CLIMATE CHANGEwww.epa.ie<br />Research Programme<br />
All-Island study<br />Total quantified but unproven CO2 storage capacity of the Island of Ireland is 93000 Mt<br />Total p...
CLIMATE CHANGEwww.epa.ie<br />Research Programme<br />
Phenology 2010; climate change impacts and adaptations<br />Increasing temperature<br />Trees’ response<br />Advances in b...
Phenology<br />What is phenology?<br />Plant phenophases<br />Leafing<br />Flowering<br />Leaf fall<br />Bird phenophases ...
Leaf unfolding dates<br />
Leaf unfolding dates<br />
What the future holds for budburst in Betula pubescens<br />Bridget O’Neill (TCD), Amelia Caffarra (Instituto Agrario, Tre...
Implications for whole ecosystem<br />Oak tree<br />Caterpillar<br />Blue tit<br />
Going forward……<br />National Phenology Networks<br />NPN - IE<br />NPN - SW<br />Nature’s Calendar<br />Regional Phenolog...
CLIMATE CHANGEwww.epa.ie<br />Research Programme<br />
A Climate for Change:opportunities for carbon-efficient farming<br />Rogier Schulte, Reamonn Fealy, Mark Gibson, Gary Lani...
A Climate for Change<br />Agriculture and greenhouse gases: challenges and opportunities<br /><ul><li>Challenges:
 Top-down carbon quota policies
 Carbon leakage
 Costs
 Counting carbon ≠ cutting carbon
Opportunities:
 Marketing low C-footprint food
Depends on actions from all relevant partners:
 Teagasc- Government Departments- Agencies- Agri-food industry- Farmers and farm organisations</li></li></ul><li>40000.0<b...
Source: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Dairy Sector A Life Cycle Assessment, FAO, April 2010<br />Approaches to further...
Solution to GHG  Food Security dilemma:Reduce C-footprint of produce, i.e. GHG emissions per kg product
Through increasing efficiency, instead of capping productivity
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Reports from Carbon Capture and Storage, Phenology and Teagasc Conferences; Round Up Session - EPA Climate Conference June 2010

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Reports from Carbon Capture and Storage, Phenology and Teagasc Conferences; Round Up Session - EPA Climate Conference June 2010

