Sustainable Transport - David Browne, Brian Caulfield & Margaret O’Mahony - EPA Conference June 2010


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Sustainable Transport - David Browne, Brian Caulfield & Margaret O’Mahony - EPA Conference June 2010

  1. 1.   Sustainable Transport by David Browne, Brian Caulfield & Margaret O’Mahony Centre for Transport Research (TRIP), School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (TCD)   Funded by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transport
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Identify and evaluate potential socio-economic, political, institutional, legal and technical barriers to sustainable travel and transport </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts of potential policies which could help overcome these barriers and to ensure that the transport system and services evolve along more sustainable trajectories </li></ul><ul><li>Identify research priorities </li></ul>
  3. 3. Potential barriers from literature <ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Technical or market availability </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional and administrative </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to attract public acceptability </li></ul><ul><li>Legal or regulatory </li></ul><ul><li>Policy failures or unintended outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul>
  4. 4. Barriers evaluated according to: <ul><li>Timeline: short, medium or long-term </li></ul><ul><li>Level of subsidiarity: international, EU, national, regional, local </li></ul><ul><li>Type of policy measure required: fiscal, technical, regulatory, legal, guidelines, education awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Actor: Gov, transport operators, state agencies, local authorities, general public, industry etc </li></ul><ul><li>Specific relevance to Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Significance: how big an obstacle to sustainable transport </li></ul>
  5. 5. Barriers to <ul><li>modal shift </li></ul><ul><li>travel demand or mobility management </li></ul><ul><li>integrated transport and more efficient institutional arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>alternative fuels and technologies </li></ul><ul><li>fuel economy </li></ul><ul><li>behavioural and cultural change </li></ul>‘ Dublinbike’ Station
  6. 6. Short-term barrier priorities <ul><li>Inflexible bus services </li></ul><ul><li>Poor public transport service quality perception </li></ul>Metro bus project in Istanbul (Daimler)
  7. 7. Medium-term barrier priorities I <ul><li>Insufficient funding to improve reliability and provide high quality public transport service quality </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete and discontinuous cycle networks </li></ul><ul><li>Perception that walking and cycling are unsafe and potentially hazardous </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of vehicle and fuel taxation </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient , affordable or suitable high-density housing for families in urban areas </li></ul>A ‘Cargo bike’ in Copenhagen
  8. 8. Medium-term barrier priorities II <ul><li>Planning and zoning – expansive commuting footprints around Irish cities and towns </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of alternative fuels and vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively low or fluctuating market price for fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of social, economic or environmental impacts of travel and transport </li></ul>
  9. 9. Long-term barrier priorities <ul><li>Limited public transport coverage particularly in rural or low-density rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Poor rail freight options </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of fiscal measures </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced regional development </li></ul><ul><li>Historic urban sprawl </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructural challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Car ownership symbolism </li></ul>
  10. 10. Local Authority ranking of barriers <ul><li>Lack of alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Resource constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Public acceptability </li></ul><ul><li>Physical barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts to commercial activity and competitiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Political and institutional resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Additional costs to network users </li></ul><ul><li>Legal and regulatory barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of technical guidance and modelling tools </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sustainability appraisal criteria used to evaluate policies <ul><li>Modal shift </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in GHG emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on rural communities </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on lower socio-economic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Net additional cost to consumer </li></ul><ul><li>Net additional cost to exchequer </li></ul>
  12. 12. Short-term policy recommendations <ul><li>National public transport network analysis review </li></ul><ul><li>Financial incentives to discourage car travel during peak hours </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage rail freight </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing car parking spaces at work places </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives and support for e-working </li></ul><ul><li>Residential housing density guidelines – fit for purpose and suitable for multi-person households </li></ul><ul><li>On-line and mobile phone accessible national travel information portal </li></ul><ul><li>Fiscal incentives for alternative fuelled vehicles </li></ul>
  13. 13. Medium-term policy recommendations <ul><li>Improvements in existing cycling and walking infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace parking levies </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for ‘soft support measures’ </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of school travel plans </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate effectiveness of National Spatial Strategy and Regional Planning Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of mandatory local transport plans with development plans </li></ul>
  14. 14. Long-term policy recommendations <ul><li>Extension of public transport infrastructure and services </li></ul><ul><li>Complete infrastructural projects in Transport 21 </li></ul><ul><li>Development of national walking and cycling network </li></ul><ul><li>Restructured vehicle and fuel taxation to internalise all external costs of transport </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of balanced regional development and creation of strong local economies </li></ul>
  15. 15. Local Authority policy priorities <ul><li>Education and awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Investment in walking and cycling infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Improved public transport services </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced regional development and spatial planning </li></ul><ul><li>Developing local transport and land use plans </li></ul><ul><li>Policy integration and institutional cooperation </li></ul>
  16. 16. Lower priority policies for Local Authorities <ul><li>Freight modal shift </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of eco-driving </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure for alternative fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Lower speed limits </li></ul>
  17. 17. Research Priorities I <ul><li>Consumer attitude surveys to assess potential behavioural change </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate of structural demand and discretionary travel price elasticities </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative analysis of potential fiscal measures </li></ul><ul><li>Best practice of retrofitting and achieving sustainable neighbourhoods </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection on non-commuting travel and freight transport movements </li></ul>“ They’ll do anything to avoid the congestion charge”
  18. 18. Research Priorities II <ul><li>Development of guidelines for local transport plans </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-criteria analysis of fuel and technology options for public bus transport and fiscal instruments to support AFVs </li></ul><ul><li>Research into the possible ‘rebound effect’ associated with more fuel efficient vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Potential incentives for road freight efficiency and freight modal shift </li></ul>