (years)
1947
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1...
Forest Cover in Britain
Legend :
Green = Forestry Commission
Blue = private ownership
Graphic created by CCFG. Forest cove...
Threats to UK Forests
Source: Forestry Commission England 2012
• Low Resilience of Existing Forest Resources
– Low number ...
Kielder Forest – largest plantation in Europe
Source: Forestry Commission
Kielder Forest
Source: Forestry Commission
~90% of conifer forests are managed on the clear-fell system
Conifer Forest Cover in England
SP, CP, SS, DF, L’s = 88%
Conifer Species Today
Scots Pine
Corsican Pine
Sitka Spruce
Doug...
Percentage of Braodleaf Cover in England by Species
Oak
26%
Beech
10%
Sycamore
8%
Ash
16%
Birch
12%
Poplar
2%
Sweet chestn...
Woodland types in UK
Legacy of past policies and actions
15%
10%
10%
65%
Ancientsemi-natural
Recentsemi-natural
Ancientrep...
What Ecological Site Classification (ESC) suggests
in terms of the dominant productive species
Effects of climate change o...
Risk to woodlands on the Public Forest Estate (PFE)
By the 2080s, a risk of 65% of the PFE being classed as ‘unsuitable’ i...
25th July 2012
Which tree species to plant for a
changing environment Source: Forestry Commission 2012
New tree disease an...
Climate Change Action Plan for the
Public Forest Estate (PFE)
We will adopt the principle of anticipatory
adaptation. This...
Succession stages in a natural forest
initial stage intermediate stage
open
ground
final stage
Strategies for Enhancing Fo...
The Read Report (2009)
Combating climate change – a role for UK forests
• Key findings “THE ADAPTATION OF UK FORESTS AND
W...
Key components of Continuous Cover Forestry
• “...the use of silvicultural systems whereby the forest
canopy is maintained...
Mark Louden Anderson
MC MA DSc FRSE (1895-1961)
Professor of Forestry (1951-1961)
The University of Edinburgh
Image:©Unive...
Block Area (ha)
A 16.6
B 19.8
C 21.3
D 15.0
E 19.8
F 21.5
Total 117.0
.
N
500 m
500 m
350 m
240 m
560 m
C
B
F
E
D
Glentres...
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Stems/ha
Diameter Class (cm)
1952
1980
1991
Source: Glentress Trial, 1991...
Group selection
Glentress Forest
1996Photo: E. R. Wilson
Group selection
Glentress Forest
2004 Photo: E. R. Wilson
Multi-purpose forestry
Glentress Forest
2012Photo: E. R. Wilson
CCF - Coming in from the Fringe
• Cyril Hart (1995)
• Demonstrated tradition of
alternative silvicultural
systems
• Wide r...
*Whinlatter Forest
Thirlmere Forest
*Clocaenog Forest
Glentress Forest*
Wykeham Forest*
Stourhead (Western) Estate
Craigvi...
final harvest
and
regeneration
young
growth
stage
H<1.3m
pole stage
DBH>10cm
DBH<20cm
small timber
stage
DBH>20cm
DBH<35cm...
Modified thinning in Douglas fir:
starting the transformation early
is key to future stand stability
Wythop Wood, Cumbria
...
Frame tree and natural regeneration
Douglas fir stand, Wythop Wood, Cumbria
Photo: Gareth Browning
Light demand of conifer seedlings
Species
Overstorey BA for
seedling establishment
[m2
/ha]
Overstorey BA for
seedling gro...
Single tree selection in Douglas fir
Mixed-species regenerationPhoto: E. R. Wilson
Oak shelterwoodSharon Rodhouse 2007
Scots pine shelterwood
Loch Vaa, Boat of Garten
Photo: E. R. Wilson
Scots pine shelterwood
Loch Vaa, Boat of Garten
19 April 2010Photo: E. R. Wilson
Environmental Benefits of Forests:
Continuous Cover Forestry
in a sensitive watershed,
Thirlmere Reservoir
37Photo: E.R. W...
Photo: © United Utilities plc
Thirlmere Forest
Management Plan
2008
Source: Wilson and Leslie 2009
Extraction on sensitive sites
Photo: Rob Grange
Advanced monitoring systems
• AFI – founded 1991
• Developed advanced monitoring protocols
• Now over 100 reference forest...
Source: Gareth Browning
Monitoring Systems
to Support CCF
Management
Example from Wythop
Forest, Cumbria with data
on sapl...
