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District Resource Strategy: Presentation for SSLF

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PowerPoint presentation given to the School Systems Leaders Fellowship on February 14, 2018.

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District Resource Strategy: Presentation for SSLF

  1. 1. 0 Agenda Time Topic 55 min Introductions and Setting the stage What we heard from you, and how it shaped our goals and agenda Why resource strategy matters 40 min System 2020 How we think about resource use and school system transformation 30 min Lunch 15 min Connecting to Oakland: Informing Equity 45 min Strategic Systems in Action Denver, CO and Lawrence, MA Case Studies 20 min School Support The role district leaders play in ensuring schools are set up for success 15 min Break 90 min Investing in Innovation and Evaluating Strategies Impact modeling and Budget Hold ’Em for Districts: Making real-life tradeoffs to drive success at the system level 20 min Closing Debrief
  2. 2. © Education Resource Strategies, Inc., 2013 District Resource Strategy SSLF  February 14, 2018
  3. 3. Resources for SSLF available on the ERS website! https://www.erstrategies.org/tap/school_systems_leaders_ fellowship_resources 2 Wednesday, February 14, 2018
  4. 4. The following CONTENT will be made available for THIS AUDIENCE following today’s session
  5. 5. Education Resource Strategies is a non-profit that partners with system and school leaders to transform how they use resources—people, time, and money so that regardless of race, income, or ability, every child is ready for tomorrow. Our Mission
  6. 6. Who we are: ERS partners with districts across the country to transform resource use so that every school succeeds for every student. WEST COAST California Sacramento, Oakland, Los Angeles Colorado Denver SOUTHWEST 15 Arizona Arizona Community Foundation New Mexico Santa Fe, Albuquerque Oklahoma Tulsa Texas El Paso, Austin, Aldine, Spring Branch MIDWEST Minnesota St. Paul Illinois Chicago Indiana Indianapolis Ohio Cleveland, Cincinnati Michigan Michigan State University SOUTH Tennessee Memphis, Nashville, Knox County, TN Dept. of Education Georgia Atlanta, GA Dept. of Education Florida Duval County, Lake County, Palm Beach County North Carolina Charlotte-Mecklenburg Louisiana Avoyelles Parish, LA Dept. of Education NORTHEAST Massachusetts Boston, Cambridge, Holyoke Rhode Island Providence Connecticut Hartford, Waterbury, New Haven, Connecticut Council for Education Reform New York Buffalo, Rochester, Syracuse, New York City, NY State Dept. of Education Pennsylvania Philadelphia New Jersey Newark Maryland Baltimore, Prince George’s County Washington, D.C. D.C. Public Schools Current State Work Past State Work Current District Work Past District Work
  7. 7. Wait, so does this mean…?? 6
  8. 8. Brief introductions 7 Joe Joy
  9. 9. But first… here’s what we heard from you 8 Funding and budgeting best practice What are the key decisions successful states make behind how funding is determined for districts? What are effective approaches to building school-based and district- level budget models? How do you make difficult funding choices during times when there are resource constraints?
  10. 10. But first… here’s what we heard from you 9 Interest in strategic school design and effective school support How do you effectively align resources to schools with the most need – and support them? How do you structure professional development that is both district wide and school based? What is the connection between leadership and teaching? How do we align the right types of central office supports to empower schools leaders?
  11. 11. But first… here’s what we heard from you 10 Prioritization and decision-making What do we do when the data doesn't provide us with information necessary to make smart funding decisions (i.e. 99% of teachers rated effective or highly effective)? What do you do if the areas that need the most improvement are outside of your wheelhouse? How do I help districts use their data to evaluate their needs and then strategically target their resources? Where do you start, as superintendent or c- level, if the vast majority of the resource check was "sometimes"? Which resources are MOST important for district transformation? How do you effectively share this information with senior leaders to spark conversation and action, not controversy?
