Session vi Said Silim


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Session vi Said Silim

  1. 1. Enhanced Water Productivity in Agriculture Dr. Said Silim Director, ICRISAT-ESA, Nairobi
  2. 2. • Rainfed agriculture is and will continue to be the main source of livelihood for nearly 85% of farmers • Water is the most critical constraint for productive and profitable agriculture under rainfed conditions • Variability in amount and distribution of rainfall leads to erratic soil moisture conditions • Climate change is predicted to further excerbarate the situation • Prudent management of water is an important first step in buffering the negative impacts of climate variability Agriculture in Africa is largely rainfed Source: World Bank 2005
  3. 3. • The problem of water in the region is one of economic scarcity • Irrigation is an option but economic viability and sustainability remain as concerns Significant untapped potential Source: CA, 2007
  4. 4. • Current levels of productivity of rainfed agriculture is very low • Opportunities exist to improve the productivity by 2-3 times through improved management of rain water at farm and catchment scales Significant untapped potential Rockström et al., 2007
  5. 5. Many technologies are available but their adoption by smallholder farmers is limited
  6. 6. • Increased availability of water alone cannot produce the required benefits • Productivity of water can be improved substantially when used with appropriate production technologies • The risk associated with the investments and risk averseness of smallholder farmers is a major constraint to adoption of new technologies Water management +
  7. 7. • Precision use of small doses of costly inputs • Tactical decision making in the selection of crops and management practices – market information – Climate information – Risk and return profiles • Risk covering through crop insurance and policy support Risk management - Key to promote use of inputs
  8. 8. • India has adopted IWM as a fundamental strategy for rural development and poverty reduction in drought-prone regions • Is an approach that links production, conservation and livelihood objectives of people • Provides a framework for integrating technical, economic and social knowledge Integrated Watershed Management
  9. 9. • Watershed programs yielded more than double the initial investment (B:C ratio of 2.14) • Implementation requires technical, financial and policy support Integrated Watershed Management
  10. 10. • Aimed at meeting food and cash needs • Involves: – Irrigation system – Innovative crop mix – Efficient management • Generates up to us$2.5/m2/pa Diversification of systems Africa market gardens
  11. 11. • Give high priority for improving productivity of rainfed agriculture • Pay adequate attention to risk associated with rainfed agriculture by making inputs accessible and affordable • Promote adoption of technologies that are appropriate and adoptable by smallholder farmers • Integrated catchment management systems with high levels of community participation were found to be effective • Smart subsidies and market linkages be given high priorities Way forward
  12. 12. Thank you