Potential Environmental Benefits of CCF
for Soils and Water Resources (Ireland et al. 2006)
• Reduced risk of reductions i...
Potential Benefits of CCF on Upland Forest Sites
(Reynolds 2004)
• Move away from clear-fell likely to have benefits in te...
Clocaenog Forest, North Wales
CCF Research and Operational Trial
in Spruce-dominated upland forest
Photo: E. R. Wilson
Continuous Cover Forestry Group
Field Meeting
September 2013
Corrour Forest, Scotland
Part of the trial network establishe...
Dodd Wood, Cumbria
Opportunities for catchment studies with CCF?Photo: E. R. Wilson
Conclusions
• Silviculture in Britain exists within a complex historical,
economic, ecological and cultural context
• We a...
Forestry Commission Guidance
(Selection of Publications)
• FC: OGB 7 - Managing Continuous Cover Forests
(site selection/r...
Selected references (1)
• Anderson, M. L. 1951. Spaced group planting and irregularity of stand structure. Empire Forestry...
Selected references (2)
• Mason, W.L. 2002. Are irregular stands more windfirm? Forestry 75: 347–356.
• Mason, W.L., G. Ke...
Further Information
Contact for further information:
• Edward (Ted) Wilson
– Email: ted.wilson@silviculture.org.uk
– Websi...
Forestry and Fisheries – Where Next?
Continuous Cover Forestry:
an alternative model for the sustainable management
of woo...
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Continuous Cover Forestry: an alternative model for the sustainable management of woodlands and watershed in Britain (April 2015)

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This paper was presented at the Institute of Fisheries Management 7th Specialist Conference, on the theme "Forestry and Fisheries - Where Next?". The event took place at Rheged, Penrith, Cumbria, England on 21-23 April 2015.

The presentation provides an overview of the principles of Continuous Cover Forestry and its application to woodlands in Britain. In addition, information is provided on the opportunities and challenges associated with continuous cover forestry in wooded watersheds and catchments. There is a need for more case studies and long-term study of forest development and environmental interactions in watersheds.

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Continuous Cover Forestry: an alternative model for the sustainable management of woodlands and watershed in Britain (April 2015)

  1. 1. Edward Wilson1 and Philippe Morgan2 1 Director, Silviculture Research International and Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto 2 Director, SelectFor Ltd and President, Pro Silva Institute of Fisheries Management Specialist Conference Rheged, Penrith, Cumbria 21-23 April 2015 First presented: 21 04 2015 This version (1.1): 02 05 2015 RESEARCH I N T E R N A T I O N A L Forestry and Fisheries – Where Next? Continuous Cover Forestry: an alternative model for the sustainable management of woodlands and watersheds in Britain
  2. 2. Outline of Presentation • British Forestry – the drive for adaptation, resilience and delivery of ecosystem services • What is Continuous Cover Forestry? • Environmental benefits and opportunities • CCF in practice – an evolving knowledge base • Conclusions "All our resolves and decisions are made in a mood or frame of mind which is certain to change." Proust
  3. 3. Ecosystem Services • Benefits to society from ecosystems • Millenium Ecosystem Assessment, United Nations (2005). 1. Supporting services: ecosystem services "that are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services” 2. Provisioning services: "products obtained from ecosystems“ 3. Regulating services: "benefits obtained from the regulation of ecosystem processes“ 4. Cultural services: "nonmaterial benefits people obtain from ecosystems through spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reflection, recreation, and aesthetic experiences"
  4. 4. Forestry is Multi-Functional Thirlmere Forest – Stakeholder Engagement Criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management Source: Wilson and Leslie 2009
  5. 5. Independent Panel on Forestry (2012) • Keywords: – Climate change (43 mentions) – Adapt/Adaptation (14 mentions) – Woodland Culture (19 mentions) – Resilience/resilient (22 mentions) “Action taken now to increase the resilience of our woodland resource will help reduce the future costs of dealing with the effects of climate change.” (p. 8)
