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Egypt

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Egypt

  1. 1. nadyaaMcyaa KaooáyaatIla saMskRtI nadyaaMcyaa Kaoáyaat ipNyaasaazI va isaMcanaasaazI maubalak paNaI ]plabQa Asalyaanao tsaoca SaotIsaazI saupIk jamaIna AaiNa pSaupalanaasaazI kurNao ]plbaQa Asalyaanao sava- p`acaIna saMskRtIMcaa ]dya AaiNa ivakasa nadyaaMcyaa Kaoryaat Jaalaa .
  2. 2. [ijaiPSyana saMskRtI : mah<vaacao mau_o 1.naa[-la nadIcao mah<va. 2.Aaiqa-k jaIvana. 3.samaaja vyavasqaa. 4.samaaja jaIvana. 5.rajyavyavasqaa. 6.klaa va iva&ana.
  3. 3. The 5th-century bc Greek historian Herodotus traveled extensively throughout the Mediterranean world, observing the different peoples he encountered. When writing about Egypt, he discussed the pyramids. Herodotus
  4. 4. ijaPt : p`mauK eoithaisak izkaNao
  5. 5. A French officer of Napoleon’s engineering corps found this stone near the city of Rashîd (Rosetta), Egypt, in 1799. Known as the Rosetta Stone, it provided the key to the translation of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs. The Rosetta Stone, inscribed in 196 bc, contains the same message—a decree praising the Egyptian King Ptolemy V—carved in three different scripts: Egyptian hieroglyphs, Egyptian demotic, and Greek. Scholars deciphered the hieroglyphic and demotic versions by comparing them to the Greek translation Rosetta Stone
  6. 6. raoJaoTa yaoqaIla iSalaalaoK [.sa.1798: f`oMca saonaanaI naopaoilayana baaonaapaT- yaanao [ijaPtvar svaarI kolaI. %yaacyaa saOinakaMnaa raoJaoTa yaoqao ha iSalaalaoK saapDlaa. iSalaalaoK hayaraoiglaifk ilapIt Aaho. yaa iSalaalaoKa KalaI majakUracao ga``IkBaaYaaMtr Aaho %yaamauLo hI ilapI
  7. 7. [ijaPtmaQaIla rajyakto-
  8. 8. f^rao [ijaPtmaQaIla laaok rajaalaa f^rao mhNat. %yaalaa saUya-pu~ maanat, . tao rajyap`mauK tsaoca Qama-p`mauK haota. rajaalaa madtIsaazI vairYz maMDL Asao. kamao
  9. 9. a [ijaP%a maQaIla s~I rajyak%yaa- raNaI haTSaosauT gaatIla pihlaI s~I rajyaktI- raNaI naoif`iTTI iva#yaat p`Saasak
  10. 10.  This paintedThis painted limestone bust oflimestone bust of the ancientthe ancient Egyptian queenEgyptian queen Nefertiti dates fromNefertiti dates from about 1350 bcabout 1350 bc (Staatliche(Staatliche Museen, Berlin).Museen, Berlin).  Wife of Akhenaton,Wife of Akhenaton, NefertitiNefertiti supportedsupported and assisted herand assisted her husband inhusband in implementing newimplementing new religiousreligious ceremonies duringceremonies during the mid-14ththe mid-14th century bc.century bc. NefertitiNefertiti
  11. 11. Aamaonahaotop : raNaI haTSaosaUT Qama-sauQaark va SaaMtIcaa purskta-
  12. 12. samaaja vyavasqaa : [ijaPt maQaIla samaaja tIna p`mauK vagaa-t ivaBaagalaolaa haota. Paihlaa vaga- : rajaa va %yaacao naatovaa[-k, , Qama- gau$saamaMt ,]ccapdsqa dusara vaga- : vyaaparI ,vaastuiSalpI , klaakar , vaOV , [trbauiwjaIvaI , itsara vaga- : karagaIr , SaotkrI , majaUr ,
  13. 13. samaaja vyavasqaa :
  14. 14. tIna vagaa-tIla laaokaMcao jaIvana Paihlyaa daona vagaa-tIla jaIvana samaRQd haoto. itsaryaa vagaa-tIla laaokaMnaa va gaulaamaaMnaa sa@tInao ipr^imaD ,kalavao ,rsto tyaar krNao [.kamao krNyaasaazI rabavaUna Gaot Asat.
