Assessing and reducing impacts ofaquaculture on marine biodiversity   and ecosystem functioning            Tasman Crowe   ...
Strategic overview of influences of  aquaculture on biodiversity and ecosystems  services in Ireland• Myriam Callier, Tasm...
Marine ecosystem services & sectorsProvision of  food                                Aquaculture                          ...
Aquaculture in Ireland   • Global fisheries in decline, aquaculture     expanding: now provides >50% of seafood   • Aquacu...
Aquaculture in Ireland  • Key challenge: finding balance between benefits    of aquaculture and maintaining conservation  ...
Influences on ecosystems  • Interactions with wild-fisheries resources    – capture of seed mussels    – fish capture for ...
Influences on ecosystems  • Interactions with wild-fisheries resources    – capture of seed mussels    – fish capture for ...
Work package 3Assessing and reducing impacts of aquaculture on marine biodiversity4. Test potential impacts of introduced ...
Work package 3Assessing and reducing impacts of aquaculture on marine biodiversity4. Test potential impacts of introduced ...
Pacific oysters                                                  1950`s                                        1960`s   ...
Potentially significant impacts
Pacific oysters in Ireland Wild oysters now at some sites, therefore research to:  document and predict spread    - Judit...
Spread of Pacific Oysters  • Worked with BIM, Marine Institute, Loughs    Agency and QUB  • Surveyed 69 intertidal sites w...
common commonfrequent frequentoccasional occasionalrare rareabsent absent
Spread of Pacific Oysters• Establishment of wild populations limited at this stage   – a degree of control may still be po...
Impacts of Pacific Oysters• Experimental tests of potential impacts on biodiversity  and ecosystem functioning in a range ...
Impacts of Pacific Oysters    • Showed negative effects on protected habitat (Sabellaria      reefs) and changes to biodiv...
Impacts of Pacific Oysters• Oysters can alter nutrient cycling and  decomposition rates and potentially affect  primary pr...
Work package 3Assessing and reducing impacts of aquaculture on marine biodiversity4. Test potential impacts of introduced ...
Influence of salmon cages• Tested extent of influence on benthic  communities using sampling and stable isotopes• Assessed...
Influence of salmon cages    • Low diversity under cages and high abundance      of opportunistic species    • Effects on ...
Influence of salmon cages    • Increased biomass of suspension feeders could      decrease levels of particulate and disso...
Approaches to reducing impacts  • Statutory programmes  • ECOPACT: Environmental Management    System for aquaculture  • C...
Future research needs  • influence on pelagic communities  • influence on ecosystem functioning & services  • spatial exte...
AcknowledgementsHELP and ADVICE• Ciarán McGonigle, Loughs Agency• Grainne O’Brien & regional officers, BIM• Catherine McMa...
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Assessing and reducing impacts of aquaculture on marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning - Tasman Crowe

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  • Summary of a 9 page document developed by the above authors.
  • Ecosystem services from marine ecosystems include climate regulation, erosion control, pollution control, provision of food and other biological resources (e.g. alginates, pharmaceuticals), aesthetic value and inspiration, underpinning recreation and tourism and a range of cultural and social traditions (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In Ireland, marine environments underpin aquaculture, fisheries and recreational and tourist industries that are vital to the society and the economy, particularly of remote coastal communities. In addition to direct employment in these industries, a large number of jobs are maintained in supporting industries, such as the supply of equipment, fuel, etc. The valuation of these services in monetary terms is a developing science. A recent national estimate of the value of biodiversity to Ireland’s economy yielded an overall value of €2.6 billion per annum, but took a very narrow view of marine systems, focussing only direct valuation of fisheries and aquaculture (Government of Ireland 2008).
  • Eco-certified products dominate salmon industry – about 90%. Tonnage dominated (78%) by shellfish, but value of finfish a little greater (58 vs 47 million euro).
  • Implementation of the HD, and also the WFD and the MSFD. Consequently, typical impacts associated with salmon farming, such as seabed anoxia and nutrient enrichment, are not as big an issue in Ireland when compared with other jurisdictions.
  • Complex influences, vary with species, culture method, habitat, etc. Importance of a given issue also affected by legislation, society and economy Key legislation: Habitats Directive, Water Framework Directive, Marine Strategy Framework Directive Seals benefit by stealing salmon from cages, but can suffer retaliation at times Some birds benefit from provision of habitat and food; others (e.g. In Wadden See), suffer from loss of food.
  • Focus on these influences.
  • Originally from Japan Introduced intentionally to many places worldwide for aquaculture. Farmed on intertidal trestles in ireland since the 1970s. Invasive in many places.
