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PHYSICAL
FEATURES
OF
INDIA
PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA

India has a great diversity of landforms.
( Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Valleys,
Hills, Isla...
FORMATION
OF
PHYSICAL FEATURES
OF
INDIA
FORMATION OF PHYSICAL FEATURES

To understand the physical features of
India, we need to know how these
physical features...
Formation Of Physical Features
Interior Structure
of
the Earth
Interior Layers of the Earth
Energy inside the Earth

A tremendous amount of energy is given out due to the
differences in the temperature, density an...
Lithospheric Plates

Rising energy currents tear the crust apart,
dividing it into large fragments, called Tectonic
or Li...
Major Lithospheric Plates.
According to the Earth Scientists, the crust of
the earth has been formed out of seven major
an...
PLATE MOVEMENTS
The movement of the plates results in the building up
of stresses within the plates and the continental
ro...
PLATE BOUNDARIES

The point where two / more plates meet is known as
Plate Boundary.
 The movement of these lithospheric plates have
changed the position and size of the continents
over millions of years. T...
FORMATION OF PRESENT CONTINENTS
Formation
of
Himalayas
PHYSICAL DIVISIONS OF INDIA
India may be divided broadly into SIX physical
units : –
1) The Great Northern Mountains.
2) T...
PHYSICAL DIVISIONS OF INDIA
PHYSICAL DIVISIONS OF INDIA
1) THE GREAT NORTHERN MOUNTAINS
From Pamir Plateau in the west to the Indo-
Myanmar border in the east, there is a chain o...
A) THE KARAKORAM RANGE
The mountains extending between the Pamir
Plateau and the Indus river in Kashmir are
known as the K...

Located in the northern part of Jammu and Kashmir
State beyond the Indus river. This range runs roughly in
the east - we...

This mountain range contain some of the world's
largest mountain glaciers (Baltoro and Siachen).
Map of Mountain Glaciers

K 2 / Godwin Austin ( 8611 metres), the
second highest peak in the world and the first
hight peak in the Indian union be...
B) THE HIMALAYAS

The mountains extending between the Indus
river and the Brahmaputra river are called the
Himalayas ( ab...
The Himalayan Ranges
The Himalayas consist of main three parallel
ranges.
1) The Siwalik Range / The southernmost
The Oute...
THE HIMALAYAS
1) THE SIWALIK RANGE

The southernmost range of the Himalayas.

Average height of the range – between 1000
metres to 120...
2) THE MIDDLE / LESSER HIMALAYA

The ranges lying north of the Siwalik.

The Dholadhar & the Pir Panjal (J & K and
Himac...
3) THE GREATER HIMALAYAS / HIMADRI

The northernmost ranges of the Himalayas, are
the highest with an average height of m...
Mt. Everest ( 8848 metres ) in Nepal is
the world's highest peak.
Kanchenjunga ( 8598 metres ) in Sikkim is
the highest peak of the Himalayas, in India.
SOME OTHGER IMPORTANT PEAKS
Dhaulagiri(8172 m) Nepal
Makalu (8481 m)
Annapurna(8176m)
Gouri Sankar (7145 m)
Tibet
--------...
THREE LONGITUDINAL BELTS
PLAINS
SIWALIKS
MIDDLE HIMALAYAS
GREAT HIMALAYAS
1100 m
4500 m
6000 m
PASSES

Himalayan ranges are forbidding and can be
crossed by a few passes which are generally
higher than 4600 metres ab...
Karakoram Pass
SHIPKI LA
BARA LACHA LA
REGIONAL DIVISIONS OF HIMALAYAS

The Himalayas have been divided on the basis
of regions from west to east.

These divis...
REGIONWISE HIMALAYAS

Punjab Himalayas:--
The part of the Himalayas lying between Indus river
and Satluj river.

Kumaon ...
REGIONWISE HIMALAYAS

Nepal Himalayas:--
The part of the Himalayas lying between Kali river
and Tista river.

Assam Hima...
Map of Regional Himalayas
C) THE PURVANCHAL

The eastern extension of the Himalayan
mountains along the border of Myanmar is
known as the Purvancha...
North East India
The Purvachal

It is consist of the Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, Lushai,
Patkai – Bum, Miri and the Mishmi hills.
The Purvachal

These hills are mostly composed of strong
sandstones which are sedimentary rocks and
covered with dense fo...
Physical features of india g
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Physical features of india g