  6. 6. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 < 15 15–50 51–100 > 100 Area('000ha) Age Class (years) 1947 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 < 15 15–50 51–100 > 100 Age Class (years) 1965 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 < 15 15–50 51–100 > 100 Age Class (years) 1982 Area of High Forest by Age Class Groups 1947-2000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 < 15 15–50 51–100 > 100 Age Class (years) 2000 Broadleaves Conifers Source: Mason 2007 • The area of woodland has increased dramatically from 1947-2000 • The amount and complexity of older woodland is increasing
  7. 7. Forest Cover in Britain Legend : Green = Forestry Commission Blue = private ownership Graphic created by CCFG. Forest cover map: Crown Copyright © 2008 Forest Research. Reproduced with permission. • Approx 3.1 M ha total woodland area. • 13 % of GB land area • 18% in Scotland • 10% in England • One of the most highly deforested countries in Europe • EU average forest cover approx 35% of land area
  8. 8. Threats to UK Forests Source: Forestry Commission England 2012 • Low Resilience of Existing Forest Resources – Low number of productive species – Monoculture stands are most common • Climate change – Summer droughts increasingly likely, especially in South and East – Extreme rain and flooding events are more likely – Ecosystem change – especially ground plants • Pests and diseases – Native and exotic
  9. 9. Kielder Forest – largest plantation in Europe Source: Forestry Commission
  10. 10. Kielder Forest Source: Forestry Commission ~90% of conifer forests are managed on the clear-fell system
  11. 11. Conifer Forest Cover in England SP, CP, SS, DF, L’s = 88% Conifer Species Today Scots Pine Corsican Pine Sitka Spruce Douglas Fir Larch (EL, HL, JL) Other Conifer The vast majority of conifers are grown in plantations, managed on the clearfell system. Source: Forestry Commission.
  12. 12. Percentage of Braodleaf Cover in England by Species Oak 26% Beech 10% Sycamore 8% Ash 16% Birch 12% Poplar 2% Sweet chestnut 2% Elm 0% Other Broadleaves 11% Mixed Broadleaves 13% Data Source National Inventory of Woodland -England. Reference date 1998. Broadleaf Forest Cover in England Oak + Ash + Beech + Sycamore + Birch = 72%
  13. 13. Woodland types in UK Legacy of past policies and actions 15% 10% 10% 65% Ancientsemi-natural Recentsemi-natural Ancientreplanted Recentplantation Kirby et al. 1998
  14. 14. What Ecological Site Classification (ESC) suggests in terms of the dominant productive species Effects of climate change on the identity of the most productive conifer species as predicted by Ecological Site Classification for the UKCIP02 2050s High and Low emission scenarios. ESC is based on temperature, moisture and soil physical properties It does not consider Dothistroma, or any other pests or diseases.
  15. 15. Risk to woodlands on the Public Forest Estate (PFE) By the 2080s, a risk of 65% of the PFE being classed as ‘unsuitable’ in the absence of adaptation – or 35% decline in productivity Source: Forestry Commission 2012
  16. 16. 25th July 2012 Which tree species to plant for a changing environment Source: Forestry Commission 2012 New tree disease and pest outbreaks UK
  17. 17. Climate Change Action Plan for the Public Forest Estate (PFE) We will adopt the principle of anticipatory adaptation. This offers the highest potential gains for forest resilience, and the benefits they provide. We will take an approach that is ‘not risk averse’. Global emissions are currently tracking close to some of the more extreme emissions scenarios that have been published, so it is prudent to consider the 2050 high scenario when planning for the future. Diversification is the theme!
  18. 18. Succession stages in a natural forest initial stage intermediate stage open ground final stage Strategies for Enhancing Forest Resilience Modify thinning regimes Extend “rotations” Diversify Structures  CCF Species choice - genetics/provenance Mixed species Assisted migration of native species New species introduced Wider use of “minor” species Adapted from diagram by Jens Haufe
  19. 19. The Read Report (2009) Combating climate change – a role for UK forests • Key findings “THE ADAPTATION OF UK FORESTS AND WOODLANDS TO CLIMATE CHANGE” (Chapter 9, p. 164) ... “The majority of woods are likely to be treated as high forest in different forms. Whereas clearfell systems have predominated in the past, in future continuous cover forestry approaches may become more advantageous, because: – they are thought to be more windfirm – maintain a more even carbon storage – show lower soil carbon losses during harvesting – maintain higher humidity levels.” • “However, the evidence that they will deliver these benefits needs strengthening.” • “The silvicultural system per se is however, less important than the structures that it creates and their resilience and robustness in relation to climate change.”