  15. 15. laaokjaIvana kuTuMba samaajaacaa maUlaBaUt GaTk. is~yaaMnaa samaajaat mah%%vaacao sqaana saMp%tIcaa vaarsaa Aa[- kDUna maulaIkDo jaat Asao. is~yaa va pu$Ya daoGaohI ivaivaQa AlaMkaracaa SarIr sauSaaoBanaasaazI krIt Asat. kMzhar ,kNa-BaUYaNao , r%najaDIt baaMgaDyaa ,AMgazyaa [.AlaMkar
  16. 16. [ijaPt maQaIla manaaorMjanaacaI caamaDyaacao ikMvaa gavatacao caoMDU maatIcyaa va laakDacyaa baahulyaa hI maulaaMcaI KoLNaI haotI. maaozI maaNasao bauQdIbaL ,pT [.baOzo KoL KoLt Asat.
  17. 17.  HockeyHockey  Ancient Egyptians played aAncient Egyptians played a game that is similar to ourgame that is similar to our present-day hockey.present-day hockey. Drawings on tombs at BeniDrawings on tombs at Beni Hassan in MeniaHassan in Menia Archery was a well-known sport in Ancient Egypt .In the 21st century BC King Amenhotep II boasted that he pierced the middle of a thick brass target with four arrows. He then set a prize for anyone who could do the same.ypt . There are many drawings of scenes of fishing hobbySaqqara tombs
  18. 18. History records that the Pharaoh, together with those who were born on the same day of his birth, participated in hectic marathons. No one was allowed to have a meal before covering 180 stages of his race. One of the ancient Egyptian plates at the "Marorika tomb" Tug of Warmarathon
  19. 19. naaOkaivahar saMgaIt mauiYTyauQdotomb of "Mery Ra"
  20. 20. [tr KoL naomabaajaI Baalaafok Baarao%taolana jalatrNa ]Mca}DI
  21. 21. Aaiqa-k jaIvana SaotI ha Aaiqa-k jaIvanaacaa payaa haota SaotIsaazI laakDacaa ] pyaaoga krIt gahU ,saatU
  22. 22. [tr vyavasaaya maasaomaarI ,kuMBaarkama ,sautarkama , baaMQakama ,ivaNakama ,jahajabaaMQaNaI , [ijaPtmaQaIla laaok kapUsa va tagaacyaa
  23. 23. period (5000 bc-3000 bc) MBaarkama
  24. 24. ceramic pieces have been made along the Nile for more than 7,000 years.
  25. 25. [ijaiPSayana klaa sqaap%ya klaa :ipr^imaD iSalpklaa : isfM@sa , maMidro , ica`~klaa : maatIcaI BaaMDI, ,kacaocyaa vastU , maMidro ,ipr^imaDcyaa iBaMtI [. var
  26. 26. laoKnaklaa: ppayarsa pasaUna kagad.kajaLI ,iDMk ,paNaI yaapasaUna Saa[- saurvaatIsa
  27. 27. [ijaiPSayana[ijaiPSayana sqaapsqaap %ya klaa :%ya klaa : ipr^imaDipr^imaD
  28. 28. videovideo Click here to play video
  29. 29. gaIJagaIJa aa
  30. 30. ipr^imaD dgaDaMcyaa p`caMD iSaLa ekmaokaMvar rcaUna Anaok maaozI dalanao Asalaolyaa i~kaoNaakRtI Bavya [maartI maQya dalanaat maRt SarIr zovalaolao Asao. maR%yaUnaMtr dfnaasaazI rajao va EaImaMt laaok Asao ipr^imaD baaMQat. igaJaa yaoqaIla ipr^imaD [.sa.pU.29maQyao ha KufU rajaacaa savaa-t Bavya ipr^imaDbaaMQalaa gaolaa.
