Particulate Air Pollution - Pat Goodman

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Particulate Air Pollution - Pat Goodman

  1. 1. Particulate Air pollution Prof. Pat Goodman(On Behalf of the Project Team)
  2. 2. Why worry about Particulate air pollution?• Adverse health effects• Death! (Dublin 1982)• Harvard 6 cities (Reduced Life expectancy)• The Environment itself
  3. 3. Dublin 1982SMOG 1982 Rates Dublin Case FatalityKelly and Clancy, Irish Medical Journal; 77:10: 322-324. 1984 10 9 8 7 CFR 6 5 4 3 2 J a n 8 0 J a n 8 1 J a n 8 2 J a n 8 3 D a te
  4. 4. Harvard 6 cities study Dr Pat Goodman EPA Conference Portlaoise Oct 2006
  5. 5. Daytime in Dublin Jan. 1982
  6. 6. Effect of Air Pollution Control on Mortality in Dublin Clancy et al, Lancet• Effect of ban on sale of • Effect on mortality coal on air pollution in – 7% Total Mortality Dublin – 13% Cardiovascular – 36 g/m3 BS (-71%) – 16% Respiratory – 11 g/m3 SO 2 (-34%) – 3% Other
  7. 7. Goodman, Rich, Zeka, Clancy and Dockery. JAWMA 2009 1998 Ban Cities 100 Arklow Drogheda Dundalk Limerick Wexford 90 1998 Ban 80 70Black Smoke ( g/m3) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w a v s 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
  8. 8. Goodman, Rich, Zeka, Clancy and Dockery. JAWMA 2009 2000 Ban Cities 100 Celbridge Galway Leixlip Naas waterford 90 2000 Ban 80 70Black Smoke ( g/m3) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w s a v 198019811982198319841985198619871988198919901991199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006
  9. 9. The Current Study
  10. 10. The Contribution of Solid FuelUse to Particulate and PAH Air Pollution in Ireland
  11. 11. Collaborative Team Project• DIT – Project lead – Literature Review – Chemical Analysis• DCC – Site selection – Running of monitoring networks (BS and PM) – Staff training• HSE – Local management of monitoring networks Harvard Advisor Prof. Doug Dockery
  12. 12. Study components• Air pollution monitoring – PM10/2.5 – Black Smoke• Chemical analysis of samples – BaP and PAHs• Literature review• Final report
  13. 13. Monitoring site selection and Populations (2006 CSO)• Navan 24,851 – Has natural gas and no coal ban• Killarney 14,603 – No natural gas, no coal ban• Tralee 22,744 – Coal ban but no natural gas• Letterkenny 17,586 – No coal ban and no natural gas
  14. 14. Site selection• Have support of local HSE staff• Local staff have been trained to change filters and check on the equipment• Filters are sent to DCC/DIT for weighing and chemical analysis• Periodic site visits by DCC and DIT staff
  15. 15. Monitoring• Measurement of Black Smoke throughout 12 month period• Dichot Partisols used for measurement of PM2.5 and PM10 at chosen sites, each for a total of 6 months• Monitoring split to measure during both summer and winter periods• Chemical analysis of PM filters and a selection of Black Smoke filters
  16. 16. Chemical Analysis• Quantitative Analysis is being undertaken for the 7 USEPA PAH ( Benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a) pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysen e, dibenz(a,h)fluoranthene, indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene) all of which are suspected carcinogens and known products of fossil fuel combustion.• The analysis is being conducted using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with diode array and programmable fluorescence detectors in series. Fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths will be optimised for each PAH using PAH standards.
  17. 17. Site selection NavanApril 1st – June 27thJanuary 2012–March 20123 local staff involved
  18. 18. Site Selection - Tralee24th March – 26th JuneJanuary 2012 – March 20121 local staff member involved
  19. 19. Site Selection - Killarney28th June 2011 – January 20121 local staff member involved
  20. 20. Site Selection - Letterkenny8th July 2011 – January 20124 local staff involved
  21. 21. Filter from 5th November - Letterkenny
  22. 22. PAH AnalysisSample Treatment• Extraction: filter sonicated for 60 min in 30 ml acetonitrile• Volume Reduction: Turbovap at 40oC to 0.5 ml followed by addition of internal standard (B(e)P) and made up to 1 ml.• Analysis: HPLC with fluorescence detection
  23. 23. Interim Results• Monitoring is not completed yet• Data presented is based on a data gathered to date (but not on a full year)
  24. 24. Town A B C D DublinUnits all μgm-3PM2.5 Average 14 7 14 5 11 Max 62 47 51 53 51PM10 Average 46 11 19 22 14 Max 313 62 53 203 48BS Average 15 5 5 4 4 Max 32 34 25 21 32
  25. 25. PAH TEF Value in relation to upcoming legislated limit during episodes 4.5 4 3.5PAH - TEF Value 3 ngm-3 2.5 2 pm2.5 1.5 pm2.5-10 1 EU Limit 0.5 Linear (EU Limit) 0 A Annual B Annual C Annual D Annual Urban Site
  26. 26. PAH Toxic Equivalency Factor Maximum Episodic Concentrations Determined (ngm-3) (unitless)* Site A Site B Site C Site D Date of event: Date of event: 30/03/2011 Date of event: 03/04/2011 Date of event: 15/12/2011 15/07/2011B(a)P 1.0 12.8 1.99 1.77 1.72B(a)Anth 0.1 ND 0.20 ND 0.86Chrys 0.01 ND 0.59 ND 0.42B(b)Fl 0.1 12.9 2.07 0.21 3.26B(k)Fl 0.1 5.6 0.33 0.41 0.84Dibenz 1.0 ND ND ND NDTEF Value (B(a)P) 13.49 2.26 1.83 2.22(ngm-3)
  27. 27. Overlay of Filter Extract and PAH standard Letterkenny pm2.5 14/10/2011 B(a)P50 ppb PAH Standard
  28. 28. Overlay of Filter Extract and PAH standard Letterkenny pm2.5 5/11/2011 Estimated at ~350ppb B(a)P50 ppb Standard
  29. 29. Issues and Problems• Initial filters were faulty• PM2.5-PM10 fraction need to do batch analysis to for PAH work• HPLC is limited, GC mass spec ordered• Exploring possibility of x-Ray flour with Prof Dockery
  30. 30. Discussion and Conclusions• Work is ongoing, final report due end Nov 2012• Some PM levels giving cause for concern• As data is interim more detailed analysis incorporating meteorological data is needed• Domestic heating is most likely the source of the higher levels observed
  31. 31. Any Questions?

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