  20. 20. Key components of Continuous Cover Forestry • “...the use of silvicultural systems whereby the forest canopy is maintained at one or more levels without clear felling.” Mason et al. 1999 It has 4 main guiding principles: 1. Managing the forest ecosystem 2. Using natural processes 3. Working within site limitations 4. Diversifying stand structure Prime movers: ProSilva Europe (1989) and CCFG (1991)
  21. 21. Mark Louden Anderson MC MA DSc FRSE (1895-1961) Professor of Forestry (1951-1961) The University of Edinburgh Image:©UniversityofEdinburgh Key papers: • Anderson, M. L. 1951. Spaced group planting and irregularity of stand structure. Empire Forestry Review 30: 328-341 • Anderson, M.L. 1953. Plea for the adoption of the standing control or check in woodland management. Scottish Forestry 7: 38-47 • Anderson, M.L. 1960. Norway spruce-silver fir-beech mixed selection forest. Is it possible to reproduce this in Scotland? Scottish Forestry 14: 87–93 Ahead of his time! The iconic forward thinker ... Are there any precedents?
  22. 22. Block Area (ha) A 16.6 B 19.8 C 21.3 D 15.0 E 19.8 F 21.5 Total 117.0 . N 500 m 500 m 350 m 240 m 560 m C B F E D Glentress Trial Area Glentress Forest Peebles, Scotland Road A
  23. 23. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Stems/ha Diameter Class (cm) 1952 1980 1991 Source: Glentress Trial, 1991 Inventory Monitoring the transformation: Size/Frequency Distribution for Block A in 1952, 1980 and 1991 Towards a balanced irregular structure
  24. 24. Group selection Glentress Forest 1996Photo: E. R. Wilson
  25. 25. Group selection Glentress Forest 2004 Photo: E. R. Wilson
  26. 26. Multi-purpose forestry Glentress Forest 2012Photo: E. R. Wilson
  27. 27. CCF - Coming in from the Fringe • Cyril Hart (1995) • Demonstrated tradition of alternative silvicultural systems • Wide range of systems applied and developed using a broad range of species • Strong influence from Europe • Update Review: Scott McG Wilson (2013)
  28. 28. *Whinlatter Forest Thirlmere Forest *Clocaenog Forest Glentress Forest* Wykeham Forest* Stourhead (Western) Estate Craigvinean Forest* Aconbury Woods *Coed Trallwm Drumlanrig Forest Selected Continuous Cover Forests in Britain This map identifies a selection of woodlands where CCF is an important component of management. Legend : Green = Forestry Commission Blue = private ownership * = GB CCF Trial Area Graphic created by CCFG. Forest cover map: Crown Copyright © 2008 Forest Research. Reproduced with permission. Morangie Forest* *Achray Forest *Inshriach Forest *Cym Berwyn Forest *Dartmoor Forest
  29. 29. final harvest and regeneration young growth stage H<1.3m pole stage DBH>10cm DBH<20cm small timber stage DBH>20cm DBH<35cm medium timber stage DBH>35cm DBH<50cm DBH>50cm large timber stage thinning thicket stage H>1.3m DBH<10cm respacing fallow stage  restocking final harvest beat up, tending In order to transform a planted forest we have to:  develop adequate tree stability [“Frame Trees” – esp. Important in uplands]  promote the best trees as likely source for Natural Regeneration [NR]  get the species composition right [evidence supports more mixed-species]  create optimal conditions for NR [ground vegetation, seedbed, browse control] Stand development and transformation Adapted from diagram by Jens Haufe
  30. 30. Modified thinning in Douglas fir: starting the transformation early is key to future stand stability Wythop Wood, Cumbria Photo: Gareth Browning
  31. 31. Frame tree and natural regeneration Douglas fir stand, Wythop Wood, Cumbria Photo: Gareth Browning
  32. 32. Light demand of conifer seedlings Species Overstorey BA for seedling establishment [m2 /ha] Overstorey BA for seedling growth [m2 /ha] Shade tolerance of seedlings JL/EL 20-25 15-20 Intolerant SP/LP/CP 25-30 20-25 SS 30-35 25-30 Intermediate DF 35-40 30-35 NS 40-45 35-40 Tolerant WH leader/lateral shoot ratio > 1 Management of Seedling Establishment and Growth Note: Light demand for seedling establishment may be considerably lower than for seedling growth.  management of light level is important (Source: Forestry Commission Operational Guidance OGB 7)
  33. 33. Single tree selection in Douglas fir Mixed-species regenerationPhoto: E. R. Wilson
  34. 34. Oak shelterwoodSharon Rodhouse 2007
  35. 35. Scots pine shelterwood Loch Vaa, Boat of Garten Photo: E. R. Wilson
  36. 36. Scots pine shelterwood Loch Vaa, Boat of Garten 19 April 2010Photo: E. R. Wilson
  37. 37. Environmental Benefits of Forests: Continuous Cover Forestry in a sensitive watershed, Thirlmere Reservoir 37Photo: E.R. Wilson 2010 Thirlmere, Cumbria
  38. 38. Photo: © United Utilities plc
  39. 39. Thirlmere Forest Management Plan 2008 Source: Wilson and Leslie 2009
  40. 40. Extraction on sensitive sites Photo: Rob Grange
  41. 41. Advanced monitoring systems • AFI – founded 1991 • Developed advanced monitoring protocols • Now over 100 reference forests, with several in the UK and Ireland • Forest productivity and ecosystem evaluation
  42. 42. Source: Gareth Browning Monitoring Systems to Support CCF Management Example from Wythop Forest, Cumbria with data on sapling distribution.
