15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP),Dublin | Ton Manders1The economics of airquality andassociated policyresponses
15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP),Dublin | Ton Manders2ContentOECD Environmental Outlookto 2050Co-benefitsCosts and be...
15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP), Dublin | Ton Manders3Urban air pollution to become top by 20500.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2...
Urban air pollution worse than WHO guidelines15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP), Dublin | Ton Manders40 20 40 60 80 100...
Premature deaths (PM) more than double15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP), Dublin | Ton Manders50.00.51.01.52.02.53.03.5...
OECD high premature death rates from ground-level ozone15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP), Dublin | Ton Manders60204060...
Co-benefits of Air Pollution Policy Air pollution policy depends on end-of-pipe controls (< 50%) Required emission reduc...
15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP), Dublin | Ton Manders8
Costs and benefits - general Methodology– Discounting– Valuation (VOLY)– Scope Costs– Agriculture (NH3, manure)– Transpo...
Costs and benefits - Netherlands15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP), Dublin | Ton Manders10
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 203011
Health impacts: years of life lost, 203012
Sea-based versus land-based air policies:cost and benefits and cost-effectiveness compared13
Good is not alway best - optimal policy15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP), Dublin | Ton Manders14
Take away Air quality/pollution is a policy topic of sustained importanceglobally into the future Air quality/pollution ...
References OECD (2012), OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050, OECD PBL (2012), Air Pollution Policy in Europe: Quantifying...
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The economics of air quality and associated policy responses - Ton Manders

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The economics of air quality and associated policy responses - Ton Manders

  1. 1. 15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP),Dublin | Ton Manders1The economics of airquality andassociated policyresponses
  2. 2. 15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP),Dublin | Ton Manders2ContentOECD Environmental Outlookto 2050Co-benefitsCosts and benefits
  3. 3. 15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP), Dublin | Ton Manders3Urban air pollution to become top by 20500.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0ParticulateMatterGround-levelozoneUnsafe WaterSupply and…Indoor AirPollutionMalariaDeaths (millions of people)201020302050Global premature deaths fromselected environmental risks: Baseline, 2010 to 2050
  4. 4. Urban air pollution worse than WHO guidelines15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP), Dublin | Ton Manders40 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220OECDBrazilRussiaIndiaIndonesiaChinaAfricaSouth…μg/m3201020302050WHO Air Quality Guideline20PM10 concentration in major cities: Baseline, 2010-2050
  5. 5. Premature deaths (PM) more than double15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP), Dublin | Ton Manders50.00.51.01.52.02.53.03.54.02000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050Deaths(millionsofpeople)OECD BRIICS RoWPremature deaths worldwide from exposure to PM: Baseline
  6. 6. OECD high premature death rates from ground-level ozone15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP), Dublin | Ton Manders6020406080100120140OECD India South +SE Asia Other countriesDeathspermillioninhabitants2010 2030 2050Premature deaths linked to ground-level ozone worldwide: BaselineNumber of deaths per million inhabitants
  7. 7. Co-benefits of Air Pollution Policy Air pollution policy depends on end-of-pipe controls (< 50%) Required emission reduction will come from changes in theuse of energy (>50%)– efficiency improvements– fuel switching– other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions decrease, which renders climatechange policies less costly.15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP), Dublin | Ton Manders7
  8. 8. 15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP), Dublin | Ton Manders8
  9. 9. Costs and benefits - general Methodology– Discounting– Valuation (VOLY)– Scope Costs– Agriculture (NH3, manure)– Transport (inland shipping), consumers– Manufacturing, refineries Benefits– Health (premature deaths)– Nature– Economic15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP), Dublin | Ton Manders9
  10. 10. Costs and benefits - Netherlands15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP), Dublin | Ton Manders10
  11. 11. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 203011
  12. 12. Health impacts: years of life lost, 203012
  13. 13. Sea-based versus land-based air policies:cost and benefits and cost-effectiveness compared13
  14. 14. Good is not alway best - optimal policy15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP), Dublin | Ton Manders14
  15. 15. Take away Air quality/pollution is a policy topic of sustained importanceglobally into the future Air quality/pollution policies can carry high benefits andreasonably low costs There are however, many complexities and considerations interms of weighing up the costs and benefits of actions in thecontext of broader policy decisions15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP), Dublin | Ton Manders15
  16. 16. References OECD (2012), OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050, OECD PBL (2012), Air Pollution Policy in Europe: Quantifying theInteraction with Greenhouse Gases and Climate ChangePolicies, PBL Working Paper 7 / CPB Discussion Paper 220 PBL (2012), Assessment of the environmental impacts andhealth benefits of a nitrogen emission control area in theNorth Sea, PBL Policy S ton.manders@pbl.nl15th April | Air Science Policy (ASP), Dublin | Ton Manders16

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