  • Has the potential to cover large areas, replacing native habitats and causing significant impacts to coastal ecosystems and the benefits we derive from them. Until recently, has not spread into the natural environment in Ireland and thought unable to reproduce due to low temperatures.
  • Two farms
  • ECOPACT – a simple Environmental Management System (EMS) that can be adopted by all farmers to improve environmental performance of their operations and at a higher level, the world’s first independently accredited Eco-standards for Aquaculture (Salmon and Rope grown Mussels) (ISO65/ EN45011). Since the adoption of Commission Regulation 710/2009 laying down rules on the organic production of aquaculture animals and seaweed, organic production and certification has been embraced among Irish growers. Much of Irish salmon production is now organic and it is expected that by the end of 2011 up to 50% of mussel production may also be organic. CLAMS: Co-ordinated Local Aquaculture Management Systems. The concept is to amass all relevant baseline data and to formulate an aquaculture development plan for the bay while incorporating and extending the successful concepts of Single Bay Management to all farmed species ( http://www.bim.ie/templates/reports ). CLAMS is very much a living process addressing issues that arise on an ongoing basis and taking proactive measures to improve the management of aquaculture at a local level. Alot being achieved with voluntary programmes such as ECOPACT and CLAMS. However, more could still be done. These schemes focus on best practise and do not establish or enforce targets based on environmental health. Range of mitigation measures drawn from our research and from the review could potentially be adopted.
  • Tie-in to EPA state of the environment report – key challenges include implementation of EU directives and avoidance of fines.
  • Assessing and reducing impacts of aquaculture on marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning - Tasman Crowe

    1. 1. Assessing and reducing impacts ofaquaculture on marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning Tasman Crowe University College Dublin
    2. 2. Strategic overview of influences of aquaculture on biodiversity and ecosystems services in Ireland• Myriam Callier, Tasman Crowe, Dannielle Green, Judith Kochmann Francis O’Beirn & Grainne O’Brien
    3. 3. Marine ecosystem services & sectorsProvision of food Aquaculture Supporting industriesProvision of other biol. resources FisheriesClimate regulation Recreation &Erosion tourism controlPollution • Vital to economy and society, particularly control of remote coastal communities.Aesthetic & cultural value MEA 2005; Govt. of Ireland 2008
    4. 4. Aquaculture in Ireland • Global fisheries in decline, aquaculture expanding: now provides >50% of seafood • Aquaculture in Ireland dominated by oysters, mussels and salmon – focus on high value, organic/eco-certified products • Valued at €105 million in 2007 • 2000 jobs, many in rural coastal communitiesFAO 2009; Browne et al 2008
    5. 5. Aquaculture in Ireland • Key challenge: finding balance between benefits of aquaculture and maintaining conservation status in coastal SACs and SPAs • Requires good understanding of how aquaculture interacts with the environment • Evidence from overseas not always applicable – Often lower intensity production – Higher flow than, e.g. Scottish lochs
    6. 6. Influences on ecosystems • Interactions with wild-fisheries resources – capture of seed mussels – fish capture for feed production • Physical changes to the habitat – addition of structures • Organic and nutrient enrichment • Invasive species – escapes, vectors, facilitation • Interactions with seals and birds – positive and negative
    7. 7. Influences on ecosystems • Interactions with wild-fisheries resources – capture of seed mussels – fish capture for feed production • Physical changes to the habitat – addition of structures • Organic and nutrient enrichment • Invasive species – escapes, vectors, facilitation • Interactions with seals and birds – positive and negative
    8. 8. Work package 3Assessing and reducing impacts of aquaculture on marine biodiversity4. Test potential impacts of introduced Pacific oysters Assess impacts of fish cages and test mitigation strategies Provide management recommendations Tasman Crowe, Myriam Callier, Dannielle Green, Judith Kochmann, Francis O’Beirn, Grainne O’Brien
    9. 9. Work package 3Assessing and reducing impacts of aquaculture on marine biodiversity4. Test potential impacts of introduced Pacific oysters Assess impacts of fish cages and test mitigation strategies Provide management recommendations Tasman Crowe, Myriam Callier, Dannielle Green, Judith Kochmann, Francis O’Beirn, Grainne O’Brien
    10. 10. Pacific oysters 1950`s 1960`s 1920`s• Widely introduced for aquaculture – in Ireland since 1970s• Invasive in many places
    11. 11. Potentially significant impacts