  43. 43. Potential Environmental Benefits of CCF for Soils and Water Resources (Ireland et al. 2006) • Reduced risk of reductions in soil fertility on site • Maintain soil organic matter within forest stands • Potential to reduce and minimise soil acidification • Reduced and mitigated soil disturbance (although stand interventions and operations are likely to be more frequent than in Clear-fell system) • Greater control over risks of soil erosion and compaction • Reduced risk of soil contamination and pollution • Enhanced resilience of multi-species and multi-aged stands in response to threats from pests and diseases, and windstorms
  44. 44. Potential Benefits of CCF on Upland Forest Sites (Reynolds 2004) • Move away from clear-fell likely to have benefits in terms of reduced nitrate leaching and reduced stream acidification • Partial harvest encourages retention of nitrate capacity within the soil-plant system • CCF likely to encourage retention of base cations within soil- plant system, and likely to minimise long-term soil and stream water acidification associated with soil base cation depletion • If CCF results in smaller proportion of mature Sitka spruce forest, this will reduce nitrate leaching on well-drained acid soils • Mixed species woodland ecosystems with greater potential to retain nitrogen deposited from the atmosphere should be beneficial on acid sensitive sites
  45. 45. Clocaenog Forest, North Wales CCF Research and Operational Trial in Spruce-dominated upland forest Photo: E. R. Wilson
  46. 46. Continuous Cover Forestry Group Field Meeting September 2013 Corrour Forest, Scotland Part of the trial network established by M. L. Anderson, 1952 Photo: E. R. Wilson
  47. 47. Dodd Wood, Cumbria Opportunities for catchment studies with CCF?Photo: E. R. Wilson
  48. 48. Conclusions • Silviculture in Britain exists within a complex historical, economic, ecological and cultural context • We are currently challenged to find new approaches that ensure the resilience and sustainability of our woodland resources • Transformation of our forests to more diverse and complex structures (i.e., CCF) is a key strategic challenge, presenting foresters with new opportunities to deliver ecosystem services into the future, including high quality water resources • There are now well-established management systems for CCF, but evidence for the wider benefits/practice of CCF needs strengthening, especially with respect to water catchments and aquatic ecosystems
  49. 49. Forestry Commission Guidance (Selection of Publications) • FC: OGB 7 - Managing Continuous Cover Forests (site selection/respacing and thinning/FD planning/production forecast/monitoring) • FC: OGB 9 - Thinning (Silvicultural Guide) (thinning/stability) • FCIN 29 What is Continuous Cover Forestry? • B. Mason, G. Kerr, J. Simpson, 1999 • FCIN 40 Transforming Even-aged Conifer Stands to Continuous Cover Management • B. Mason, G. Kerr, 2004 • FCIN 45 Monitoring the Transformation of Even-aged Stands to Continuous Cover Management • G. Kerr, B. Mason, R. Boswell, A. Pommerening, 2002 • FCIN 63 Managing Light to Enable Natural Regeneration in British Conifer Forests • S. Hale, 2004
  50. 50. Selected references (1) • Anderson, M. L. 1951. Spaced group planting and irregularity of stand structure. Empire Forestry Review 30: 328-341 • Anderson, M.L. 1953. Plea for the adoption of the standing control or check in woodland management. Scottish Forestry 7(2): 38-47 • Anderson, M.L. 1960. Norway spruce-silver fir-beech mixed selection forest. Is it possible to reproduce this in Scotland? Scot. For. 14: 87–93. • Cameron, A.D. 2002. Importance of early selective thinning in the development of long-term stability and improved log quality: a review. Forestry 75(1): 35-36 • Cameron, A.D. 2007. Determining the sustainable normal irregular condition: A provisional study on a transformed, irregular mixed species stand in Scotland. Scand. J. For. Res. 22: 13-21 • Helliwell, R., and E. Wilson. 