Worldwide BRT Systems: Applicability of BRT Systems in Turkey

3,573 views

Published on

By Dario Hidalgo, PhD. Director Research and Practice EMBARQ, The World Resources Institute Center for Sustainable Transport.
Sustainable Transport Symposium 2011.
Kocaeli, Turkey, April 6-8 2011.

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,573
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
698
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
215
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Worldwide BRT Systems: Applicability of BRT Systems in Turkey

  1. 1. WorldwideW ld id BRT Systems A li bili S Applicability of BRT Systems in Turkey Dario Hidalgo, PhD Director Research and Practice EMBARQ, The World Resources Institute Center for Sustainable Transport SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION 2011 Kocaeli, Turkey, April 6-8 2011
  2. 2. Growing cities  increased congestion, pollution, accidents,and reduced physical activity Sao Paulo, Brasil
  3. 3. ProblemsPossible Trajectories
  4. 4. ProblemsGlobal FootprintIf everyone in the world lived like anaverage North American we would American,need five planets to live on… Source: WWF, Living Planet Report, 2006
  5. 5. Cars and Light Duty Vehicles per ThousandPopulation Not all the countries reach the same level of auto ownership Source: Lee Schipper, University of California Berkeley, 2009
  6. 6. Sustainable Transport Paradigm Avoid Shift Improve Reduce need to travel and Technologies, Technologies Use more efficient number and length of the operations and transport modes trips management• Dense and mixed land use • Efficient vehicles, alternative clean• Travel demand management • W lki Walking, Biking Biki and cool fuels• Information and • Transit • Improved communications technologies y efficiency See: Dalkmann and Sakamoto Transport in the Green Sakamoto, Economy Report, UNEP, 2011 http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy/Portals/88/docume nts/ger/GER_10_Transport.pdf
  7. 7. World Trend inAdvanced CitiesPedestrian andBicyclesPublic TransportationTransit OrientedDevelopmentDisincentives to CarUseCleaner and CoolerFuels and Vehicles http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/images/sidewalks/ps_rendering01.JPG
  8. 8. 1. Non motorised transport CARRERA 15, BOGOTA Photos: IDU ALAMEDA EL PORVENIR, BOGOTA Photos: FPPQQ
  9. 9. 2. Disincentives to indiscriminate car useC ti h iCongestion charging:Singapore, London, Sweden,SantiagoAdministrative measures(plate restrictions)Parking controlsTaxes (fuel, property) (fuelCitizens’ culture London Bogota, Bogota Sunday Ciclovía Bogota, no car day
  10. 10. 3. Transit- oriented development (TOD) Local scale: Nodes around stations Joint development: residental + commercial + education + entertainment Dense Housing (3 4 floors) with (3-4 generous public space Helsinki Photo J. Kenworthy Zurich Vancouver Photo J. Kenworthy Photo J. Kenworthy
  11. 11. 3. Transit- oriented development (TOD)Urban and regional scale: Copenhagen mapGeneral principles Limits to urban expansion and generation of protected areas (zones that cannot be developed - ecological structure) Obligatory consistency between local detailed plans and transport plan Provision of public space in every new p p y development and renovation Occupation indexes favorable to public transport use Incentives and bonuses for development I i db f d l of desired uses (instruments) Obligation to balance growth of employment and housing
  12. 12. 3 a s t o e ted development (TOD)3. Transit- oriented de e op e t ( O ) Source: IPUCC Curitiba, Brazil
  13. 13. 3. Transit- oriented development (TOD) Curitiba, Curitiba Brazil Source: http://www.curitiba-parana.com/arquitetura-urbanismo.htm
  14. 14. 4. Bus Systems
