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SEMINAR TOPIC- 3 PHASE SELETOR AND PREVENTER FOR INDUSTRIAL APPS. 2007.ppt

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SEMINAR TOPIC- 3 PHASE SELETOR AND PREVENTER FOR INDUSTRIAL APPS. 2007.ppt

  1. 1. SEMINAR TOPIC- 3 PHASE SELECTOR AND PREVENTER FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLIANCES. NAME OF PROJECT PARTNERS- 1. SUJAY R. KALE (4516) 2. KIRTESH K. JOSHI (4514) 3. MUKESH K. JADHAV (4511) PROJECT GUIDE- H.O.D- PROF. M.V.ATRE PROF. J.S.SHASTRI
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO THE CONCEPT- NEED OF THIS CONCEPT- • TO DRIVE 3 –PHASE LOAD FROM SINGLE PHASE. • PROTECT THE INDUSTRIAL APPLIANCES FROM FAILURE OF ANY PHASE. • DRIVE LOAD WITH A VARIABLE FREQUENCY. • SPEED CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR. • REPLACING THE I.C.E. BY E.V.
  3. 3. OBJECTIVE OF THIS PROJECT- • GENERATES 3-PH. INVERTER FROM 1-PH. USING MICROCONTROLLER. • GENERATES 6-PULSE PWM O/P. • GENERATES 3-PH. SUPPLY FROM LIVE PHASE. • GENERATES FREQUENCY FROM 10 Hz TO 100 Hz. • SPEED CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR.
  4. 4. BLOCK DIAGRAM-
  5. 5. MAIN COMPONENTS OF THREE PHASE SELECTOR & PREVENTER FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS ARE- 1. 5V REGULATED POWER SUPPLY 2. DIP SWITCHES 3. MICROCONTROLLER 4. OPTO- ISOLATOR 5. SIGNAL AMPLIFIER 6. INVERTER CIRCUITRY 7. OPTO-ISOLATOR GATE DRIVE POWER SUPPLY.
  6. 6. (1). 5 VOLT REGULATED SUPPLY- Earthing is used as a secondary protection Indicator Rectification unit A.C.mains RFchoke
  7. 7. 1. 5 VOLTS REGULATED SUPPLY- AC MAINS: 230V, 50HZ SUPPLY RF CHOCK: INDUCTOR HAS ABILITY TO RESIST ABRUPT CHANGES IN SUPPLY FREQUENCY DUE TO WHICH HIGH VOLTAGE PULSES ARE REMOVED. CAPACITOR BY PASSES AC AND BLOCKS DC. STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER: O/P IS 12 V AC. RECTIFIER CIRCUIT: IT CONSISTS OF LN4007 CONNECTED IN BRIDGE CONFIGURATION. 12AC INPUT IS CONVERTED INTO DC AND IT IS FURTHER GIVEN TO FILTER . FILTER: IT CONSISTS OF A CAPACITOR CONNECTED IN PARALLEL WITH BRIDGE RECTIFIER CIRCUIT. IT BYPASSES AC SPIKES IF ANY PRESENT AT THE OUTPUT OF RECTIFIER CIRCUIT. FILTER OUTPUT IS GIVEN TO REGULATOR. REGULATOR: CONSTANT 5V DC :
  8. 8. FIXED VOLTAGE REGULATION SCHEMES- THESE IC’S (LM 7805 C) ARE DESIGNED AS FIXED VOLTAGE REGULATOR. THESE IC’S ALSO HAVE THERMAL OVERLOAD PROTECTION AND INTERNAL SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT LIMITING. Features/ motive for using I.C. regulation- 1.Output current is not more than 1 A. 2.Internal thermal overload protection 3.No external components required 4.Output transistor safe area protection 5.Internal short circuit current limited
  9. 9. SPECIFICATION OF 5 VOLT REGULATED POWER SUPPLY- Design of regulated power supply 5V power supply Vac = {[(Vdc+Vreg+Vripple)/0.92] x [Vnormal / V lowline] x [1/2]} Vdc = required output = 5Vdc Vrect = drop across rectifier = 1.4V Vreg = drop in regulator = 2V Vripple = 10% of Vdc = 0.5V Vnormal = 230V V lowline = 90% of V normal = 207V Vac = {[12+1.4+2+1.2]/0.92] x [230 / 207] x [1/2]} Vac = 7.6V
  10. 10. SALIENT FEATURES OF USING VOLTAGE REGULATOR- TOTAL CURThe total current required from this power supply is les than 1A.RENT REQUIREMENT- THE TOTAL CURRENT REQUIREMENT IS LESS THAN 1 AMPERE. TRANSFORMER SELECTION- HENCE WE REQUIRED A TRANSFORMER RATED AT 15V CAPABLE OF SUPPLYING CURRENT OF SUPPLYING CURRENT OF 1A.( 230/12 VOLTS.) FILTER SELECTION- DUE TO THE USE OF VOLTAGE REGULATOR I.C. THE RISK OF TRANSIENTS, THERMAL OVERLOADING, IS MINIMIZED ; THEREFORE A SIMPLE CAPACITOR FILTER IS INSTALLED TO ELIMINATE INSTANTANEOUS CHANGES IN VOLTAGE, IN SERIES WITH BRIDGE CIRCUIT OF 1000 UF, 2.5V. RELAYS ARE USED FOR PROTECTION OF 12 V EACH.