2012. Continuous cover forestry in Britain: challenges and opportunities. Quarterly Journal of Forestry • Ireland, D., T. R. Nisbet and S. Broadmeadow. 2006. Environmental best practice for continuous cover forestry. Environment Agency Science Report SC020051/SR. 78 pp. • Kerr, G. 1999. The use of silvicultural systems to enhance the biological diversity of plantation forests in Britain. Forestry 72:191–205. • Macdonald, E., B. Gardiner and W. Mason. 2010. The effects of transformation of even-aged stands to continuous cover forestry on conifer log quality and wood properties in the UK. Forestry 83: 1-16 • Malcolm, D.C., Mason, W.L., and Clarke, G.C. 2001. The transformation of conifer forests in Great Britain – regeneration, gap size, and silvicultural systems. For. Ecol. Manage. 151: 7–23 • O’Hara, K. 2014. Multiaged silviculture: managing for complex forest stand structures. OUP, Oxford. 240 pp.
  51. 51. Selected references (2) • Mason, W.L. 2002. Are irregular stands more windfirm? Forestry 75: 347–356. • Mason, W.L., G. Kerr and J.M.S. Simpson. 1999. What Is Continuous Cover Forestry? Forestry Commission Information Note 29. Edinburgh: Forestry Commission. • Mason, W.L. 2003. Continuous Cover Forestry: developing close-to-nature forest management in conifer plantations in upland Britain. Scot. For. 57: 141–149. • Nicoll, B.C., B.A. Gardiner and A.J. Peace. 2008. Improvements in anchorage provided by the acclimation of forest trees to wind stress. Forestry 81: 389-398. • Oliver, C.D., and B.C. Larson. 1996. Forest Stand Dynamics. Update edition. Wiley, New York, 520 pp. • Page, L. M., and A. D. Cameron. 2006. Regeneration dynamics of Sitka spruce in artificially created forest gaps. Forest Ecology and Management 221: 260-266 • Peterken, G. F. 1996. Natural Woodland. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 522 pp. • Reynolds, B. 2004. Continuous cover forestry: possible implications for surface water acidification in the UK uplands. Hydrology and Earct System Sciences Discuss. 8(3): 306-313 • Read, D.J., P.H. Freer-Smith, J.I.L. Morison, N. Hanley, C.C. West and P. Snowdon (eds). 2009. Combating climate change – a role for UK forests. An assessment of the potential of the UK’s trees and woodlands to mitigate and adapt to climate change. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh. 240 pp. • Wilson, E.R., H. Whitney McIver and D.C. Malcolm. 1999. Transformation to an irregular structure of an upland conifer forest. For. Chron. 75: 407–412 • Wilson, S. McG. 2013. Progress of adoption of alternative silvicultural systems in Britain: an independent review. Technical Report (March 2013). 49 pp.
  52. 52. Further Information Contact for further information: • Edward (Ted) Wilson – Email: ted.wilson@silviculture.org.uk – Website: www.silviculture.org.uk • Phil Morgan – Email: phil@selectfor.com – Website: www.selectfor.com Acknowledgements • We would like to thank the following colleagues for data and slides that appear in this presentation: Gareth Browning, Bill Mason, John Weir, Mark Broadmeadow, Paul Clavey, Jens Haufe, Barnaby Wylder, Rob Grange.
  53. 53. Forestry and Fisheries – Where Next? Continuous Cover Forestry: an alternative model for the sustainable management of woodlands and watersheds in Britain Edward Wilson1 and Philippe Morgan2 1 Director, Silviculture Research International and Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto 2 Director, SelectFor Ltd and President, Pro Silva Institute of Fisheries Management Specialist Conference Rheged, Penrith, Cumbria 21-23 April 2015 First presented: 21 04 2015 This version (1.1): 02 05 2015 RESEARCH I N T E R N A T I O N A L

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