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Annual environment and health conference 2018 wenger hse epa dublin 7 nov 2018

EPA-HSE Environment Health and Well Being Annual Conference 2018

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Annual environment and health conference 2018 wenger hse epa dublin 7 nov 2018

  1. 1. Impact of residential solid fuel burning on air quality and health http://www.ucc.ie/en/crac/research/sapphire/ Prof. John Wenger j.wenger@ucc.ie
  2. 2. Dublin Smog 1982 Mortality in a General Hospital and Urban Air Pollution Ian Kelly and Luke Clancy, Irish Medical Journal, 1984, 77, 322-4 • Cold weather, temperature inversion, low wind speeds • Very high levels of black smoke and sulphur dioxide • Number of deaths per day doubled during the smog event and remained high for days afterwards
  3. 3. Ban on Smoky Coal in Dublin 1st September 1990 70% reduction in black smoke 34% reduction in sulphur dioxide On average per year: 116 fewer respiratory deaths 243 fewer cardiovascular deaths Clancy et al., Lancet 2002
  4. 4. From Black Smoke to Particulate Matter In 2005 Black Smoke standards were replaced by PM limit values in European Air Quality Directive (1999/30/EC) PM10 Particulate Matter with diameter less than 10 microns PM2.5 Particulate Matter with diameter less than 2.5 microns
  5. 5. PM10 enters upper respiratory system PM2.5 can penetrate deep into the lungs There is a greater health risk associated with exposure to smaller particles PM Size is Linked to Health Risk
  6. 6. Well Documented Health Effects of PM Short term (hours, days) exposure • respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity, such as aggravation of asthma, respiratory symptoms Long term (months, years) exposure • mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and from lung cancer Emerging Research: The Guardian 05/09/2018 The Guardian 16/09/2018
  7. 7. Latest EEA/WHO Reports on Air Quality Air pollution remains the single largest environmental health hazard in Europe • Long-term exposure to PM2.5 responsible for 422,000 premature deaths in Europe • Ireland - 1,100 premature deaths in 2015, and 12,000 Years of Life Lost • Each year 61,000 premature deaths are attributable to ambient air pollution from residential heating in Europe
  8. 8. • What is the contribution of residential solid fuel burning to PM levels in Ireland? The Burning Question
  9. 9. What is the contribution of each fuel type? Sod Peat (Turf) “Smokeless” Coal Wood Bituminous (Smoky) Coal Peat Briquettes
  10. 10. Source Apportionment of Particulate Matter in Urban and Rural Residential Areas of Ireland (SAPPHIRE) 1 April 2014 – 31 June 2017 http://www.ucc.ie/en/crac/research/sapphire/
  11. 11. • Outside the Smoky Coal Ban Area (pop. < 15,000) • No natural gas supply • High usage of solid fuels (coal, peat/turf & wood) SAPPHIRE Monitoring Locations • Killarney, Co. Kerry (Nov & Dec 2014) • Enniscorthy, Co. Wexford (Jan & Feb 2015) • Birr, Co. Offaly (Nov & Dec 2015) K E B
  12. 12. • Site located in grounds of Enniscorthy Library Enniscorthy
  13. 13. Instrument Parameter(s) measured Temporal resolution Aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TSI model 3800) Single particle chemical composition (100-3000 nm) 1 min Scanning mobility particle sizer (TSI model 3081) Particle number concentration (10-800 nm) 3 min Optical Particle Sizer (TSI model 3330) Particle number concentration (300-10000 nm) 3 min TEOM (Thermo Electron model RP 1400a) PM2.5 mass concentration 30 min Thermal-optical carbon analyser (Sunset Inc. model 3rd generation) Elemental and organic carbon mass concentrations 2 hr 7-Wavelength Aethalometer (Model AE33, Magee Scientific) Black Carbon concentration 1 min High volume sampler (Digitel model DHA 80) Collection of particulate matter (PM2.5) 6 hr Key Instrumentation