  11. 11. 2. DIP SWITCHES- A DIP S/W IS A MANUAL ELECTRIC S/W THAT IS PACKED WITH OTHERS IN GROUP IN A STANDARD DUAL IN- PACKAGE (DIP) • DIP SWITCHES ARE USED AS INPUT TO THE MICROCONTROLLER 89C52. • THE DIP SWITCHES ARE CONSIST OF 8 PARALLEL SWITCHES; THEY ARE USED AS FOLLOWS, • SWITCH 1: TO TURN ON OR OFF THE WHOLE DIP. • SWITCH 2: TO SELECT THE 120 AND 180 DEG. MODE • SWITCH 3: MASKED. • SWITCH 4: MASKED. • SWITCH 5, 6, 7, & 8: USED TO GENERATE VARIABLE FREQUENCY. • THE OUTPUT OF THE DIP SWITCHES IS GIVEN TO THE PORT 1 OF MICROCONTROLLER 89C52 IS USED TO SELECT THE APPROPRIATE FREQUENCY AS WELLAS TO SELECT THE MODE OF OPERATION.
  12. 12. TYPES OF DIP SWITCHES- BASICALLY THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF DIP S/W’s- 1.ROTATARY DIP S/W 2.SLIDER DIP S/W 3.ROCKER DIP S/W A ROCKER- STYLE DIP SWITCH AAAAA SLIDE –STYLE DIP SWITCH AN EARLY DIP SWITCH (1976)
  13. 13. ADVANTAGES DIP SWITCHES- 1. QUICKER TO CHANGE IN CASE WORKING ACTION AND IN CASE OF REPAIRS AND ARE CHEAP. 2. NO LOSS OF ENERGY DURING SWITCHING PROCESS. 3. IT IS EASILY AVAILABLE & PROMINENTLY USED TO CUSTOMIZE THE BEHAVIOR OF AN ELECTRONIC DEVICE FOR SPECIFIC SITUATIONS. APPLICATIONS OF DIP (DUAL IN PACKAGE) SWITCHES- 1.MOSTLY USED EXTENSIVELY IN ARCHITECTURE OF PC EXPANSION CARDS AND MEMORY ADDRESS. 2. THEY ARE USED TO SET CODES ON GARAGE DOOR OPENERS AND AS WELL AS IN EARLY CORDLESS PHONES. 3. THEY ARE USED TO SET A DIFFERENT RADIO FREQUENCY FOR EACH TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER PAIR.