  15. 15. 4. Bus SystemsHigh qualityUser orientedFastReliableLow cost Leeds, UK Curitiba Sao Paulo
  16. 16. BRT key components Centralized control Stations with prepaymentDistinctive and level accessimage Exclusive bus lanes Large buses with g multiple doors 16
  17. 17. BRT key components Centralized control Distinctive image Stations with prepayment and level accessLarge buses withmultiple doors Exclusive bus lanes 17
  18. 18. Cities with BRT/Bus Corridors25 125 Guanghzhou, Hefei, Yancheng, Zaozhuang ‐China Jaipur ‐ India; Pelembang, Gorontalo, Surakata ‐ Indonesia20 Bangkok ‐ Thailand; East London Transit ‐ UK 100 João Pessoa ‐ Brazil; Barranquilla, Bucaramanga ‐ Colombia 17 Estado México ‐ México; Lima ‐ Perú; Brampton ‐ Canada 1615 75 13 Bogotá TransMilenio Los Angeles Metrorapid10 50 8 888 Curitiba 7 5 55 4 25 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 11 11 00 0 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011
  19. 19. About 120 cities with BRT or bus corridors 4,335 km - 6,683 stations – 30,000 buses , , , 26.8 million passengers per weekday 4 11 1 3 9 1 1 16 1 13 1 1 5 1 1 4 1 1 1 5 2 11 16 1 1 4 1 830 km 6 km 1 Source: CTS Brasil EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database January 2011 Brasil, Database, January,
  20. 20. Curitiba, RIT, 72 km median busways 2.3 million pax/day Initial Corridor 1972
  21. 21. Curitiba – 35 years with a coordinated land use and transport plan with a BRT backbone Fuente: Arq. Antonio Juarez Nakamura, Presentación en IV Seminario Internacional de Arquitectura – Universidad Piloto de Colombia, Bogotá, Agosto de 2002
  22. 22. Amzaing Results in Urban Form in Externalities Fuente: http://www.curitiba-parana.com/arquitetura-urbanismo.htm
  23. 23. Curitiba new BRT Corridor (2009-2010) Linha Verde “Now” Now Rodovia BR116 “Before” Photo: CTS Brasil Photo: URBS Linha Verde “Future” Image: URBS g
  24. 24. Quito, Metrobús-Q, 37 Km median busways, 440,000 pax/day Initial corridor in 1995
  25. 25. Bogotá, TransMilenio, 84 Km median busways, 1,7 million pax/day Initial Corridor 2000
  26. 26. Photo ITDP Bogotá TransMilenioEje Ambiental Avenida Jiménez
  27. 27. Expressway LanesTransMilenio, Bogota
  28. 28.   Main mode of transport 1998-2009 Total Public com; Transport p esta Anual “Bogot ¿Cómo Vamos? www.eltiempo.c Traditional Public Transport TransMilenio ?” BRTS Private (Car, tá Two Wheeler) ActiveFuentes: Encue Transport (Walking, Bicycle)
  29. 29. Fatalities in Bogotá Over Time1400 12991200 1165 1106 11711000 1014 923800 788 698 665600 551 564 511400 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: Anuario Estadístico Ministerio de Transporte Colombia Estadístico, Transporte,
  30. 30. Fatalities Reduced (Baseline vs. Project) Av. Caracas BRT Corridor, TransMilenio, Bogotá 70 62 60 60 50 47 esFatalidade 40 38 30 29 23 20 18 18 14 10 10 9 6 5 6 3 4 2 2 1 1 0 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 2011 2014 2017 2020 Total Corredor Asociadas a TransMilenio Tendencia con Proyecto Tendencia Sin Proyecto Data: TRANSMILENIO S.A.
  31. 31. Sao Paulo, 104 Km median busways + preferential buslanes, 5,761,000 pax/day Initial busways 1980, Reconstructed in 2003
  32. 32. León de Guanajuato, México, Optibús,31 Km median busways (60% segregated) Initial corridor 2003
  33. 33. México City, Metrobús, 66 Km median busways, 570,000 pax/day Initial Corridor 2005
  34. 34. Pereira, Colombia, Megabús, 27 Km Busways, 155,000 pax/day Initial Operation in 2006
  35. 35. Pereira, Co o b a e e a, ColombiaPhotos courtesy of Megabus,Pereira, ColombiaP i C l bi
  36. 36. Guayaquil, Ecuador, Metrovía, 16 Km Busways, 96,000 pax/dayInitial Corridor 2006 Photos by D. Hidalgo
  37. 37. Santiago, Chile, 19 Km busways + 63 Km of roadimprovements, Integrated Network for 5 Million Trips/day Initial Operation in 2007