  14. 14. PM2.5 Mass Concentration: Enniscorthy • Average = 29 µg/m3; Range = 0.2-237 µg/m3 • PM2.5 over 50 µg/m3 most evenings
  15. 15. Average 24 hour profile for PM2.5 • Peak in evening hours indicative of solid fuel burning
  16. 16. Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer • Measures chemical composition of single particles in real-time • Enables monitoring of particles from various sources continuously • Uses a mass spectral fingerprint for different sources
  17. 17. Realistic fuel burning experiments • Solid fuel stove • House in remote location in Co. Tipperary
  18. 18. PEAT PEAT WOOD COAL COAL EC Sulfate Potassium Assigned on the basis of combustion experiments COAL → EC & some potassium, sulfate dominates negative spectra PEAT → EC & OC fragments, some potassium WOOD → Potassium dominates positive spectra EC OC WOOD “Fingerprints” of Solid Fuel Combustion
  19. 19. Particle sources: Enniscorthy • Pollution levels much higher at low wind speeds
  20. 20. Particle sources: Enniscorthy
  21. 21. ATOFMS: Source Contribution to PM2.5 • 83% due to residential solid fuel burning
  22. 22. ATOFMS: Source Contribution to PM2.5 • 72% due to residential solid fuel burning
  23. 23. ATOFMS: Source Contribution to PM2.5 • 60% due to residential solid fuel burning
  24. 24. • Residential solid fuel burning contributes 60-83% of PM2.5 in Killarney/Enniscorthy/Birr in winter • This situation is likely replicated in tens of small towns across Ireland Summary
  25. 25. Summary and Perspectives • From a health and environment perspective it makes sense to support a nationwide ban on smoky coal • But, how well will it work, particularly in areas where gas is not available? • Peat and wood burning are bigger contributors to PM2.5 • A nationwide ban on smoky coal may not deliver the expected improvements in air quality • Other strategies should also be investigated…
  26. 26. Linking Air Quality and Health
  27. 27. Acknowledgements John Sodeau Ian O’Connor Eoin McGillicuddy Jovanna Arndt Paul BuckleyStig Hellebust http://www.ucc.ie/en/crac/research/sapphire/ Killarney site assistance • Brendan Dunne (HSE) Enniscorthy site assistance • Brendan Cooney (WCC) • Ian Plunkett (WCC) • Patrick Malone (EPA) Birr site assistance • Sarah Delahunt (OCC) • Marian Healy (OCC)
  28. 28. Extra Slides
  29. 29. KILLARNEY Total Particles: 567,963 ENNISCORTHY Total Particles: 1,898,614 BIRR Total Particles: 1,957,150 Particle Category Particle Class Particle Number % of Total Ionised % ATOFMS Mass Particle Number % of Total Ionised % ATOFMS Mass Particle Number % of Total Ionised % ATOFMS Mass Density (g/cm3) Peat EC-OC 92591 16 19 411498 22 20 242243 12 10 1.5 K-EC-OC 82260 14 15 255961 13 6.5 393044 20 17 1.5 K-Na-EC 45514 8 10 72565 4 4.5 52564 3 2 1.5 OC-PAH* N/A N/A N/A See Peat/Coal See Peat/Coal See Peat/Coal 30363 2 1 1.5 PAH-OC* N/A N/A N/A See Peat/Coal See Peat/Coal See Peat/Coal 64991 3 3 1.5 PAH N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 165106 8 8 1.5 Wood K 117365 21 22 409517 22 23 254218 13 17 1.8 K-OC N/A N/A N/A 5092 0.3 0.5 241188 12 10 1.8 K-PAH High N/A N/A N/A 21800 1 1.4 15756 3 3 1.8 K-PAH Low N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 60715 5 5 1.8 Coal EC(C1)-K 46231 8 8 284210 15 14 120665 6 5 1.5 EC(C3)-K N/A N/A N/A 20944 1 2 40308 2 2 1.5 K-EC 61702 11 12 28969 1.5 3 998 0.05 0.05 1.5 Peat/Coal OC-PAH* N/A N/A N/A 57187 3 4 See Peat See Peat