  12. 12. 11 How you see yourselves: Resource Check
  13. 13. How you see yourselves: Resource Check 12 1 2 4 6 7 4 2 3 1 The district empowers each school leader to organize resources to support his or her chosen instructional model and student and staff needs. Portfolio: The district actively plans school sizes and configurations, balancing student needs for effective programs with available staff, facility, and funding resources. Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree Don't know 5 3 1 6 8 5 6 4 4 3 5 4 4 1 4 4 4 1 3 The district has a deliberate turnaround strategy for… The district's central office promotes a supportive culture for schools and differentiates support and resources based on the… The district sets clear and meaningful targets for academic performance growth for all schools. The district integrates student, teacher, and resource data and… The district actively manages central costs and service quality. Never/ Strongly Disagree Sometimes/ Disagree Frequently/ Agree Always/ Strongly Agree Don't know School Design School Support
  14. 14. With that in mind, our goals for today are: 1. Establish a common set of principles about strategic resource use that apply to all types of school systems 2. Identify ways that innovative schools are organizing people, time and money most strategically 3. Assess the role district leaders play in supporting and enabling school-level strategic resource use 4. Simulate the process of identifying and making real-life resource tradeoffs at the system level 13
  15. 15. Norms Ask questions throughout the day* Draw on each other’s experiences Maintain a healthy respect for the clock * no, there are no dumb ones 14
  16. 16. 15 Agenda Time Topic 55 min Introductions and Setting the stage What we heard from you, and how it shaped our goals and agenda Why resource strategy matters 40 min System 2020 How we think about resource use and school system transformation 30 min Lunch 15 min Connecting to Oakland: Informing Equity 45 min Strategic Systems in Action Denver, CO and Lawrence, MA Case Studies 20 min School Support The role district leaders play in ensuring schools are set up for success 15 min Break 90 min Investing in Innovation and Evaluating Strategies Impact modeling and Budget Hold ’Em for Districts: Making real-life tradeoffs to drive success at the system level 20 min Closing Debrief
  17. 17. What is the current state of education funding? Setting the stage:
  18. 18. Until the great recession hit, real spending on education had increased nearly every year since 1920 17 $0 $2,000 $4,000 $6,000 $8,000 $10,000 $12,000 $14,000 National Public K-12 Expenditures Per Pupil (1920-2014) ($M) Current expenditures Per Pupil (Real) Current expenditures Per Pupil (Nominal)* Source: National Center for Education Statistics: Digest of Education Statistics. *Nominal expenditures expressed in constant 2016 dollars.
  19. 19. Spending varies widely across districts... 18Source: ERS database $7,800 $8,300 $9,200 $10,200 $10,800 $13,000 $14,100 $14,400 $16,800 $21,100 Aldine, TX Charlotte Knox County, TN Fulton County, GA Denver Prince George's County, MD Baltimore Cleveland D.C. Newark Per-Pupil Spending on Education ~3x
  20. 20. Systemic Budget Gaps cost structure rises regardless of revenue 19 • Longevity based teaching salaries grow at ~2-4% annually • Benefits growing at ~10+% annually • SPED spending continues to grow • Pre-set COLA increases • Tax revenue falling • Enrollment declining • Drop in Federal Funds
  21. 21. What do districts spend their money on?
  22. 22. School Spending Quiz: Central administration consumes a significant portion of district funding True or False?
  23. 23. False: Most urban districts spend less on central overhead than commonly perceived 22 District Governance, Management of the support services provide to Schools Example: Superintendent, Board, Strategy, Dir. of Math, Dir. of Transportation Leadership & Management “Central Overhead” All FTEs, services, and materials allocated directly to schools in the district expenditures Example: SBB Allocations, Non-SBB Resources All FTEs, services, and materials not reported on the school budget, but support schools on a regular and predictable basis Example: Athletics, Prep Kitchens, PSNs School- attributed All FTEs, services, and materials that provide support to schools in ways that leverage scale across schools Example: Transportation, Maintenance Shared Services “School- Attributed” This is what ERS uses to compare spending across schools. District X 7% 13% 8% 72%
  24. 24. School Spending Quiz: Instruction is the primary business and consumes what % of the budget? 1. 50-60% 2. 60-70% 3. 75%+
  25. 25. Typically 50-60% of most districts’ budgets is spent on instruction in schools 24 56% 56% 58% 53% 55% 58% 59% 52% 57% 6% 5% 6% 6% 6% 6% 5% 6% 6% 20% 19% 20% 23% 21% 20% 18% 22% 16% 7% 9% 5% 6% 6% 6% 8% 8% 8% 8% 7% 8% 8% 8% 7% 7% 8% 8% 4% 5% 3% 4% 4% 3% 3% 4% 5% District Average Palm Beach Duval CoutyLake County Aldine Charlotte Fulton PGC Denver Breakdown of Total Operating Spending: % by Use Business Services Leadership Pupil Services & Enrichment O&M ISPD Instruction Source: SDPBC FY15 Expenditures, ERS analysis, ERS Benchmark Database Adj. $pp $9.4 $9.8 $8.5 $7.4 $7.9 $9.7 $10.4 $11.6 Year 2014-2015 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 2010-2011 2012-2013 2009-2010 PreK-12 Enrollment 166 (K) 121 (K) 36 (K) 66 (K) 137 (K) 88 (K) 126 (K) 77 (K)
  26. 26. School Spending Quiz: School level spending goes mostly to people and consumes what % of the budget? 1) 60-70% 2) 70-80% 3) 80-90%
  27. 27. 80-90% of a schools budget is typically spent on staff; therefore, strategic budget reform must look first and foremost at people or “Who does What?” 26 65% 5% 2% 5% 8% 1% 2% 9% School X Teachers Instructional Aides Student support Administration Clerks & Other Staff Substitutes Supplies & Contracted Services Utilities & Maintenance