  1. 1. PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA
  2. 2. PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA  India has a great diversity of landforms. ( Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Valleys, Hills, Islands etc.)  They have been formed in different ways at a different period of time. They are constantly being modified and reshaped by the internal and external forces of the earth.
  3. 3. FORMATION OF PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA
  4. 4. FORMATION OF PHYSICAL FEATURES  To understand the physical features of India, we need to know how these physical features are formed and evolved.  The formation of the physical features of India is linked to the interior structure of the Earth.
  5. 5. Formation Of Physical Features Interior Structure of the Earth
  6. 6. Interior Layers of the Earth
  7. 7. Energy inside the Earth  A tremendous amount of energy is given out due to the differences in the temperature, density and state of the materials in the interior of the earth.  Energy moves in the form of waves from one place to another place.Due to the flow of energy, movements are generated in the interior of the earth.
  8. 8. Lithospheric Plates  Rising energy currents tear the crust apart, dividing it into large fragments, called Tectonic or Lithospheric Plates.
  9. 9. Major Lithospheric Plates. According to the Earth Scientists, the crust of the earth has been formed out of seven major and some minor plates.
  10. 10. PLATE MOVEMENTS The movement of the plates results in the building up of stresses within the plates and the continental rocks above, leading to folding, faulting and volcanic activity.
  11. 11. PLATE BOUNDARIES  The point where two / more plates meet is known as Plate Boundary.
  12. 12.  The movement of these lithospheric plates have changed the position and size of the continents over millions of years. These movements have also influenced the evolution of the present landform features of India.
  13. 13. FORMATION OF PRESENT CONTINENTS
  14. 14. Formation of Himalayas
  15. 15. PHYSICAL DIVISIONS OF INDIA India may be divided broadly into SIX physical units : – 1) The Great Northern Mountains. 2) The Northern Plains. 3) The Peninsular Plateau. 4) The Desert. 5) The Coastal Plains. 6) The Islands.
  16. 16. PHYSICAL DIVISIONS OF INDIA
  17. 17. PHYSICAL DIVISIONS OF INDIA
  18. 18. 1) THE GREAT NORTHERN MOUNTAINS From Pamir Plateau in the west to the Indo- Myanmar border in the east, there is a chain of mountains. They stretch almost uninterruptedly for about 3600 km and form an arc. The width of this mountain belt various between 150 km to 400 km. A) The Karakoram Range. B) The Himalayas. C) The Purvachal.
  19. 19. A) THE KARAKORAM RANGE The mountains extending between the Pamir Plateau and the Indus river in Kashmir are known as the Karakoram Range.
  20. 20.  Located in the northern part of Jammu and Kashmir State beyond the Indus river. This range runs roughly in the east - west direction.
  21. 21.  This mountain range contain some of the world's largest mountain glaciers (Baltoro and Siachen).
  22. 22. Map of Mountain Glaciers
  23. 23.  K 2 / Godwin Austin ( 8611 metres), the second highest peak in the world and the first hight peak in the Indian union belongs to this mountain range.
  24. 24. B) THE HIMALAYAS  The mountains extending between the Indus river and the Brahmaputra river are called the Himalayas ( abode / house of snow ).
  25. 25. The Himalayan Ranges The Himalayas consist of main three parallel ranges. 1) The Siwalik Range / The southernmost The Outer Himalaya range. 2) The lesser Himalaya / The ranges lying The Middle Himalaya / north of the The Himachal Siwalik 3) The Great Himalaya / The northernmost The Himadri ranges of the Himalayas.
  26. 26. THE HIMALAYAS
  27. 27. 1) THE SIWALIK RANGE  The southernmost range of the Himalayas.  Average height of the range – between 1000 metres to 1200 metres above the msl.  It's width varies between 10 to 50 km.  It is made of unconsolidated materials such as mud, silt, boulder and soft rocks. – Landslides. Soil erosion is at its worst in these ranges.  This is not a continuous range & merges with other ranges in the east.
  28. 28. 2) THE MIDDLE / LESSER HIMALAYA  The ranges lying north of the Siwalik.  The Dholadhar & the Pir Panjal (J & K and Himachal Pradesh), the Mussorie Range (Uttaranchal) and the Mahabharat Range (Nepal) belong to the Middle Himalaya.  Average height of the range – 4000 metres to 4500 metres and it's width is in about 80 km.  All the hill stations – Dalhousie, Dharmashala, Shimla, Mussorie, Nainital & Darjiling belong to this range ( Cool climate & scenic beauty ).
  29. 29. 3) THE GREATER HIMALAYAS / HIMADRI  The northernmost ranges of the Himalayas, are the highest with an average height of more than 6100 metres above the sea level. They contain some of the world's highest peaks.
  30. 30. Mt. Everest ( 8848 metres ) in Nepal is the world's highest peak.
  31. 31. Kanchenjunga ( 8598 metres ) in Sikkim is the highest peak of the Himalayas, in India.
  32. 32. SOME OTHGER IMPORTANT PEAKS Dhaulagiri(8172 m) Nepal Makalu (8481 m) Annapurna(8176m) Gouri Sankar (7145 m) Tibet -------- Namcha Barwa (7756 m ) Nanda Devi (7817 m) India Kamet (7756 m) Nanga Parbat (8125 m) Rakaposhi (7788 m)
  33. 33. THREE LONGITUDINAL BELTS PLAINS SIWALIKS MIDDLE HIMALAYAS GREAT HIMALAYAS 1100 m 4500 m 6000 m
  34. 34. PASSES  Himalayan ranges are forbidding and can be crossed by a few passes which are generally higher than 4600 metres above sea level.  The Burzil & the Zojila – Jammu & Kashmir.  The Baralachala & the Shipkila Himachal Pradesh  The Nathula & Jelepla – Sikkim
  35. 35. Karakoram Pass
  36. 36. SHIPKI LA
  37. 37. BARA LACHA LA
  38. 38. REGIONAL DIVISIONS OF HIMALAYAS  The Himalayas have been divided on the basis of regions from west to east.  These divisions have been demarcated by river valleys.
  39. 39. REGIONWISE HIMALAYAS  Punjab Himalayas:-- The part of the Himalayas lying between Indus river and Satluj river.  Kumaon Himalayas:-- The part of the Himalayas lying between Satluj river and Kali river.
  40. 40. REGIONWISE HIMALAYAS  Nepal Himalayas:-- The part of the Himalayas lying between Kali river and Tista river.  Assam Himalayas:-- The part of the Himalayas lying between Tista river and Dihang river.
  41. 41. Map of Regional Himalayas
  42. 42. C) THE PURVANCHAL  The eastern extension of the Himalayan mountains along the border of Myanmar is known as the Purvanchal or the Eastern Hills and Mountains.
  43. 43. North East India
  44. 44. The Purvachal  It is consist of the Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, Lushai, Patkai – Bum, Miri and the Mishmi hills.
  45. 45. The Purvachal  These hills are mostly composed of strong sandstones which are sedimentary rocks and covered with dense forests.

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