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Emissions from Biomass Production - Gary Lanigan

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Emissions from Biomass Production - Gary Lanigan

  1. 1. Emissions from biomass production Gary J. Lanigan
  2. 2. Caroline Narayan1, Órlaith Ní Chonchubair1,2, Dominika Krol 1,3 John Clifton-Brown, Marta Dondini3, Karl Richards1, John Finnan, Bruce Osborne2, Mike Jones3, Chris Mueller2, Mike Williams3 Saul Otero2, Matt Saunders2, Wanne Kromdijk4, Howard Griffiths4, Astley Hastings5, Pete Smith5 1 Teagasc, Johnstown Castle Environmental Research Centre, Wexford 2 School of Biological & Environmental Science, UCD, Dublin 4 3 School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College, Dublin 2 4 Department of Plant Sciences, Cambridge University, CB2 3EA 5 Department of Soils & Global Change, Aberdeen University Funding RSF 06 403, RSF 07 528 & RSF 07 527
  3. 3. Outline• Policy Context• Shifting to Biomass – Measurements• Change in emissions associated with LUC• Conclusions
  4. 4. Future challenges• Post Kyoto – –20% from the non-ETS sectors without a global agreement –30% with an agreement• Agriculture will come under sustained pressure to reduce emissions in the medium term• Impetus for increased production• NZ/Australia are placing agriculture within national ETS
  5. 5. Shifting to biomass production• Enhanced Carbon sequestration – direct removal of CO2 from the atmosphere• Displacement of N2O emissions• Substitution of fossil fuel emissions
  6. 6. Components of the agricultural C budgetNBP: Biome Productivity, Soil C balanceNEE: Net Ecosystem Exchange, Atmospheric C balance NBP NEP NPP GPP Photosynthesis Autotrophic Heterotrophic Cuts Manure respiration respiration
  7. 7. Ecosystem fluxes – Eddy covariance
  8. 8. Soil respiration
  9. 9. Pasture Net C Balance Loss 40 20C flux (gC m-2) 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 -20 -40 -60 -80 Uptake
  10. 10. Pasture/Maize Net C Balance 40C flux (gC m-2) 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 -20 -40 -60 -80
  11. 11. Pasture/OSR Net C Balance 40C flux (gC m-2) 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 -20 -40 -60 -80
  12. 12. Pasture/Maize/Miscanthus Net C Balance 40C flux (gC m-2) 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 -20 -40 -60 -80 Miscanthus has a long growing season and little disturbance
  13. 13. Potential Biomass Production 14 12Biomass (t ha-1) 10 8 6 4 Miscanthus 2 SRC 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Year
  14. 14. = (a x b)/(b + PFD)
  15. 15. Modelled GPP using isotopic models
  16. 16. Quality as well as quantity: The ultimate fate of SOCParticulate SOC (tC ha-1) 25 20 15 10 New C 5 0 Old C Barley Maize Miscanthus Barley Maize Miscanthus
  17. 17. Dondini et al 2009 GCB-Bioenergy
  18. 18. NPP Soil CTrace gases
  19. 19. 10 9 Measured 8 ModelledNPP (t C ha-1) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Maize Maize OSR (2008) Miscanthus Grassland RCG (2008) (2009)
  20. 20. 160 Measured 140Soil Carbon (t C ha-1) Modelled 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Grass (JC) Maize (4 yrs Grass (OP) Arable Miscanthus LUC)
  21. 21. Modelled vs Measured N2O emissions 8Modelled N2O (kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1) 6 Arable 4 Pasture 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 Measured N2O (kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1)
  22. 22. 100 80Modelled 60 Poorly –drained 40 Loam/clay 20 R2 = 0.34 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Measured 120 100 80 Modelled 60 R2 = 0.44 40 20 Moderate –drained 0 Loam 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Measured
  23. 23. Requirements• Soils characteristics including bulk density and C stocks• A soils map and a land-use tracking system• Spatially integrated measurements of N2O in grazed pasture systems• Ground-truthing across a range of soil types and land-uses
  24. 24. Conclusions• Sequestration potential of perennial biomass crops could be high: 1-5 tCO2 ha-1 a-1• SOC loss due to ploughing of pasture NOT as high as defaults• 30% Co-firing Target: Replacement of ~0.91 million tonnes of peat = 0.85 Mt CO2-eq – Heat Production C savings potentially even greater (+1.5 million tonnes)• Who gets the credits?

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