  14. 14. 3. MICROCONTROLLER 89C52 ).MICROCONTROLLER 89C52 IS MAINLY TO GENRATE A SIX PULSE OUTPUT IN 120DEG AND 180 DEG PHASE SHIFT MODE
  15. 15. MICROCONTROLLER AS A 6 PWM PULSE GENERATOR INTERFACING OF DIP AND 89C52 THESE ARE THE 6 PULSES WHICH ARE GENERATED TROUGH 89C52 INTERFACING OF 89C52 AND DIP SWITCH
  16. 16. MAIN AIM TO USE 89C52 IN OUR PROJECT-1. USED AS A TRIGGER TO INITIATE PULSE WAVE MODULATION. 2. EACH TIME A INTERUPT IS GENERATED WHEN A PARTICULAR TIME PERIOD FREQUENCY SELECTED FROM DIP SWITCH 3. 89C52 IS USED TO SELECT APPROPRIATE FREQUENCY AND TO SELECT A MODE OF OPERATION ADVANTAGES OF USING 89C52 OVER OTHER TRIGGERING CKTS- 1.EASY TO USE AND SIMPLE IN MANUPULATION 2.USER SAFTY IS MORE CONCERNED. 3. CHEAP IN COST. and transferred on output port to display the six-pulse PWM waveform. Each time an interrupt is g
  17. 17. 4. OPTOISOLATOR 1.OPTOISOLATOR IS ELECTRONIC COMPONENT THAT TRANSFERS ELETRICAL SIGNAL BETWEEN TWO ISOLATED CIRCUITS BY USING LIGHT 2. ACOMMON TYPE OF OPTOISOLATOR CONSISTS OF AN LED AND A PHOTOTRASISTOR 3.THESE ARE USUALLY USED TRANSMISSIONOF DIGITAL (ON/ OFF) SIGNALS 4. COMMERCIAL RANGE IS AVAILABLE UPTO 10KV
  18. 18. 5. SIGNAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT. 1.THE OUTPUT OF OPTOISOLATOR IS NOT SUFFICIENT FOR DRIVING THE MOSFET SO AMPLIFICATION OF SIGNAL IS REQUIRED. 2. THE DARLINGTON PAIR TIP 122 IS USED FOR AMPLIFICATION OF THE SIGNAL SUCH THAT SUFFICIENT TO DRIVE MOSFET CIRCUITARY. 3. THE DARLINTON PAIR OF TRANSISTORS IS MAINLY USED TO AMPLIFY THE CURRENT WHICH IS REQUIRED BY THE MOSFET FOR OPERATION.
  19. 19. SIGNAL AMPLIFIER AND ITS CIRCUITARY-
  20. 20. ROLE OF OPTOISOLATOR IN OUR PROJECT- 1. FAST ACTUATING CYCLES. 2. LOSS LESS TRANSFER OF SIGNALS (OTICAL SIGNAL TRANSFER) . 3. CHEAP IN COST AS COMPARED TO OTHER POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES. 4. COMPACT IN SIZE. 5. ISOLATES THE CONTROL CIRCUITARY FROM POWER CIRCUITARY. ONLY DEMERIT OF USING IS THAT IT REQUIRES AN ADDITIONAL SIGNAL AMPLIFICATION CIRCUIT AS THE OUTPUT OF OPTOISOLATOR IS LESS ENOUGH
  21. 21. 6. THREE PHASE INVERTOR CIRCUIT- 230 AC 50Hz is converted to unregulated 310vdc Rectification circuit for inverter operation Any lamp load MOSFET1 MOSFET INVERTER
  22. 22. ROLE OF INVERTER IN OUR PROJECT- 1. IT PROVIDES TOTAL ISOLATION OF THE INPUT SUPPLY AND OUTPUT TO THE MOTOR, ALLOWING US TO OPERATE A THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR ON A SINGLE PHASE SUPPLY. 2. IT CONVERTS THE DC SUPPLY TO AC SUPPLY. 3. PULSE WIDITH MODULATION IS A MAIN FACILITY WHICH IS PROVIDED TO INVERTER VIA GATE TRIGERING TO MOSFET.
  23. 23. ADVANTAGES OF PWM TECHNIQUES- I. IT IS POSSIBLE TO CONTROL THE OUTPUT VOLTAGE JUST BY CHANGING THE WIDTH OF THE PULSES OF PWM; WE USE HERE SINGLE PULSE MODULATION ,SIX STEP/ PULSE - a) 1200 MODE b) 1800 MODE 1. IT IS POSSIBLE TO SUBSTANTIALLY REDUCE OR ELIMINATE LOWER ORDER HARMONIC FREQUENCIES. 2. THE INPUT POWER FACTOR OF THIS TECHNIQUE IS HIGH. 3. ONLY 5% HARMONICS ARE REMAINING AT THE OUTPUT WHICH IS A ALLOWABLE IN INDUSTRIES.