  1. 1. CLIMATE CHANGEwww.epa.ie<br />Research Programme<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
  5. 5. All-Island study<br />Total quantified but unproven CO2 storage capacity of the Island of Ireland is 93000 Mt<br />Total practical storage potential : 1,505 Mt CO2 hydrocarbon fields incl.<br />Kinsale Head : 330 Mt<br />East Irish Sea : 1050 Mt<br />Total effective storage potential : 3.500 Mt<br />Theoretical storage in Permo-Triassic aquifers, east coast and UK Irish Sea<br />Unquantified potential in western basins<br />(Spanish Point : 120 Mt)<br />Ireland total emissions: 28.8Mt/year<br />Moneypoint emissions : 5 Mt/year <br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9. CLIMATE CHANGEwww.epa.ie<br />Research Programme<br />
  10. 10. Phenology 2010; climate change impacts and adaptations<br />Increasing temperature<br />Trees’ response<br />Advances in bud-burst and leafing dates<br />Birds’ response<br />Earlier arrival dates<br />
  11. 11. Phenology<br />What is phenology?<br />Plant phenophases<br />Leafing<br />Flowering<br />Leaf fall<br />Bird phenophases <br />Migration<br />Egg-laying dates<br />Why is phenology important in climate studies?<br />
  12. 12. Leaf unfolding dates<br />
  13. 13. Leaf unfolding dates<br />
  14. 14. What the future holds for budburst in Betula pubescens<br />Bridget O’Neill (TCD), Amelia Caffarra (Instituto Agrario, Trento, Italy), Emily Gleeson (Met Éireann)<br />
  15. 15. Implications for whole ecosystem<br />Oak tree<br />Caterpillar<br />Blue tit<br />
  16. 16. Going forward……<br />National Phenology Networks<br />NPN - IE<br />NPN - SW<br />Nature’s Calendar<br />Regional Phenology Networks<br />PEP 725<br />NPN - USA<br />Global Phenology Network<br />GEO<br />
  17. 17. CLIMATE CHANGEwww.epa.ie<br />Research Programme<br />
  18. 18. A Climate for Change:opportunities for carbon-efficient farming<br />Rogier Schulte, Reamonn Fealy, Mark Gibson, Gary Lanigan, Laurence Shalloo, Paul Crosson and Pat Murphy<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. A Climate for Change<br />Agriculture and greenhouse gases: challenges and opportunities<br /><ul><li>Challenges:
  21. 21. Top-down carbon quota policies
  22. 22. Carbon leakage
  23. 23. Costs
  24. 24. Counting carbon ≠ cutting carbon
  25. 25. Opportunities:
  26. 26. Marketing low C-footprint food
  27. 27. Depends on actions from all relevant partners:
  28. 28. Teagasc- Government Departments- Agencies- Agri-food industry- Farmers and farm organisations</li></li></ul><li>40000.0<br />35000.0<br />30000.0<br />25000.0<br />Emissions (kt CO2eq)<br />20000.0<br />15000.0<br />10000.0<br />5000.0<br />0.0<br />1988<br />1991<br />1994<br />1997<br />2000<br />2003<br />2006<br />Energy<br />Transport<br />Industrial Processes<br />Agriculture <br />Waste<br />GHG emissions to date<br />“In contrast to other sectors, Agriculture has already picked some of the “low hanging fruit” of mitigation; further reductions will become increasingly challenging”<br />
  29. 29. Source: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Dairy Sector A Life Cycle Assessment, FAO, April 2010<br />Approaches to further reductions<br />Further reductions are required:<br /><ul><li>Caution: wrong approach may lead to carbon leakage Increase in global GHG emissions</li></li></ul><li>Approaches to further reductions<br />Further reductions are required:<br /><ul><li>Caution: wrong approach may lead to carbon leakage Increase in global GHG emissions
  30. 30. Solution to GHG  Food Security dilemma:Reduce C-footprint of produce, i.e. GHG emissions per kg product
  31. 31. Through increasing efficiency, instead of capping productivity
  32. 32. Already driven by food retail industry / consumer demand
  33. 33. Top-down policy push v. consumer pull: threat v. opportunity</li></li></ul><li>Approaches to further reductions<br />International coordination:<br /><ul><li>Currently, Ireland is locked into Kyoto
  34. 34. Caps total emissions per nation
  35. 35. Change from capping towards efficiencies requires major shift in global thinking and international coordination
  36. 36. New initiatives:
  37. 37. Worldwide: Global Research Alliance
  38. 38. EU: Joint Programme Initiative
  39. 39. Ireland (DAFF & Teagasc) have signed up to both initiatives</li></li></ul><li>Farm management<br />Soil / Animal<br />Land-use<br />N2O<br />CH4<br />CO2<br />Teagasc GHG programme<br />No room for complacency<br /><ul><li>Teagasc research programme on Greenhouse gases
  40. 40. €2.5m per annum, 6 Research Centres
  41. 41. Co-funded by DAFF (Stimulus), EPA (STRIVE)
  42. 42. Details presented at last week’s conference
  43. 43. Brought together by Teagasc Working Group on GHG emissions</li></ul>Denitrificationinhibitors<br />N-efficiency<br />Clover<br />Genetic merit<br />of animals<br />Animal diet<br />Forestation<br />Min-till<br />Farm energy use<br />Energy crops<br />
  44. 44. Teagasc GHG programme<br />No room for complacency<br /><ul><li>Teagasc research programme on Greenhouse gases
  45. 45. €2.5m per annum, 6 Research Centres</li></ul>Teagasc Working Group on GHG emissions<br /><ul><li>Brings together all expertise from research and advisory
  46. 46. Developing coherent approach towards better GHG efficiencies
  47. 47. Fed into SEAI (McKinsey) report and government strategy
  48. 48. Identifying measures that are cost-effective</li></ul>“Cost-neutral”<br />Buy-credits?<br />“Double dividend”<br />Source: Motherway & Walker, 2009www.seai.ie/Publications/Low_Carbon_Opportunity_Study<br />
  49. 49. The way forward<br />Reducing our C-footprint requires:<br /><ul><li> Research into cost-effective mitigation options (Teagasc, HEI’s)
  50. 50. Accounting for progress in inventories (EPA)
  51. 51. International policy development (DAFF, DoEHLG)
  52. 52. Changes in farm practices (Farmers and farm industry)
  53. 53. Full connectivity in supply chain (Processing industry)
  54. 54. Standardisation of C-footprinting (Food retail industry)</li></ul>Requires coherent approach<br />Teagasc – FDII Climate for Change Action Forum<br />
  55. 55. CLIMATE CHANGEwww.epa.ie<br />Research Programme<br />
  56. 56. Climate Solutions and Global Financing<br />Global mitigation and developing country adaptation<br />Hugely varying estimates of need<br />Private finance crucial<br />Depends on a carbon price<br />Certainty on targets<br />Public finance necessary partic for adaptation and CB<br />Domestic Offsetting, as with CDM, faces challenges in incentivising and measuring REAL mitigation – MRV<br />However! C Price not enough esp where market failures<br /> Regulation has a place <br />
  57. 57. Climate Impacts and Adaptation<br />High resolution decadinal simulations possible<br />Rainfall shifts observed. Extreme rainfall magnitude is increasing – implications for planning and investment<br />Role of boundary organisations; mainstreaming adaptation across institutions<br />Multi-disciplinary approach<br />Scenario building and visualisation tools<br />
  58. 58. Resource Use and Mitigation<br />Energy modelling is a useful tool – increasingly sophisticated<br />Identifies options<br />Clear we are not on target!<br />Transport: Behavioural change is difficult<br />Public perception<br />Fiscal measures<br />Land resources: Carbon store (peat) vulnerable but has potential <br />Work needed at international level to bring that into accounting<br />Alternative fuel vehicles: not appearing in energy models<br />

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