  28. 28. Linking dollars to student performance: A one-word research history and the word is “no.” 27 A generation of research: Do resources/inputs matter?  Hanushek summarizes the existing literature to say “no.”  Dollars per pupil are NOT systematically related to student outcomes  Very consistent finding over time  Consistently cited as reason to oppose spending increases
  29. 29. Common resource misalignments Setting the stage:
  30. 30. Many districts and schools still invest in practices with little impact on student outcomes 29 Restructuring Resources for High Performing Schools .(2011). Watertown, MA: Education Resource Strategies Up to $0.40 of every $1 spent is not correlated with student outcomes Teacher comp. not aligned with student learning Whole day class size reductions in all subjects Students in overly restrictive settings Time not varied for student proficien cy 5-15¢ 10-15¢ 3-5¢ 3-5¢ “Resource Misalignments”
  31. 31. Four types of Resource Misalignments Underinvestment in the right things Non-strategic over- investment in “good things” Piecemeal investment in an integrated solution Opportunities for Reallocation Opportunities for Strategic Investment Resources tied up in the wrong things
  32. 32. Example: Investing more time for struggling students 24% 25% 24% 29% 21% 19% 20% 16% 19% 21% 17% 15% 15% 14% 16% Fulton Hall Treutlen Vidalia Marietta % Time in 9th Grade Math, by Prior Year Proficiency Did not meet standards Proficient Advanced Source: ERS Piecemeal investment in an integrated solution 24% 14% Math Support Teachers All Math Teachers % of All Teachers that are Novice Most GA districts gave additional time to struggling students…. However, these classes were disproportionately staffed by novice teachers
  33. 33. Reflection (3 minutes) 32 Turn to your neighbor: What resource misalignments have you seen in your district, CMO, or across your state? Why do you think they persist?
  34. 34. The status quo persists because re-aligning resources is hard  Pure operating efficiencies are small and miss the point  Quick timelines inhibit significant changes  Complex reallocations are multi-year, some with up-front investment  Hard to mobilize around the “from” without a clear vision for the “to”  Can require eliminating policy barriers and/or changing peoples’ jobs  Realigning resources may not be what the public or board wants
  35. 35. Re-aligning resources is necessary  Dramatic, stubborn achievement gaps  Perennially limited resources  Higher standards / Common Core  Demand for information-age learning  Increasing competition for students between traditional and charter schools  Our pursuit of equity and social justice require us to act
  36. 36. Guiding questions – from up on the balcony 1. What is my district’s/CMO’s overall resource picture with regard to strategic vs. non-strategic use? 2. What process does my district/CMO use for making resource decisions? How can I influence that process? 3. What aspects of resource use do I control? How can I have the most impact with the control I have? 4. What will I do when I get back to work? Districts and CMOs
  37. 37. Guiding questions – from up on the balcony 1. What state policies or practices are intended to support districts’ strategic resource use? How well do they currently accomplish that aim? 2. What tools/supports/data does my state offer districts to support their resource decision-making? 3. How can I influence policies/tools/etc. within and support their effective use? How can I have the most impact with the influence I have? 4. What will I do when I get back to work? States
  38. 38. 37 Agenda Time Topic 55 min Introductions and Setting the stage What we heard from you, and how it shaped our goals and agenda Why resource strategy matters 40 min System 2020 How we think about resource use and school system transformation 30 min Lunch 15 min Connecting to Oakland: Informing Equity 45 min Strategic Systems in Action Denver, CO and Lawrence, MA Case Studies 20 min School Support The role district leaders play in ensuring schools are set up for success 15 min Break 90 min Investing in Innovation and Evaluating Strategies Impact modeling and Budget Hold ’Em for Districts: Making real-life tradeoffs to drive success at the system level 20 min Closing Debrief
  39. 39.  Inspiring innovation: Transform Now video 38 Transform Now
  40. 40. The School System 20/20 framework
  41. 41. Transforming outcomes for all students requires tackling outmoded structures 40 System 20/20 Domain From To Standards & Instructional Resources Inconsistent or inadequate standards with little support for teachers. Rigorous, information-age standards supported by effective curricula and assessments. Teaching Isolated teachers with limited support, flexibility, opportunities for growth. A new way we hire, assign, support, team, pay, and promote teachers. School Design A one-size-fits-all learning environment that holds everyone back. A re-imagined school day with new schedules, dynamic groupings and targeted instruction. Leadership Limited autonomy, flexibility & support to develop and reward strong leaders. Clear standards, support, and account- ability for principals and district leaders. School Support & Accountability Central office staff responsibilities that focus on compliance and oversight. The central office is a service and strategy partner in sharing best practices and ensuring all schools reach learning goals. Funding & Portfolio Wide funding variances across schools. Systems that allocate resources equitably and flexibly across schools. Community Engagement Schools providing a wide range of services in addition to their core educational mission. Partnering to create innovative and cost- effective ways to serve students better.