    12. 12. Pacific oysters in Ireland Wild oysters now at some sites, therefore research to:  document and predict spread - Judith Kochmann (UCD GREP funded by IRCSET & IRCHSS)  assess potential impacts on ecosystems - Dannielle Green (SIMBIOSYS)
    13. 13. Spread of Pacific Oysters • Worked with BIM, Marine Institute, Loughs Agency and QUB • Surveyed 69 intertidal sites with range of characteristics • Experimentally tested influence of macroalgae and predators • Genetically tested origins of wild populations and whether self-sustaining
    14. 14. common commonfrequent frequentoccasional occasionalrare rareabsent absent
    15. 15. Spread of Pacific Oysters• Establishment of wild populations limited at this stage – a degree of control may still be possible• Developed rigorous methodology for sampling and identified factors associated with oyster establishment• Found that crabs can eradicate post-recruits in some areas and algae can slow growth, but effects variable• Evidence for multiple recruitment events and decoupling of establishing populations from local aquaculture – need to manage establishing populations plus aquaculture• Recommend triploid oysters to reduce reproduction Kochmann et al in press Journal of Heredity Kochmann et al in review Biological Invasions
    16. 16. Impacts of Pacific Oysters• Experimental tests of potential impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in a range of habitats and at a range of densities
    17. 17. Impacts of Pacific Oysters • Showed negative effects on protected habitat (Sabellaria reefs) and changes to biodiversity (including apparent facilitation of other introduced species) – control of spread should be a high priority • Dead oyster shells also influential • Effects varied with habitat and densityGreen et al. in revisionMarine Ecology Progress Series
    18. 18. Impacts of Pacific Oysters• Oysters can alter nutrient cycling and decomposition rates and potentially affect primary productivity.• Could affect ecosystem services, e.g. by reducing carrying capacity for aquaculture. OM loading N2 or N2O Filtering Phytoplankton Biodeposits Oxic Mineralisation Nitrification sediment CO2 NH4+  NO-2  NO-3 Organic Matter Anoxic CH4 Denitrification sediment NO-3  NO-2  N2 Buried N and C
    19. 19. Work package 3Assessing and reducing impacts of aquaculture on marine biodiversity4. Test potential impacts of introduced Pacific oysters Assess impacts of fish cages and test mitigation strategies Dr Myriam Callier Provide management recommendations Tasman Crowe, Myriam Callier, Dannielle Green, Judith Kochmann, Francis O’Beirn, Grainne O’Brien
    20. 20. Influence of salmon cages• Tested extent of influence on benthic communities using sampling and stable isotopes• Assessed possible mitigation approach
    21. 21. Influence of salmon cages • Low diversity under cages and high abundance of opportunistic species • Effects on communities extended 25-200 m downstream, but <25 m perpendicular to flow • Uptake of fish farm waste by benthic organisms demonstrated + some evidence of dietary switchesCallier et al. in revision Marine Ecology Progress Series
    22. 22. Influence of salmon cages • Increased biomass of suspension feeders could decrease levels of particulate and dissolved material • Potential mitigation strategy? • Substrates for suspension feeders could be deployed in sensitive environments, where a small reduction in nutrients could be criticalCallier et al. in revisionMarine Ecology Progress Series
    23. 23. Approaches to reducing impacts • Statutory programmes • ECOPACT: Environmental Management System for aquaculture • CLAMS: Co-ordinated Local Aquaculture Management Systems • Mitigation measures include: – Ongoing improvements in feeding efficiency – Fallowing, rotation of cages, reduction of culture densities – Bioremediation, polyculture – etc.
    24. 24. Future research needs • influence on pelagic communities • influence on ecosystem functioning & services • spatial extent of influence and duration of impacts - larger scales in space and time • cumulative effects of separate farms • synergistic effects with other stressors • resistance and resilience of ecosystems • carrying capacity of bays • compatibility of aquaculture with conservation objectives of SACs
    25. 25. AcknowledgementsHELP and ADVICE• Ciarán McGonigle, Loughs Agency• Grainne O’Brien & regional officers, BIM• Catherine McManus & staff, Marine Harvest Ireland• Heike Büttger, BioConsult, Germany• Claire Guy & Dai Roberts, Queen’s University BelfastFIELD and LAB WORK• Jennifer Coughlan, Javier Atalah, Julien Chopelet, Kelly Dunagan, Paul Brooks, Jayne Fitch, Erin Gleeson, Bas Boots, Angela Gallagher, Jesko Zimmermann Rónan Mag Aoidh, Ciarán McGonigle & colleagues, Claire Guy, Francis O’BeirnFUNDING AGENCIES and SIMBIOSYS coordination and management www.ucd.ie/marbee• Environmental Protection Agency, NDP, SSTI, IRCSET & IRCHSS (via UCD Graduate Research Education Programme in Sustainable Development), DEHLG• Jane Stout, Jens Dauber and Dave Bourke, TCD

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