  24. 24. 7. OPTOISOLATOR GATE DRIVE POWER SUPPLY CIRCUITARY 1. THIS EMPLOYS A SPECIAL FOUR WINDING TRANSFORMER. 2.THE 230V AC 50 HZ IS GIVEN TO THE PRIMARY WINDING OF THE TRANSFORMER. 3. THE SECONDARY WINDING OF THE TRANSFORMER IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR WINDING OF THE TRANSFORMER IS DIVIDED FOUR WINDING AMONG WHICH ONE IS CONNECTED TO THE THREE SEPARATE BRIDGE RECTIFIER CIRCUITS.
  25. 25. AUTOMATIC PHASE SELECTOR CIRCUIT RECTIFICATION CKT. CAPACITOR FILTER CONNECTOR LINE
  26. 26. FOUR WINDING TRANSFORMER s1 s2 s3 i=150mA I=150mA I=150mA I=300mA I=1.5AMP C1 C2 C3 S4 Bridge rectifier filter TO PHASE SELECTOR TO PREVENTOR
  27. 27. THREE PHASE APPLIANCE PROTECTOR
  28. 28. SPECIFICATION OF LOAD- INDUCTION MOTOR (3 PH)- • HP=0.25, • RPM=1440, • VTG=415, • AMP=0.6A, • Frequency=50Hz LOAD BANK (DUMMY LOAD)
  29. 29. APPLICATIONS- •SUGAR INDUSTRIES. •IN SPINNING AND TURNING JOBS. •VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVES (VFD’s) & VARIABLE SPEED DRIVES (VSD’s). •METAL WORKING INDUSTRIES. •PRODUCTION INDUSTRIES. •PROCESS INDUSTRIES. •ROLLING MILLS. •SAW MILLS. •ELEVATORS. •FOR CONTROLING SIMILAR APPLICATIONS IN INDUSTRIES................
  30. 30. •AUTO CHANGE OF SWITCH WITH FAILURE OF 2 PHASE •AUTOMATIC PHASE SELECTION/DETECTION •PREVENTER FOR 3 PHASE SUPPLY •CHECK’S THE PRESENCE OF SINGLE PHASE SUPPLY AND CONVERTS INTO THREE PHASE FOR 3 PHASE APPLIANCE •VARIABLE OUTPUT FREQUENCY FROM 10HZ TO 100HZ •CAN BE IMPLEMENTED BY USING IGBT •SPEED OF MOTOR CAN BE VARIED BY VARYING FREQUENCY •SINGLE PHASE TO THREE PHASE CONVERTER •DC TO AC VOLTAGE GENERATOR FEATURES-
  31. 31. FUTURE ADVANCEMENT- • IT CAN BE USEFUL COMPONENT IN “ELECTRIC CAR” MANUFACTURING. • UPGRADATION OF CIRCUIT CAN BE DONE BY USING SOFTWARE BASED CONTROLLERS AND USING THE MODERN THEORY IN SYNTHESIS OF WAVEFORMS. • ACCORDING TO LOAD REQUIREMENTS POWER- SEMICONDUCTORS CAN BE REPLACED. • BECAUSE OF THIS IMMENSE STRIDES OF THESE DRIVES; THESE ARE CAPTURING THE MARKET ON LARGE EXTENT.
  32. 32. BIBLIOGRAPHY- • “FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICAL DRIVES” by GOPAL K. DUBEY ,2ND EDITION (NAROSA PUBLISHING HOUSE) • “POWER ELECTRONICS” by DR. P.S. BIMBHRA (KHANNA PUBLISHERS, NEW DELHI). • “POWER ELCTRONICS” by MUHAMMED H. RASHID, 3RD EDITION , (PRINTICE HILL INC. NEW JERSEY). • “POWER ELECTRONICS” by P.C. SEN, (TATA MCGRAW –HILL PUBLICATION COMPANY LIMITED COMPANY, NEW DELHI) • MAGAZINE “ ELECTRONICS FOR YOU”. • IEEE PAPERS.
  33. 33. INTERNET REFERENCE- •www.phaseconverters.com •www.metalwebnews.com •www.grainger.com •www.kayind.com •www.phase-a-matic.com •www.youtube.com •www.wikipedia.com •www.google.com •www.americanarotary.com
  34. 34. QUESTIONING SESSION…
  35. 35. THANK YOU…

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