  38. 38. Photo: Sapfan (Jan Pesula) S PGuatemala City, February 2007
  39. 39. Photo: Metrocali MCali, Colombia 27 Km busways 130,000 pax/day Initial Operation in 2009
  40. 40. Macrobús, Guadalajara, México
  41. 41. Rapid growth of BRT Systems and BusC idCorridors i 2010 specially i d in 2010, i ll in developing cities l i iti 16 cities started operations in 2010 (13% growth) China (4), Indonesia (3), Colombia (2), India, Thailand, Brazil, México, Perú, UK, Canada 21 corridors; 396 km; 464 stations; 2 047 buses 2,047 1.4 million passengers per weekday (5% growth) 7 cities expanded corridors in 2010 125 km 2010, 49 new cities with corridors under construction 16 cities expanding their corridors iti di th i id 31 new cities in planning stages
  42. 42. Guahazhou BRT, China•Opened February 10, 2010•22.5 km dedicated busway•26 stations (prepayment, level boarding – some buses, buses passing lane up to lane, six platforms)•Peak supply: 340 buses/hr/direction•40 routes (in and out the system, no transfers)•Peak demand: 26,900 passengers/hr/direction•Daily demand: 800,000 Photo by Benjamin pax/per weekday p g g g p Source: http://www.chinabrt.org/en/cities/guangzhou.aspx#
  43. 43. Hefei BRT, China• Operations started 18 Jan 2010• 2 Corridors• 12.7 km busway (15 km total)• 14 stations• Peak supply: 60 buses/hr• Commerical Speed 16 p km/h• Fleet: 65 buses (estimated, conventional buses 12 m)• Ridership: 65,250 Photo: Karl Fjlestrom, ITDP pax/day (estimated) Source: http://www.chinabrt.org/en/cities/hefei.aspx#
  44. 44. Yancheng BRT, China g ,• Operations started May 1 2010 1,• 1 corridor• 8 km dedicated busway (15 km total)• 21 stations• 20 BRT buses (12 m)• 30 feeder buses• Estimated ridership 20,000 pax/day Photos and Source: http://www.chinabrt.org/en/cities/yancheng.aspx#
  45. 45. Zaozhuang BRT, China•Started Operations August 1, 1 2010 (Commercial operation September 1, 2010)•1 Corridor 33 km Corridor,•24 stations•2 terminals•20 buses (estimated)•27 buses/hour•700 pax/hour/direction•20,000 pax/day•30 km/h commercial speed Source: http://www.chinabrt.org/en/cities/zaozhuang.aspx#
  46. 46. Jaipur Bus, Jaipur,India• Operations started 31 July 2010• Route reorganization • 10 routes • 352 line-km • 497 bus stops • 200 buses • 150,000 pax/day•Busway • Length 7.1 km • 10 stations • 20 buses • 2,000 pax/day• Busways plan 42 km Photos: http://www.jaipurjda.org/page.aspx?pid=69 Info: EMBARQ India and http://www.jaipurbus.com/route_map.html
  47. 47. Bangkok BRT, Thailand• Free operations started May 15, 2010 y• Commercial operations started September 1, 2010• 15.9 km median busway (Sathorn-Ratchaphruek)• 12 stations• 20 buses, conventional high floor, 1 wide door• Peak ridership 1,000 pax/hr• Peak buses 14/hour• Daily ridership 10,000 pax/day• Fare 10 baht (USD 0.33) Photo and information source: http://www.tour-bangkok- legacies.com/bangkok-brt.html Additional source: http://www.chinabrt.org/en/cities/bangkok.aspx#
  48. 48. East London Transit, UKFebruary 2010. Two Routes (EL1, EL2)12 buses per hour47 min trip time pApproximate 20 Km, 40 stops, About 18 buses, 9,000 pax/day http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/projectsandschemes/2123.aspxhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_London_Transit http://www.flickr.com/photos/wirewiping/438206397 8/sizes/m/in/photostream/
  49. 49. Corredor de Ônibus de João Pessoa, Brasil• Started operations in 2010• 1 corridor• 2.5 km• 5 stations• 111 buses• 100,000 passengers per weekday y http://www.afonteenoticia.com.br/pagina.php?pg=3&id_ htt // f t ti i b/ i h ? 3&id noticia=1278