  42. 42. 1. Revise funding formulas to achieve greater equity, transparency and flexibility 2. Implement strategic school designs that personalize learning for students based on need 3. Restructure investments in PD and teacher time to create “connected professional learning” for teachers and leaders 41 Three high-priority levers for transformation:
  43. 43. Elements of a healthy school funding system Flexibility School leaders define the resources they need to drive student achievement Equity Resources are distributed equitably based on student need Transparency Clear and easily understood rules for where, how, and why dollars flow
  44. 44. $0 $2,000 $4,000 $6,000 $8,000 $10,000 $12,000 $14,000 $16,000 60 15 39 367 346 51 61 99 34 114 82 105 79 42 14 90 49 54 88 107 31 103 327 109 69 48 384 93 94 315 83 359 19 63 106 391 356 44 55 87 96 57 74 302 58 16 43 70 65 621 716 618 501 614 723 626 617 708 School Attributed $ per Weighted Pupil ($pwp) Magnet Traditional 43 After adjusting for student need, District X still has a significant amount of variation in its student funding Source: ERS analysis Median: $7.3K Hi-Lo Spread: 1.9x Median: $8.9K Hi-Lo Spread: 2.3x ES/K-8 HS
  45. 45. The extent to which spending levels vary based on need varies across systems 44 R² = 0.767 $0 $2,000 $4,000 $6,000 $8,000 $10,000 $12,000 $14,000 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 R² = 0.2562 $0 $2,000 $4,000 $6,000 $8,000 $10,000 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 R² = 0.499 $0 $2,000 $4,000 $6,000 $8,000 $10,000 $12,000 $14,000 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 R² = 0.1437 $0 $2,000 $4,000 $6,000 $8,000 $10,000 $12,000 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40
  46. 46. 45 Districts should determine if variation is intentional and strategic and then adjust accordingly to improve equity District Strategy School opening/closure $ School Level $ School Type $ Student Need Special Education $$$ English Language Learners $$ Economic Disadvantage $$ Other Student Needs $ Unplanned Enrollment/ School Size $$$ Teacher Compensation $ Building Utilization $ Enrollment Projections $ Ad-hoc exceptions $
  47. 47. 1. Revise funding formulas to achieve greater equity, transparency and flexibility 2. Implement strategic school designs that personalize learning for students based on need 3. Restructure investments in PD and teacher time to create “connected professional learning” for teachers and leaders 46 Three high-priority levers for transformation:
  48. 48. 47 Most schools organize people, time, and money the same way they did 50+ years ago One teacher per class 20-30 students per class Studying a particular subject For a set period of time (e.g., 50 min/day) For a set duration (e.g., full year)
  49. 49. 48 ERS’ Strategic School Design Essentials Expert-led Collaborative Work and Professional Learning Organize teachers into expert-led teams focused on the design and delivery of instruction, and provide ongoing growth- oriented feedback Talent Management and Teacher Leadership Attract and retain the best teachers, and assign roles and responsibilities to match skills to school and student need Empowering Curricula, Instruction, and Assessment Uphold rigorous, college-and- career-ready standards and use effective curricula, instructional strategies, and assessments to achieve them Personalized Time and Attention Match student grouping, learning time, technology and program to individual student needs Responsive Learning Community Ensure students are deeply known and more intensive social and emotional supports are integrated when necessary Growth-oriented Adult Culture Grow a collaborative culture where teachers and leaders share ownership of a common instructional vision and student learning
  50. 50. Most districts have opportunities to strategically raise class size… 49 Source: Elementary Grades Homeroom file Oct 2009; Includes elementary schools and K-8 schools (grades K0-5); excludes classes that are special education 60%+, ELL 60%+; includes Advanced Work classes; excludes schools with Two-Way bilingual program; excludes classes with “mixed” grade (mainly due to teacher data NA); ERS analysis 21 22 22 2222 25 28 31 Grades K-2 Grades 3-5 Grades 6-8 Grades 9-12 In this District Class Sizes are Far from Maximum and Do Not Vary by Grade Average class size Contract max
  51. 51. …and to target class sizes to priority subjects and students *Core class defined as ELA, Math, Science, Social Studies; Non-core defined as Arts, Computer Literacy, Vocational, Foreign Language Source: District A and B 9th and 12th grade course data (internal – Resource Mapping presentation); ERS analysis In these districts class sizes for core subjects are higher than non-core 27 21 18 18 District T District L Average Class Size by Course Type 9th Grade Core Class Size* 12th Grade Non-Core Class Size 50
  52. 52. Most schools have the opportunity to optimize time by subject… 51Source: ERS analysis 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% ES 7-9 10-12 PE Electives Foreign Language Science Social Studies Math ELA Typical District Percent of Student Time By Grade and Subject
  53. 53. ….And by student need 52 Note: % Time is based on the instructional time throughout the school day. It only includes periods entered in PowerSchool and does not include passing time, lunch, recess or maintenance/homeroom classes. Source: ERS Analysis, CMS SY2013-2014 Course Schedule PowerSchool Data, CMS SY2012-2013 EOG Performance Data 22% 22% 22% 22% 16% 14% 16% 14% 2% 5% Below Basic Proficient %ofInstructionalTime Prior Year ELA EOG Avg. % of Time by Core Subject for Below Basic and Proficient Middle School Students Foreign Lang. Social Studies Science ELA Math
