Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The Public Health Benefits of Smokey Coal Ban – and today’s challenges – Prof Luke Clancy

640 views

Published on

Presentation given by Prof Luke Clancy at the 2015 Clean Air Conference, 28/09/15, Dublin

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

The Public Health Benefits of Smokey Coal Ban – and today’s challenges – Prof Luke Clancy

  1. 1. The Public Health Benefits of Smokey Coal Ban -and todays challenges Prof Luke Clancy Director General TobaccoFree Research Institute Ireland Clean Air Conference 2015 Sept 28th Wood Quay Venue Dublin City Council 1
  2. 2. Improving Air Quality Ambient Outdoor Dublin Smog- 1990 Ban on sale ,marketing and distribution of bituminous coal- SI 1st September 1990 Indoors Public Places Smoke filled Pubs- 29th March 2004 Public Health (Tobacco) (Amendment) Act 2004 (Commencement) Order 2004.
  3. 3. Smogfree Ireland 1990-2015 Prof Luke Clancy, Director General TobaccoFree Research Institute Ireland
  4. 4. 9/1/2006 4 London 1952
  5. 5. 6
  6. 6. 9/1/2006 7 Daytime in Dublin Jan. 1982
  7. 7. 8 Dublin 1982 Case Fatality Rates Kelly I. and Clancy Luke, Irish Medical Journal; 77:10: 322-324. 1984 CFR 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Jan '80 Jan '81 Jan '82 Jan '83 Date
  8. 8. Dublin Borough 0 200 400 600 800 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 January 1982 BlackSmoke(ug/m3) 15 20 25 30 35 40 Deaths Deaths Black Smoke
  9. 9. 10 DUBLIN 1982 The SMOG event was associated with a cold spell of weather with a temperature inversion. This event was 30 years after the infamous London 1952 episode.
  10. 10. Mortality in a general hospital and urban air pollution. Kelly I, Clancy L Ir Med J. 1984 Oct; 77(10):322-4.
  11. 11. Data Points Individual stations recorded BS levels up to 1400 micrograms/m3 during the SMOG Mortality average of 16 deaths/day for Jan 22 deaths/day in SMOG episode Max 38 deaths on 14th Jan
  12. 12. Discussion Half of the Cardiovascular excess mortality occurred during the week of the SMOG Two thirds of the excess Respiratory Mortality occurred after the SMOG had subsided. The Dublin SMOG event gave rise to about 33 excess deaths per 100,000 of population (London 1952 approx. 47).
  13. 13. Oct 1985
  14. 14. “THE SITUATION HAS BEEN EXAGGERATED”
  15. 15. Conclusions Air quality in Dublin is not the problem some commentators would have us believe. The cost of the introduction of a smokeless zone policy could involve the expenditure of £180,000,000. The scientific evidence about the effects of smokeless zones on Dublin’s air quality is most uncertain as the basic research has yet to be carried out - no Urban Air Pollution Dispersion Model exists for Dublin.
  16. 16. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Geoffrey J. Bourke, M.D., F.R.C.P.I., Professor of Community Medicine and Epidemiology, University College, Dublin. Frank J. Convery, Heritage Trust Professor of Environmental Studies, University College, Dublin. W.J.R. Couchman F.R.S.H., F.I.D.H.E., Couchman & Associates, Consulting Engineers, Foxrock, Dublin 18. John Kelly, B.E., Ph.D., Dean of Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, University College, Dublin. Hugh Munro, B.E. C.Eng., F.I.E.I., F.C.I.B.S., Consulting Engineer, 56 Tritonville Road, Dublin 4. Peter Skrabanek, Ph.D., Lecturer in Community Medicine, Trinity College, Dublin. National Coal Board, London and Glasgow. In compiling this casebook we wish to gratefully acknowledge the contributions made by the following people and organisations
  17. 17. 1st SEPT 1990 Sale Distribution Marketing
  18. 18. Dublin Black Smoke levels before and after the intervention Black Smoke 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 mg/m3
  19. 19. Excess mortality (1982 SMOG event against average 1980-1996) Respiratory Cardiovascular Total (Weekly data) 33 (122%) 34 (65%) 83 (73%) (Monthly data) 91 (77%) 71 (30%) 172 (34%)
  20. 20. Effect of air-pollution control on death rates in Dublin, Ireland: an intervention study. Clancy L, Goodman P, Sinclair H, Dockery DW. Lancet. 2002 Oct 19;360(9341):1210-4.
  21. 21. Cause-specific mortality and the extended effects of particulate pollution and temperature exposure.
  22. 22. 84-90 90-96 84-90 90-96 84-90 90-96 84-90 90-96 Dublin 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 Deathsper1000PYr Dublin Death Rate Before and After Ban Summer Autumn Winter Spring
  23. 23. Improving Air Quality • Dublin Smog- 1990 Ban on sale ,marketing and distribution of bituminous coal- SI 1st September 1990 • Smoke filled Pubs- 29th March 2004 Public Health (Tobacco) (Amendment) Act 2004 (Commencement) Order 2004.
  24. 24. Smokefree Ireland 2004-2014 A global leader in Tobacco Control Prof Luke Clancy, Director General TobaccoFree Research Institute Ireland
  25. 25. Smokefree Outcome Measurements SHS Exposure Particles PM2.5, PM10 Benzene Nicotine Health Effects Respiratory Symptoms Sensory irritation Symptoms PFT measurements, (FEV1, FVC, P.F) Carbon Monoxide, Cotinine
  26. 26. Result: Average PM2.5 Levels Pre Ban Range: 3.2 to 315.1 (mgm-3) Post Ban Range: 21.4 to 0.6 (mgm-3) Benzene 18.8(14) 3.72(1.6) -80.2% P<0.01 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 Pre Ban Post Ban 35.5 5.8 Micrograms/m3 Time of Monitoring Average PM2.5 Levels (42 pubs)
  27. 27. Outcome measures-Mortality Reduction in • IHD • COPD and • STROKE 3,726 fewer smoking-related deaths over a 4 yr. period It has reduced Health Inequalities in Ireland
  28. 28. Understanding Advocacy Roles Governments/Institutions adopt policies in a climate of public readiness Public health advocates need to shift public opinion in the right direction Political action becomes compelling Political inaction becomes a liability
  29. 29. CONCLUSIONS The ban on smoky coal in Dublin was an immediate success. It has helped to safeguard health by reducing exposure to the harmful effects of outdoor air pollution It has reduced Cardiovascular, Cerebrovascular and Respiratory Mortality in the general population
  30. 30. Acknowledgements Pre-Ban Micheal Bailey (Foras Forbartha) John Gormley Karen Dubsky (Irish Clean Air Group) The People of Templeogue in Dublin, the people of Mahon in Cork Frank McDonald (IT),David Hanley (Morning Ireland),Marian Finucane (Liveline) Post-Ban Doug Dockery and Pat Goodman

×