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Hemispheric, Transboundary
& Regional Air Pollution
Colin O’Dowd & Team C-CAPS
National University of Ireland Galway
Dubli...
Climate Impacts - Radiative Forcing
Warming
Cooling
Health Impacts Beijing 2013
Irish perspective: where our air come from?
An ideal world………………
MarinePolluted
PM1
Organics (41%)
Nitrate (10%)
Sulphate (30%) Ammonium (13%)
Sea Salt (1%)
BC (5%)
Organics (5%)
Nitrate ...
Carbon Isotope Analysis – offline source apportionment
Realtime aerosol chemistry: Aerosol Mass Spectrometry
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
NEM,µgm
-3
100908070605040302010
m/z
Org
NO3...
What organics
come from where?
The need to source apportion:
Informed effective emissions control
Cork city air quality
Traffic/Industry
Peat/Coal burning
Wood burning
Aged/Processed
20
15
10
5
0
Concentration,µgm
-3
12:...
5
2
50
87
0
8
2
101
79
0
13
2204
61
0
15
324
4
52
1
22
2
32
6
36
3
331
45
5
12
4
21
1
59
3
9
7
401
38
4
15
4
24
2
36
4 31
...
50
40
30
20
10
0
AMS,gm
-3
1/May 3/May 5/May 7/May 9/May 11/May 13/May 15/May 17/May 19/May
Date
Sea salt
NO3
-
Organics
...
Volcanic ash Mace Head
Plume entered the surface layer at 22 UTC, sulphate increased from 23 UTC.
Ground measurements with...
• Non spherical particles detected using depolarisation ratio
• Biomass burning aerosols 02/04/2013 to 07/04/2013
Biomass ...
CO2 Time Series
CO2 Time SeriesBiomass burning aerosol: North America
Biomass burning aerosol: North America
Biomass burning aerosol: North America
Modelling Capability: WRF-CHEM- FLEXPART
 Weather forecasting
 Air Pollution
 Volcanic Ash
 Biomass Burning
 Radioact...
Modelling Capability: WRF-CHEM- FLEXPART
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
Emissions-Ireland,Ggyear
-1
200920082007200620052004200320022001
Year
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
...
Annual Averages, all sector, Mace Head & Valentia Observatory:
SO2 and SO4.
Conclusion
 Aerosol Mass Spectrometry an excellent method for realtime in-
situ source apportionment.
 LIDAR useful for ...
Hemispheric, Transboundary & Regional Air Pollution
Hemispheric, Transboundary & Regional Air Pollution
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Hemispheric, Transboundary & Regional Air Pollution

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Presentation given by Prof Colin O'Dowd at the 2015 Clean Air Conference, 28/09/15, Dublin

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Hemispheric, Transboundary & Regional Air Pollution