  54. 54. Many districts have an opportunity to increase instructional time by increasing the school day 53 Sources: District figures are from Time and Attention in Urban High Schools: Lessons for School Systems (Frank, 2010) and from ERS analyses for the Aspen CFO network. Leading Edge school figures are from Shields, R. A., and K. H. Miles. 2008. Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Watertown, MA: Education Resource Strategies. Charter school figures are from The Boston Foundation report (May 2010) “Out of the Debate and Into the Schools.” ERS analysis. 963 1080 1110 1120 1125 1138 1160 1170 1180 1200 1210 1250 1250 1260 1276 1476 Chicago PG County LA Boston Seattle St Paul Milwaukee Washington DC Rochester Denver Baltimore Pittsburgh Philadelphia Atlanta Leading Edge schools Boston Charters Student Hours Per Year National Avg. = 1170
  55. 55. To target individual attention to students, in the short term, you can... 54 To Support Sustainable Transformation Invest transition resources to  Provide expert PD to increase teacher capacity to use individual attention strategies  Create and use formative assessments and tools to enable targeted instruction and grouping Lay the groundwork for long-term change by…  Build understanding of impact of targeted group sizes & teaching effectiveness in strategic designs To Reverse Misalignments Reduce spending by…  Increasing general class size targets  Increasing class size for specific low need students, grade levels, and subjects  Leveraging technology for high cost courses and selected lessons Increase spending to …  Reduce group size for high need students, skills, grade levels and subjects
  56. 56. How does Revere High’s ninth grade academy reflect the Strategic School Design Essentials? Introduction: Revere High School has prioritized the 9th grade student experience though a 9th grade academy. The academy is designed to provide additional support and time to students as they face more rigorous content through flipped learning and flexible groupings. As you watch, consider:  Which design essentials are most evident in Revere’s ninth grade strategy?  How do the design essentials identified relate to the larger System 20/20 Framework?  In what specific ways can we draw a connection between the conditions we as system leaders we create and the empowerment of school leaders to support students in creative ways? 55
  57. 57.  Revere 9th grade Academy: Video 56 How does Revere High provide personalized learning to students?
  58. 58. Foundational concepts 1. There are consistent guiding principles for strategic resource use, regardless of the specific priorities and sequence of action a single district pursues 2. In successful systems, strategy and resource allocation decisions connect to actual improvement in outcomes, however they can 3. Strategic resource decisions have implications at all levels – for schools, for how you think about supporting schools, and for each district function 57
  59. 59. 58 Lunch time! 30 min
  60. 60. 59 Agenda Time Topic 55 min Introductions and Setting the stage What we heard from you, and how it shaped our goals and agenda Why resource strategy matters 40 min System 2020 How we think about resource use and school system transformation 30 min Lunch 15 min Connecting to Oakland: Informing Equity 45 min Strategic Systems in Action Denver, CO and Lawrence, MA Case Studies 20 min School Support The role district leaders play in ensuring schools are set up for success 15 min Break 90 min Investing in Innovation and Evaluating Strategies Impact modeling and Budget Hold ’Em for Districts: Making real-life tradeoffs to drive success at the system level 20 min Closing Debrief
  61. 61.  Informing Equity: A study of resource allocation across Oakland’s charter and traditional district schools  Discussion questions: 1. What were the most striking resource misalignments both between systems of schools and within each system? 2. To what extent do the findings here resonate with your experience in your home cities/states? 3. What do you see as the key opportunities to begin moving toward a more equitable system of schools across Oakland? 60 Connecting to Oakland: Informing Equity
  62. 62. 61 Agenda Time Topic 55 min Introductions and Setting the stage What we heard from you, and how it shaped our goals and agenda Why resource strategy matters 40 min System 2020 How we think about resource use and school system transformation 30 min Lunch 15 min Connecting to Oakland: Informing Equity 45 min Strategic Systems in Action Denver, CO and Lawrence, MA Case Studies 20 min School Support The role district leaders play in ensuring schools are set up for success 15 min Break 90 min Investing in Innovation and Evaluating Strategies Impact modeling and Budget Hold ’Em for Districts: Making real-life tradeoffs to drive success at the system level 20 min Closing Debrief
  63. 63. Strategic Systems: Examples of Transformation In Action 62 Denver, CO Lawrence, MA
  64. 64. Denver timeline 63 Standards Teaching School Design Leadership School Support Funding Partners 2008-11 Enabling Conditions 2012-14 Empowering Schools 2015-16+ Continued Growth
  65. 65. Denver: Summary of actions 64
  66. 66. Denver: Summary of actions 65
  67. 67. Denver: Summary of results 66 Proficiency 2004 2014 ∆ ELA proficiency 24% 47% +23 pts Math proficiency 45% 54% +9 pts Graduation Rate 2010 2016 ∆ HS graduation 54% 67.2% +13.2 pts
  68. 68. Lawrence timeline 67 Standards Teaching School Design Leadership School Support Funding Partners Spring 2012 Actions with immediate impact 2012-13 Targeted supports Enabling cond’ns 2013-14+ Empowering schools
