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Workshop 2 - Julio - KPMG


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Workshop 2 - Julio - KPMG

  1. 1. Development Advisory Services Dealing with Community Land in Mozambique Julio Garrido-Mirapeix, DAS Managing Partner
  2. 2. Land: A Hot Resource <ul><li>Food security & agribusiness: It all starts with land </li></ul><ul><li>Africa’s land & natural resources have become a very valuable asset in recent years: fierce competition in many countries, multiple conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>One key policy & development question is how to reconcile the rights of community land use alongside commercial land development and investment projects. </li></ul><ul><li>In many countries this is a major issue but so political & complex (& full of big men …) that is avoided. Its good to be alive </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bottom line <ul><li>Finding effective mechanisms to ensure an equitable management of access to and development and utilisation of land and natural resources is fundamental to the governance of the development process in many African countries, and by default for real economic growth. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mozambique: Context <ul><li>The Mozambican Land Law of 1997 is widely regarded as exemplary in that it establishes an equitable framework for the co-existence of customary rights in land held by local communities and their members, and private rights for exploitation of land which can be granted by the state to private individuals and investors. </li></ul><ul><li>Although Mozambique is a land abundant country, multiple demands for land is now such that ordinary people’s stake in rural land cannot always be guaranteed without more systematic implementation of the legal provisions to protect and secure their rights to land, linked to transparent planning processes. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The ITC ( a Fund but not a Fund? ) <ul><li>To deal with this a group of minded donors led by DFID (plus Danida, Dutch, Irish, Sida, Swiss and more recently MCC) promoted the creation of ITC – long design process started in early 1990s. </li></ul><ul><li>KPMG won the international management contract in association with UK’s NRI in 2005; and again in 2009 (MCA) – many changes from original design since 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>The team operates in 6 out of 10 provinces: not the typical KPMG crowd … </li></ul><ul><li>Governance structure: The ITC is meant to be an independent body but involves multiple stakeholders – interesting yes, but also tricky </li></ul>
  6. 6. Our Clients
  7. 7. What do we do? Multiple roles <ul><li>Work with communities that are genuinely interested, building community organisations and strengthening service provider capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Community land delimitations and demarcations, linked directly to productive development projects by producer and community associations and to utilisation of the 20% share of NR revenues by rural communities </li></ul><ul><li>Deepening dialogue and partnerships with district government and establishing synergy with specific private sector and civil society organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding overall coverage of priority districts </li></ul>
  8. 8. What else do we do? <ul><li>ITC has also been called upon to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor the impacts of private investment and natural resource use on the rural poor, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist local government in development planning, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate promising investment and partnership opportunities for the private sector and rural communities, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research emerging policy issues </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The future <ul><li>Create an institution that will effectively replace KPMG at the end of 2013 to manage ITC and its activities </li></ul><ul><li>This is the right thing but the problem of financial sustainability will however remain </li></ul>
  10. 10. Specific challenges <ul><li>Political context & will plus Government capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple legal frameworks and priorities: Forest & Wildlife legislation and CBNRM; National Parks and protected areas; Agrarian Associations legislation; Mining and mineral concessions; the Decentralisation Strategy; The Rural Development Strategy; and Local economic development. </li></ul><ul><li>Many small projects: high transaction costs </li></ul><ul><li>Weak service providers able to work with communities: real local knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Financial dependency – who pays? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Examples of land conflicts <ul><li>Human displacement, deforestation and loss of agricultural and pasture land as a result of major biofuels and other private agricultural developments </li></ul><ul><li>Conflcits in access to land for resettlement because of displacement of communities </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts between community cattle grazing and private ranching schemes allocated DUATS </li></ul><ul><li>Failures of timber concessionaires and government to pay over 20% of revenues to local communities whose lands overlap with forest concessions </li></ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled deforestation and exploitation of charcoal resources for urban markets as a result of poor management of the licensing system by district and other authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts between local communities and private safari / hunting ranches </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement and restriction of access, hunting and NR utilisation within National Parks and conservation areas </li></ul><ul><li>Human – animal conflicts both inside and outside National Parks </li></ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled tourism development in coastal areas which fail to engage with and provide benefits to local people </li></ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled extraction of sand and building materials from community lands </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of artisanal mining, impacting on agricultural land and pollution of water courses </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts of major investor led mining activities </li></ul>