  1. 1. Hemispheric, Transboundary & Regional Air Pollution Colin O’Dowd & Team C-CAPS National University of Ireland Galway Dublin Borough 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 January 1982 15 20 25 30 35 40 Deaths Deaths Black Smoke
  2. 2. Climate Impacts - Radiative Forcing Warming Cooling
  3. 3. Health Impacts Beijing 2013
  4. 4. Irish perspective: where our air come from? An ideal world………………
  5. 5. MarinePolluted PM1 Organics (41%) Nitrate (10%) Sulphate (30%) Ammonium (13%) Sea Salt (1%) BC (5%) Organics (5%) Nitrate (2%) Sea Salt (86%) BC (1%) Sulphate (5%) Is it how much or what?
  6. 6. Carbon Isotope Analysis – offline source apportionment
  7. 7. Realtime aerosol chemistry: Aerosol Mass Spectrometry 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 NEM,µgm -3 100908070605040302010 m/z Org NO3 SO4 NH4 Chl Nitrate Organics Sea salt & etc. Sulphate 20 15 10 5 0 Concentration,µgm -3 12:00 09/02/2009 00:00 12/02/2009 12:00 14/02/2009 00:00 17/02/2009Date
  8. 8. What organics come from where?
  9. 9. The need to source apportion: Informed effective emissions control
  10. 10. Cork city air quality Traffic/Industry Peat/Coal burning Wood burning Aged/Processed 20 15 10 5 0 Concentration,µgm -3 12:00 09/02/2009 00:00 12/02/2009 12:00 14/02/2009 00:00 17/02/2009Date 8 6 4 2 0 10/02/2009 13/02/2009 16/02/2009Date 8 6 4 2 0 8 6 4 2 0 8 6 4 2 0 Organics PMF
  11. 11. 5 2 50 87 0 8 2 101 79 0 13 2204 61 0 15 324 4 52 1 22 2 32 6 36 3 331 45 5 12 4 21 1 59 3 9 7 401 38 4 15 4 24 2 36 4 31 3 28 3 34 6 29 1 11 2 121 73 0 7 2 61 84 0 19% 25% 3% 50% 2% 2% mP Jan Feb March Apr May Jun Jul AugSep Oct v 14 426 1 54 0 23 216 1 58 0 16 320 3 57 0 20 2 48 4 24 1 21 2 46 6 21 4 352 40 5 15 3 18 1 50 4 22 5 20 1 56 5 13 5 21 4 21 3 49 1 9 2 91 78 0 11 3 111 75 0 20%35% 4% 37% 3% 2% mA Jan Feb March Apr May Jun Jul AugSep Oct Nov Dec 9 2 40 85 0 14 3141 69 0 17 327 4 49 0 14 235 5 41 1 21 2 51 6 14 5 20 2 51 10 14 4 20 1 56 3 14 6322 47 4 12 3 302 32 4 30 2 283 28 6 34 1 10 2 25 4 58 0 14 520 3 58 0 18% 36% 4% 37% 2% 2% mT Jan Feb March Apr May Jun Jul AugSep Oct Nov Dec Sea salt NO3 - Organics MSA SO4 2- NH4 + 43 11 32 13 1 0 38 11 33 17 1 0 43 23 21 12 0 0 37 24 23 15 0 1 49 6 30 13 1 1 43 4 37 14 0 2 36 2 47 10 1 458 5 27 9 0 1 334 46 15 1 0 44 7 38 10 0 0 49 6 33 11 1 0 43% 13% 30% 13% 1% 1% cP Jan Feb March Apr May Jun Jul AugSep Oct Nov Dec 5 years of continuous AMS measurements at Mace Head revealed seasonal trends in the chemical composition of aerosol as well as general chemical signatures associated with air masses of different origin.
  12. 12. 50 40 30 20 10 0 AMS,gm -3 1/May 3/May 5/May 7/May 9/May 11/May 13/May 15/May 17/May 19/May Date Sea salt NO3 - Organics MSA SO4 2- NH4 + Ash Cloud Local Biomass Burning
  13. 13. Volcanic ash Mace Head Plume entered the surface layer at 22 UTC, sulphate increased from 23 UTC. Ground measurements with AMS
  14. 14. • Non spherical particles detected using depolarisation ratio • Biomass burning aerosols 02/04/2013 to 07/04/2013 Biomass burning aerosol: transported from Wales to Shannon
  15. 15. CO2 Time Series
  16. 16. CO2 Time SeriesBiomass burning aerosol: North America
  17. 17. Biomass burning aerosol: North America
  18. 18. Biomass burning aerosol: North America
  19. 19. Modelling Capability: WRF-CHEM- FLEXPART  Weather forecasting  Air Pollution  Volcanic Ash  Biomass Burning  Radioactive Fallout
  20. 20. Modelling Capability: WRF-CHEM- FLEXPART
  21. 21. 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 Emissions-Ireland,Ggyear -1 200920082007200620052004200320022001 Year 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 Sulphate(PM10),gm -3 120100806040200 SOx Emissions-Ireland, Gg year -1 NOx PM2.5 x 10 SOx a) b) 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 Sulphate(PM10),gm -3 130 125 120 115 110 105 100 95 Surfaceglobalradiation,Wm -2 0.42012201020082006200420022000 Year r = -0.77 a) b) Reduced Emissions, Reduced Air Pollution: Annual Averages for sulphate aerosol mass, all sector, Mace Head.
  22. 22. Annual Averages, all sector, Mace Head & Valentia Observatory: SO2 and SO4.
  23. 23. Conclusion  Aerosol Mass Spectrometry an excellent method for realtime in- situ source apportionment.  LIDAR useful for identifying upper air pollution transport.  Combined LIDAR and AMS most effect for evaluating pollution transport.  Multiple sources of transboundary air pollution (ash, biomass buring, radioation, etc.)  Need integrated and multi-purpose modelling capacity in Ireland  Long term observations demonstrate a reduction in air pollution in line with a reduction on emissions.  Effective emissions control.

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