  69. 69. Lawrence: Summary of actions 68
  70. 70. Lawrence: Summary of results 69 Success metric 2011 2014 Change Math proficiency 28% 41% +13 pts ELA proficiency 41% 44% +3 pts SGP: Math 39% 57% +18 pts SGP: ELA 45% 52% +7 pts HS graduation 52% 61% (2013) +9 pts Exceed state average
  71. 71. Digging into the Denver and Lawrence cases Take 10 minutes to review how one district has approached its transformation. Then, share what you learned with a colleague (5 min each), addressing the following questions: 1. In your view, what was the most important decision/s the district made? Why? 2. What did you like most about the choices the district made? What did you like least? 3. What feedback would you give Tom or Jeff based on what you have observed? 70
  72. 72. Applying lessons in your context Reflect individually and consider: 1. What would you tell your superintendent/state leadership about the Denver and Lawrence case examples? 2. District/CMO: What do these cases imply about the trajectory your district/ CMO is on – both what makes sense and what the district’s/CMO’s leadership team might want to re-consider? 3. State: What do these cases imply about your support of districts – both those in turnaround and those working to make incremental, strategic change? 71
  73. 73. 72 Agenda Time Topic 55 min Introductions and Setting the stage What we heard from you, and how it shaped our goals and agenda Why resource strategy matters 40 min System 2020 How we think about resource use and school system transformation 30 min Lunch 15 min Connecting to Oakland: Informing Equity 45 min Strategic Systems in Action Denver, CO and Lawrence, MA Case Studies 20 min School Support The role district leaders play in ensuring schools are set up for success 15 min Break 90 min Investing in Innovation and Evaluating Strategies Impact modeling and Budget Hold ’Em for Districts: Making real-life tradeoffs to drive success at the system level 20 min Closing Debrief
  74. 74. In one word, how would you describe the relationship between school leaders and the central office in your district?
  75. 75. Principals in most districts do not rate central office support highly 75 12% 14% 19% 24% 21% 9% 18% 17% 29% 31%26% 34% 31% 29% 28% 30% 25% 17% 13% 14%24% 9% 16% 5% 5% Staff evaluation Budget Hiring Curriculum and Instruction Professional Development Q: On a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 being “Very Poor” and 5 being “Excellent,” how would you describe the quality of support you receive from your district’s central office in the following areas? 5 4 3 2 1 Average 3.5 3.0 2.9 2.5 2.5 Source: ERS Survey of Principals, 2014
  76. 76. Principals seek more flexibility in many areas 76 Don’t have and don’t want (8) • Set base compensation and benefits • Contract with food service vendors • Contract with transportation partners Don’t have but want (26) • Hire non-instructional staff • Determine how many gen ed teachers are placed at the school • Eliminate a position based on school needs • Exit staff based on philosophy, commitment or team contribution • Hire/allocate social/emotional positions • Set student assessment schedule • Choose student assessment instruments Have and want to keep (6) • Screen general education teachers for fit and qualification • Assign teachers to leadership positions • Final say on which teachers to hire Have but don’t want (0) Bulleted items are a sub-set of flexibilities in the category. Have/want based on at least 50% of principals surveyed answering that they have and/or want the autonomy Source: Principal survey, ERS analysis Of 40 flexibilities tested in the context of improving student learning, at least half of school leaders say they…
  77. 77. Empowering principals with high-leverage flexibility 77 Don’t have but want (26) • Hire non-instructional staff • Determine how many gen ed teachers are placed at the school • Eliminate a position based on school needs • Exit staff based on philosophy, commitment or team contribution • Hire/allocate social/emotional positions • Set student assessment schedule • Choose student assessment instruments Bulleted items are a sub-set of flexibilities in the category. Have/want based on at least 50% of principals surveyed answering that they have and/or want the autonomy Source: Principal survey, ERS analysis  Why do principals want these flexibilities?  What can we do to empower principals in these areas?  If we can’t provide these flexibilities, what’s the root cause? What’s the workaround?
  78. 78. Why focus on improving the quality of school support?  Perceptions of central office support correlate with principals’ likelihood to stay in the system  Especially in systems where rules around flexibility vary, district leaders must ensure that each school is making the most of the resources they have  Mistrust between school and district leaders distracts from everyone’s ability to do what’s best for our students 78 Retention Equity Impact
  79. 79. Without a strong central office partnership, schools are unable to realize their full potential 79 Data/ Reports Process Policies/ Accountabilities Tools Expertise/ Illustrations StrategicFunctional The right information Clear and understood Limited to requirements User- friendly Compliance- focused Benchmark against best practices Design & needs driven Aligned with school accountability system Push thinking School design focused How strategic district leaders can better support principals Note that Functional and Strategic are distinct dimensions - it is entirely possible that you are neither, both, some of each, etc.