  50. 50. Transmetro, Barranquilla, Colombia• Opened 10 July 2010• 13.4 km dedicated busway• 15 Stations (prepayment, level boarding)• 1 intermediate station,• 1 terminal 32.7 km auxiliary corridors (62 km planned)• Buses: • 92 articulated (18m) • 85 large conventional (15m) • 107 conventional feeder (12m)• Daily demand • 32,000 pax (305,000 expected when fully implemented) Photo via transmetro.gov.co Sources: http://transmetro.gov.co/web2010/ Ministry of Transport, Mass Transit Group, Oct 2010
  51. 51. Metrolínea, Bucaramanga,Metrolínea Bucaramanga Colombia•Opened 21 December 2009•Commercial operation 22 Commercial January 2010•8.9 km trunk corridor•7.7 auxiliary corridors (25.2 km plan.) plan )• 24 stations (level boarding, prepayment)•80.1 km feeder lines•Buses• 15 Articulated• 47 Large Conventional 15m (203 plan.)• 69 Conventional feeder (150 plan.) Photo: http://www.metrolinea.gov.co/• Ridership: 75,000 pax/day Source: Ministry of Transport, Mass Transit Group, Oct 2010 G O t
  52. 52. Mexibús, Estado México, México• Initial operation Nov 30, 2010• 16 km exclusive busway (Ciudad Azteca- Tecamac)• 21 stations• 3 terminals• 130,000 pax/day (expected)• Proyected expansions 2011 • 21 k (L h í L km (Lechería-Las Photo: http://transeunte.org/tag/mexibus/ Américas) • 14 km (Chinalhucán- Source: http://transporteinformativo.com/pasaje/inicia- Pantitlán) operaciones-mexibus-con-63-autobuses-articulados-volvo
  53. 53. Metropolitano, Lima, Peru p , ,• Initial Operation, May 2010• First high capacity bus system with CNG only• 27 km busways, 80% with overtaking at stations g• 35 stations, one large central underground station, two terminals• 308 articulated buses• 319 feeder buses• 82,000 pax/day south section (854,000 pax/day ti (854 000 /d Photo: Protransporte, Lima, May 2010 expected)• 21 km/hour commercial Source: Menckhoff, G., Ochoa, C., Ardila, A. “El Metropolitano de Lima: Implementación y Primeros Resultados de un Nuevo speed Sistema BRT” CLATPU, Octubre 2010
  54. 54. Züm, Brampton, Ontario,Züm Brampton Ontario Canada• Operations Started September 20, 2010• 28.5 km busway• 17 stations• 25 buses, low floor, 25 m• Two additional corridors planned for 2011-2012 Photo: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Brampton_Zum_1074b.JPG Sources: http://www.brampton.ca/en/residents/transit/zum/Pages/welcome.aspx http://www brampton ca/en/residents/transit/zum/Pages/welcome aspx http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Z%C3%BCm
  55. 55. Systems expansions 2010Name City Expansion (growth)Transjakarta Jakarta, Jakarta Indonesia +48 km (34%)BRT Teheran Teheran, Iran +21km (31%)Janmarg Ahmedabad, India +20 km (105%)Select Bus New York City +14 km (121%)Xiamen BRT Xiamen, China +11 km (28%)Hangzhou BRT Hangzhou, Hangzhou China +6 km (46%)Optibús León, México +5 km (19%)125 km 3% increase over existing km in 2009 Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011
  56. 56. http://www.embarq.org/en/modernizing-public-transportation
  57. 57. Varied throughput (2009)
  58. 58. Commercial speed (2009)
  59. 59. Capital Cost (2009)
  60. 60. Common problems What Went Wrong • Rushed implementation • Very tight financial planning • Very high occupancy levels • Early deterioration of infrastructure • Issues with technological components • Insufficient user education Filename/RPS Number
  61. 61. Latin AmericanAssociation ofIntegrated Bus Systems andBRT Agencies
  62. 62. BRT: Lessons for TurkeyGood performanceHigh capacityLow costL tRapid implementationHigh positive impact Travel time, emissions, accidentsBRT is a feature or an aspiration of most cities
  63. 63. ¡Muchas Gracias! Volvo Research and Educational Foundations