  31. 31. ipr^imaD caI AMtga-t rcanaa
  32. 32. Mount SinaiMount Sinai At 2,637 m (8,652 ft), the top of Mount Sinai offers a spectacular view ofAt 2,637 m (8,652 ft), the top of Mount Sinai offers a spectacular view of the surrounding jagged peaks and steep slopesthe surrounding jagged peaks and steep slopes Naaryaa p`caMD iSaLa yaaca isanaa[-cyaa DaoMga
  33. 33.  The Bent Pyramid, constructed in Egypt during the reign of King SneferuThe Bent Pyramid, constructed in Egypt during the reign of King Sneferu (2575 bc-2551 bc), was constructed in two stages. In the first stage, the(2575 bc-2551 bc), was constructed in two stages. In the first stage, the architects built the walls at an angle of 55 degrees. Then theyarchitects built the walls at an angle of 55 degrees. Then they encountered structural problems and flattened the angle to 43 degrees.encountered structural problems and flattened the angle to 43 degrees. The pyramid’s unusual shape gave it its name.The pyramid’s unusual shape gave it its name.
  34. 34. Step Pyramid, Şaqqārah The Step Pyramid of King Djoser was built during the 3rd Dynasty at Şaqqārah, Egypt. It was designed by the architect Imhotep. The pyramid was the first monumental royal tomb and is one of the oldest stone structures in Egypt.
  35. 35.  The Pyramid ofThe Pyramid of Khafre was builtKhafre was built as the final restingas the final resting place of theplace of the pharaoh Khafrepharaoh Khafre and is about 136and is about 136 m (446 ft) high.m (446 ft) high. Pyramid of Khafre at Giza
  36. 36. Located on the west bank of the Nile River on the outskirts of Cairo,Located on the west bank of the Nile River on the outskirts of Cairo, the pyramids at Giza, Egypt, rank as some of the best-knownthe pyramids at Giza, Egypt, rank as some of the best-known monuments in the world.monuments in the world.
  37. 37. This dig, near the Great Pyramid at Giza, uncovered a cemetery forThis dig, near the Great Pyramid at Giza, uncovered a cemetery for many of the workers who built the pyramid.many of the workers who built the pyramid...
  38. 38. @sa , maMidro , orIla isfM@sa o maanavaI caohra va isaMhacao SarIr A aoqaIla dgaDat kaorlaolao rajaaMcao Bav ocaI ]dahrNao haoya. maMidracyaa kaorIva Bavya stMBaaMva ao ]BaI rahU Saktat.
  39. 39. Giza's Sphinx and the Great Pyramids The mysterious Sphinx, with its lion's body and man's head, and the perfect symmetry of the pyramids at Giza are world-renowned symbols of Egypt's ancient heritage.
  40. 40. Great Sphinx More than 4000 years old, the Great Sphinx of Giza is the most famous emblem of ancient Egypt.
  41. 41. videovideo T304573a.wmv
  42. 42. AbauisaMbalaAbauisaMbala
  43. 43. Ramses II Ramses II devoted his reign to building great monuments such as the Great Hall of the Temple of Amon at Al Karnak and many of the temples at Abū Simbel.
  44. 44. Temple at Al Karnak, Egypt The group of temples at Al Karnak were built over a period of approximately 1,500 years. Some of the most important additions were made by Thutmose III, who ruled Egypt during the 1400s bc .
  45. 45. Hypostyle Hall, Temple of Amon at Karnak The hypostyle hall at the Temple of Amon in Karnak, Egypt, has more than 100 columns, each more than 20 m (70 ft) high. The hall was built during the reign of Ramses II in the 1200s bc.
  46. 46. Luxor Temple Thebes, ancient capital of Egypt, was the site of the Luxor Temple.
  47. 47. The temple of Hatshepsut is a rock- cut tomb and mortuary temple built in the 15th century bc at Dayr al Ba rī near Thebes..ḩ The surrounding area was planted with trees and flowers during Hatshepsut’s reign and for many years after. Temple of Hatshepsut
  48. 48. This relief, from the 5th Dynasty (2465 bc-2323 bc), shows the deceased seated at a table stacked with offerings of food. .
  49. 49. Death Mask of Tutankhamun The death mask of Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun is made of gold inlaid with colored glass and semiprecious stone. The mask comes from the innermost mummy case in the pharaoh’s tomb, and stands 54 cm (21 in) high.
  50. 50.  Egyptian MummyEgyptian Mummy  The ancient EgyptiansThe ancient Egyptians are believed to be theare believed to be the first people to practicefirst people to practice embalming, in which aembalming, in which a dead body is artificiallydead body is artificially preserved to retard thepreserved to retard the decaying process. Thedecaying process. The Egyptians believed thatEgyptians believed that it was necessary toit was necessary to preserve a body in orderpreserve a body in order to allow the soul toto allow the soul to survive.survive.