  80. 80. Self-Assessment: How can district leaders best support principals? Consider the functional area you have direct responsibility for or the district’s/ CMO’s support to principals overall (up to you on where you want to focus) - State Fellows, think of a district in your states or your support of districts overall: 1. What is one of your bright spots? What examples can you cite within the framework of effective functional and/or strategic support to school leaders? 2. What is one of your biggest gaps? What current structures, teams, processes are furthest from being strategic? 3. What is one barrier to improvement? What is preventing/will prevent improvement in the area(s) you cite as having the biggest gaps? 4. What is one opportunity for improvement? What can you or your system/CMO/state readily do that will enable more strategic support to school leaders? 80
  81. 81. 81 Break time! 15 min
  82. 82. 82 Agenda Time Topic 55 min Introductions and Setting the stage What we heard from you, and how it shaped our goals and agenda Why resource strategy matters 40 min System 2020 How we think about resource use and school system transformation 30 min Lunch 15 min Connecting to Oakland: Informing Equity 45 min Strategic Systems in Action Denver, CO and Lawrence, MA Case Studies 20 min School Support The role district leaders play in ensuring schools are set up for success 15 min Break 90 min Investing in Innovation and Evaluating Strategies Impact modeling and Budget Hold ’Em for Districts: Making real-life tradeoffs to drive success at the system level 20 min Closing Debrief
  83. 83. 83 Impact modeling?
  84. 84. Impact modeling is an ERS R&D initiative that helps connect actions to student outcome goals districts are setting  Help make the case to district leaders for actions that will have the most impact on students by  Illustrating the relative impact and cost of different actions  Drawing attention to the magnitude of effort needed to accomplish goals  Translating research for practitioners and district context  Help District leaders build stronger plans to achieve their goals that take a holistic approach to improvement 84
  85. 85. Broadly, how we are thinking about this…  What change is the district trying to accomplish?  What are goals around student outcomes?  What improvement is necessary to meet those goals?  How does this compare to what other districts have accomplished?  To what extent are district initiatives likely to contribute to meeting its goals?  Detailed: Impact Model, a customized tool that models out the potential impact of different actions  High level: Budget Hold’em, an interactive exercise that helps district leaders and stakeholders explore tradeoffs in building budgets to help all students succeed 85
  86. 86. How is this work different from currently available research/modeling? 86 Other Research/Modeling Our Modeling  Targeted at academics and practitioners with a deep understanding of research methods  Targeted at practitioners and policymakers regardless of understanding of research methods  One action/intervention in isolation  Combinations of actions  Requires translation to context  Uses district specific data to estimate in their context (e.g. student mobility, effectiveness of new hires)  Scenarios that aren’t always realistic or scalable (e.g. The average student impact of permanently removing teachers below a 5th or 10th percentile cutoff from the current workforce and the hiring pool Hanushek, 2009)  Scenarios customized to represent scenarios more likely to occur (e.g. increase attrition among bottom 10 percentile of teachers)
  87. 87. We estimate district-wide impact by “spreading out” student-level effects observed in research 87 Improvement initiative Per student effect size (SD*) % of all Students Impacted Districtwide Impact (SD) Workforce Management 0.30 6% 0.02 Tutoring 0.21 7% 0.01 How does this translate to strategies implemented across the district? District-Wide impact depends on the # of students affected, as well as the effect size. Where do we get effect sizes? Peer-reviewed research Experimental/Quasi-experimental Meta-analysis where available otherwise individual studies *SD: Standard Deviation
  88. 88. Our methodology allows us to estimate the impact of interventions targeted to different groups of students, such as by school and performance level 0.21 0.16 - - - 0.14 0.11 0.07 0.05 0.02 0.12 0.11 0.07 0.05 0.03 0.09 0.05 0.02 0.00 0.00 - 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 Lvl 1 Lvl 2 Lvl 3 Lvl 4 Lvl 5 StudentPerformanceImprovement(SD) Student Performance Level Small Group Tutoring Reduce Class size to 15 Extend School Day by 60 min Add Pre-K 88 Strategy Cost ($M) Implement small group tutoring of 8:1 for Lvl 1 and 2 students in C,D and F schools $2.5 Reduce 3rd grade class size from 18 to 15 in C, D, F schools $5.0 Extend school day by 60 minutes to additional C,D,F schools $2.0 Add 20% Pre-K seats, focusing on FRL and ELL kids $7.9 Sub-total Stu. Perf Improv. 0.56 0.43 0.17 0.10 0.05 Source: ERS analysis.