  64. 64. Cities with the most used BRT/Bus Corridors Networks 2010Name Corridors Km Pax/day Prioridade Transporte Colectivo, Sao Paulo, Brazil p , , 10 301.3 6,843,664  , ,Rede Integrada de Transporte, Curitiba, Brazil 6 72.0 2,260,000 TransMilenio, Bogota, Colombia 7 84.0 1,700,000 Busways, Taipei, China Taiwan 10 30.3 1,680,000 Tehran BRT, Iran 5 91.0 1,440,000 Prioridade Transporte Colectivo, Porto Alegre, Brazil 10 57.2 1,170,000 Guangzhou BRT, China 1 22.5 800,000 Optibus, Leon, Mexico 4 31.0 700,000 Metrobus, Istanbul, Turkey 2 43.0 700,000 Metrobus, Mexico City, Mexico 2 66.0 570,000 Metrorapid, Los Angeles, USA d l 21 390.2 464,600 Metrobus‐Q, Quito, Ecuador 3 42.2 440,000 Prioridade Transporte Colectivo, Belo Horizonte,  2 23.7 435,000 Brazil Dark color strong segregation, stations with prepayment Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011
  65. 65. Cities with the Longest BRT/Bus Corridors Networks 2010Name Corridors KmMetrorapid, Los Angeles, California 21 390.2Prioridade Transporte Colectivo, Sao Paulo, Brazil 10 301.3SmartBus, Melbourne, Australia 4 233.0MIO, Cali, Colombia 6 179.0Trans Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia 10 172.2LINK, Phoenix, USA 4 128.0Metrobus, Monterrey, Mexico 3 101.0Tehran BRT, IranT h BRT I 5 91.0 91 0Trans Hulonthanlangi, Indonesia 3 90.0Trans Jogja, Indonesia 3 90.0TransMilenio, Bogota, ColombiaTransMilenio Bogota Colombia 7 84.0 84 0TransMetro, Pekanbaru, Indonesia 2 74.0Rede Integrada de Transporte, Curitiba, Brazil 6 72.0 Dark color strong segregation stations with prepayment segregation, Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011
  66. 66. Region Country 49 Cities with BRT/Bus Corridors under Construction Dec 2010Africa Ghana (1) Accra (Ghana),(3) Cape Town, Nelson Mandela Bay South Africa (2) ( )Asia India (6) Surat, Indore, Bhopal, Vishakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Rajkot(12) Amman Jordan (1) Korea, Republic (1) Changwon Turkey (1) Kocaeli (Izmit)Europe France (20) Annenasse, Antibes-Sophia Antipolis, Cannes, La Rochelle, Lille,(23) Lyon, Metz, Nancy, Nice, Nimes, Perpignan, Rennes, Saint-Brieuc, Saint- Etienne, Saint-Nazaire, Saint-Pierre-de la-Reunion, Sait-Paul-de-la-Reunion, Toulouse, Tours Toulouse Tours, Valenciennes Italy (1) Bologna, UK (2) Cambridge, Leigh-Salford-ManchesterLatin Argentina (1) Buenos AiresAmerica and Cartagena, Medellín, Soacha Colombia (3)theCaribbean México (1) Monterrey(10) Panamá (1) Panamá City Paraguay (1) Asunción Perú (1) Arequipa Puerto Rico (1) San Juan Venezuela (1) BarquisimetoUSA and USA (9) Albany (NY), Austin (TX), Berkeley (CA), Fort Collins (CO), Grand RapidsCanada (9) (MI), Roaring Forks Valley (CO), San Bernardino (CA), San Francisco (CA), Seattle (WA) Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011
  67. 67. Region Country 16 Cities with BRT/Bus Corridors under Expansion December 2010Africa (1) South Africa (1) JohannesburgAsia India (3) Ahmedabad, Jaipur, Pune(4) Iran (1) TeheranLatin Brasil (5) ( ) Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador gAmerica Colombia (2) Bogotá, Caliand theCaribbean Guatemala (1) Guatemala City(10) México (2) ( ) León, México City , yUSA and USA (1) New York City (NY)Canada (1) Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011
  68. 68. Region Country 31 Cities Planning BRT/Bus Corridors December 2010Africa Ethiopia (1) Addis Abeba(11) Kenia (1) Nairobi South Africa (7) Tshwane (Pretoria), Bloemfontein, Durban (eThekwini), East L d E London, Ek h l i P l k Ekurhuleni, Polokwane, RRustemburg b Tanzania (1) Dar es Salaam Uganda (1) KampalaAsia China (5) Shanghai, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Wuxi, Xian(4) Mongolia (1) Ulan BatorEurope (2) UK (2) Bath-Sommerset, GlasgowLatin Brasil (3) Fortaleza, Rio de Janeiro, UberlandiaAmerica Colombia (1) Cúcutaand theCaribbean Ecuador (1) Cuenca(12) El Salvador (1) San Salvador México (6) Chihuahua, Chimalhuacan, Guadalajara, Mexicali, Oaxaca, TijuanaOceania Australia Brisbane (expansion)USA and USA (2) Chicago, IL; Santa Clara, CACanada (2) Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011

×