  51. 51. British archaeologist Howard Carter, left, and an unidentified assistant examine an Egyptian mummy inside an ornate sarcophagus. Carter’s major discoveries include the tombs of Thutmose IV, Queen Hatshepsut, and Tutankhamun.
  52. 52. •This mummy is the body of gender-bending female pharaoh Hatshepsut, who ruled ancient Egypt as both queen and king nearly 3,500 years ago, archaeologists announced today. haTSaosaUT raNaIcaI
  53. 53. Osiris and Anubis Egyptian mythological figure Osiris lived in the fabled underworld as the ruler of the dead [ijaiPSyana Qama-klpn
  54. 54. In Egyptian mythology, Isis is the goddess of motherhood and fertility temple of Isis, Memphis
  55. 55. Cat Goddess This bronze figure with inlaid blue-glass eyes dates from Egypt’s Late Period (712-332 bc Egyptian Goddess Selket Gold leaf covers this statue of the goddess Selket, found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun of Egypt. Selket, the goddess who heals bites and stings, is portrayed as a beautiful woman with a scorpion on her head. Gold leaf is made by hammering solid gold metal until it is very thin.
  56. 56.  In this sunken relief sculptureIn this sunken relief sculpture (carved into the surface of the(carved into the surface of the stone), Akhenaton is shownstone), Akhenaton is shown making an offering to Aton,making an offering to Aton, who is depicted as a solarwho is depicted as a solar disk.disk... Horus was the god of sky, light, and goodness. He is often depicted as a falcon or with a falcon’s head. Pharoahs were associated with Horus.
  57. 57. The Egyptian god Ptah was, among other things, patron of the arts and of artisans. Anubis and the Mummy The ancient Egyptians believed that their god of the dead, Anubis, was the inventor of embalming
  58. 58. Amon-Ra, Father of the Gods appears frequently in ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs and art. For the Egyptians, the ankh sign represented life.
  59. 59.  Temple at LuxorTemple at Luxor  The ancient Egyptian temple at LuxorThe ancient Egyptian temple at Luxor on the east bank of the Nile River wason the east bank of the Nile River was built to honor the gods. Begun in thebuilt to honor the gods. Begun in the 1200s bc, it was added to by each1200s bc, it was added to by each succeeding dynasty. The use ofsucceeding dynasty. The use of colossal statues and obelisks was acolossal statues and obelisks was a standard for all Egyptian temples atstandard for all Egyptian temples at that time. This temple was connectedthat time. This temple was connected to the temple at Al Karnak by a streetto the temple at Al Karnak by a street about 3.5 km (2 mi) long, lined withabout 3.5 km (2 mi) long, lined with hundreds of sphinxes. Once a year thehundreds of sphinxes. Once a year the image of the god Amon wasimage of the god Amon was transported by barge from Al Karnak totransported by barge from Al Karnak to Luxor, as part of a huge festival.Luxor, as part of a huge festival.
  60. 60.  dated about 1400 bc, duringdated about 1400 bc, during
  61. 61.  Section of the Egyptian Book of the DeadSection of the Egyptian Book of the Dead  The Egyptian Book of the Dead was a text containing prayers,The Egyptian Book of the Dead was a text containing prayers, spells, and hymns, the knowledge of which was to be used by thespells, and hymns, the knowledge of which was to be used by the dead to guide and protect the soul on the hazardous journeydead to guide and protect the soul on the hazardous journey through the afterlife. Beginning in the 18th Dynasty, the Book of thethrough the afterlife. Beginning in the 18th Dynasty, the Book of the Dead was inscribed on papyrus.Dead was inscribed on papyrus.
  62. 62. 1 2 3 4
  63. 63.  The Egyptians -The Egyptians - not the ancientnot the ancient Greeks - were theGreeks - were the true founders oftrue founders of medicine,medicine, according to aaccording to a study thatstudy that pushes back thepushes back the origins of healingorigins of healing by at least aby at least a millennium.millennium. Imhotep is nowImhotep is now regarded as theregarded as the father offather of medicine.medicine.
  64. 64. hayaraoiglaifk ilapItIla majakUr

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