See Peat 1.5 PAH-OC* N/A N/A N/A 138976 7 8 See Peat See Peat See Peat 1.5 Amine Amines 36924 6 7 113673 6 7 93135 5 6 1.5 Traffic EC-traffic 3584 0.6 0.5 5193 0.3 0.3 N/A N/A N/A 1.5 Ca 3688 0.6 0.4 7826 0.4 0.6 9544 0.5 0.6 1.5 Sea salt Sea salt 66006 12 5 44584 2 4.5 105217 5 8 2.2 Other Al 1034 0.2 0.5 N/A N/A N/A 920 0.05 3.7 Ba 1368 0.2 0.3 268 0.01 N/A N/A N/A 1.5 Fe 2127 0.4 0.6 N/A N/A N/A 407 0.02 3.6 Li 218 0.04 0.1 2928 0.2 N/A N/A N/A 2 Mg N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 3775 0.2 2.2 Pb N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 110 0.01 4.3 V 532 0.09 0.2 115 0.01 2539 0.1 0.2 3.1 Zn 97 0.02 0.1 63 0.003 N/A N/A N/A 3.8
  30. 30. TEOM PM2.5 mass concentration • PM2.5 up to 10 times higher during evening hours
  31. 31. Hourly variation of PM2.5 • Strong diurnal pattern
  32. 32. SEA SALT TRAFFIC AMINE/ AMMONIUM Na Cl NaCl2 Na2Cl3 Sea salt characteristics: → sodium & chloride peaks, no EC Traffic characteristics: → calcium & phosphate (lubricating oil), some EC Phosphate Calcium Ammonium/amine characteristics: → ammonium, trimethylamine, OC, large sulfate peak in negative spectra Ammonium Mass Spectra: Other Particle Types
  33. 33. SAPPHIRE: Particle Number Concentrations 15/04/16 SAPPHIRE Meeting: ATOFMS (Jovanna Arndt) 38 Size range: 10 - 480 nm Size range: 300 nm - 10 µm • Clear evening peak in average particle number concentrations • Enniscorthy = largest number concentrations
  34. 34. SAPPHIRE: Particle Number Concentrations: Size Resolved 15/04/16 SAPPHIRE Meeting: ATOFMS (Jovanna Arndt) 39 • Clear evening peak in particle number concentrations • Particles small – peak occurs between 70-100 nm
  35. 35. PM2.5 Mass Concentration: Killarney • Average = 14 µg/m3; Range = 1.4-125 µg/m3 • PM2.5 up to 10 times higher during evening hours
  36. 36. PM2.5 Mass Concentration: Birr • Average = 8 µg/m3; Range = 0.1-61 µg/m3 • Stormy weather resulted in lower mass concentrations
  37. 37. Particle sources: Birr peat 26% wood 23% coal 5% amines 5%
  38. 38. Ammonium/amine particles • Condensation of agricultural emissions on peat/wood/coal particles, especially at low wind speeds
  39. 39. Diurnal Variation in PM2.5 • PM2.5 levels peak in evening
  40. 40. Particle sources: Killarney peat 31% wood 17% coal 16% amines 5%
  41. 41. TEOM Sunset ECOC Elemental and Organic Carbon (EC/OC) • Majority of PM2.5 during night-time pollution events is carbonaceous aerosol
  42. 42. Low winds – Local sources High winds – Regional sources Influence of Meteorology • Low wind speed – local emissions dominate • High wind speed – regional sources dominate
  43. 43. Particulate Matter PM10 - Particulate Matter with diameter less than 10 microns PM2.5 - Particulate Matter with diameter less than 2.5 microns
  44. 44. • State-of-the-art analytical techniques used to measure chemical species and apportion PM mass to specific sources Cork Harbour Study 2008-2011 Healy et al., Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2010 PM2.5 average (µg/m3) Solid Fuel Burning % Traffic % Other Local Sources % Regional Sources % August 2008 9.7 5 23 24 26 February 2009 16.2 50 19 21 10 Kourtchev et al., Science of the Total Environment, 2011 Dall’Osto et al., Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2013
  45. 45. • Site located in grounds of Community Hospital Killarney
  46. 46. Birr • Site located in grounds of Offaly County Council Yard
  47. 47. Transported sea salt Killarney • Low wind speed – local emissions dominate • High wind speed – regional sources dominate
  48. 48. Extent of Bituminous Coal Ban

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