  89. 89. The result is typically aggregated measures of student performance and teacher effectiveness 89 -1.6 -1.4 -1.2 -1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10 DistancefromMathProficiency(SD) Proficiency Gains for Lowest-Performing Students Baseline Intervention 56% 59% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10 District-wide Change in Math Proficiency Rates over Time Intervention Baseline
  90. 90. Where we are in this work…  Proof of concept model using Python: models out changes in, e.g., teacher retention/attrition and small- group instruction (Complete)  Adding 1-2 additional interventions over the next several months (Not started)  Sensitivity analysis: How does the quality of the teacher pipeline impact the efficacy of strategic retention/attrition? (In Progress)  Learning from others who have related expertise, or are working on similar problems (In Progress) 90
  91. 91. Therefore, for the foreseeable future, system leaders should… 1. Ensure “Impact/Return on Investment” mindset for decision-makers:  Clear on the “logic model” and expected impact of investments, including synergy among initiatives  Focused on maximizing returns across functions v. within  Committed to monitoring results and adapting based on data 2. Ensure budget development processes span departmental boundaries and include structural costs/strategies 3. Invest in data collection and analysis opportunistically to inform discussion of strategic options 91
  92. 92. Goal of this exercise: Help District X use its limited resources strategically to improve student achievement and meet our goals. 1. Identify the core needs 2. Consider broad range of investment and savings options 3. Weigh investment and savings options 4. Make coordinated, strategic investment and savings decisions that drive student performance improvement 93
  93. 93.  Create a “hand” of impact and savings cards that represents a new budget for District X  Your hand must meet the district’s priorities (see handout)  Your hand must achieve a cost neutral status and improve student achievement 94 The Object of the Game
  94. 94. Add 60 min of learning time to the school day in the 25% lowest performing schools Extended learning time can raise student achievement if it is targeted on core instruction with high quality teachers who are expert in critical subject and instructional areas. 1.7% Student impact points Investment (+) or Savings (-) as % of budget Explanation Note: Extending learning time can be costly. Ensure that the schools in which you invest have leaders and teaching staff who can deliver high quality instruction to struggling students. Note There are also wild cards that let you add more savings or investment options.Turnaround schools Some cards can have stronger impact when played together Time+ What’s a Hold’em card?
  95. 95. Things to consider  Select cards thoughtfully – consider your priorities  Consider inter-relationships between cards and try to get those bonus points  Acknowledge approximation  Be bold  Consider different staffing allocations  Use Wild Cards  Have fun! 96
  96. 96. Let’s Play!
  97. 97. Directions: 98 Step 2 1 min Choose someone to read the cards and someone to record decisions online Step 3 45 min The card reader will read the cards aloud (just the title and description), and your group will collectively sort them into Yes and No piles. Try to reach consensus, but if you can’t, put it in a Maybe pile Step 4 15 min After your first pass, go back through your Maybe pile and make changes in order to reach your target. Calculate your budget and student impact. Step 5 2 min Take stock: Consider the expected performance outcomes of your choices – are you maximizing impact given resource limitations and district priorities? Step 1 5 min Read the District X fact sheet individually. Note priorities and challenges. Online Scoring Instructions 1. Go to: erstrategies.org/scoresheet 2. Enter your team’s “Access Token” (on your table) 3. Enter decisions as you go (it will recalculate your budget % each time)
  98. 98. Debrief on Hold’em
  99. 99. Discussion questions 100 1. What were the biggest insights and/or surprises in your choices? 2. Which options are off the table or challenging, but promising, interesting, or important? What must change to make them a real option? 3. How did this exercise influence your thinking on: a. How to improve outcomes with limited resources? b. The use of impact data for leadership decision-making?
  100. 100. 101 Agenda Time Topic 55 min Introductions and Setting the stage What we heard from you, and how it shaped our goals and agenda Why resource strategy matters 40 min System 2020 How we think about resource use and school system transformation 30 min Lunch 15 min Connecting to Oakland: Informing Equity 45 min Strategic Systems in Action Denver, CO and Lawrence, MA Case Studies 20 min School Support The role district leaders play in ensuring schools are set up for success 15 min Break 90 min Investing in Innovation and Evaluating Strategies Impact modeling and Budget Hold ’Em for Districts: Making real-life tradeoffs to drive success at the system level 20 min Closing Debrief
  101. 101. Guiding questions – from up on the balcony 1. What is my district’s/CMO’s overall resource picture with regard to strategic vs. non-strategic use? 2. What process does my district/CMO use for making resource decisions? How can I influence that process? 3. What aspects of resource use do I control? How can I have the most impact with the control I have? 4. What will I do when I get back to work? Districts and CMOs
  102. 102. Guiding questions – from up on the balcony 1. What state policies or practices are intended to support districts’ strategic resource use? How well do they currently accomplish that aim? 2. What tools/supports/data does my state offer districts to support their resource decision-making? 3. How can I influence the policies/tools/etc. within my control and support their effective use? How can I have the most impact with the control I have? 4. What will I do when I get back to work? States
  103. 103. Resources for SSLF available on the ERS website! https://www.erstrategies.org/tap/school_systems_leaders_ fellowship_resources 104 Wednesday, February 14, 2018

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