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Webinar on "Motorized Two-Wheelers in Indian Cities: A Boon, A Bane, Or Both?"

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While motorised two-wheelers provide several benefits to travelers, they also create several challenges, which include serious safety concerns and dependence on private motorised vehicles. As their numbers continue to grow in Indian cities, it is important to understand the mobility advantages and challenges they present, in order to effectively manage the sector. The complex relationship between public transportation, two-wheelers and personal automobiles is of vital importance, and the effectiveness of both ‘push’ and ‘pull’ policy approaches to influence the relationship is crucial in the context of sustainable mobility.

This webinar talked about the motorised two-wheeler market in Indian cities and provided insights from Pune, a typical mid-sized Indian city where two-wheelers are the dominant mode of transportation.

The webinar recording can be seen here - https://www2.gotomeeting.com/register/443784874
Related Research - http://embarqindiahub.org/publications/motorized-two-wheelers-indian-cities-case-study-city-pune-working-paper

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Webinar on "Motorized Two-Wheelers in Indian Cities: A Boon, A Bane, Or Both?"

  1. 1. Motorized Two-Wheelers in Indian Cities: A Boon, A Bane, Or Both?
  2. 2. •Introduction •Objectives and Research Questions •Motorized Two-Wheelers in India •Case Study: Pune •Challenges •Lessons from the Experience of Taipei, Taiwan •Policy Implications and Options for Indian Cities Ongoing Research ~ Feedback and Collaborations Content
  3. 3. •Motorized two-wheeler market expanding rapidly in urban areas of Asia •80% of two-wheelers world-wide, 90% of sales •Indian market second only to China in size •Two-wheelers help fill the gaps ~ inadequate and poor quality public transport systems, walking and cycling infrastructure in many Indian cities Context •Car ownership rising, but two- wheelers leading mass motorization •Highest mode shares in small to mid-size cities •Trade-offs: Merits v/s Demerits
  4. 4. •Where does India currently fit on the motorization curve and future implications? •Do two-wheelers accelerate the overall growth of motorization – are they a step towards car ownership? •What is the role of two-wheelers in urban transport? •What are the key factors that influence motorized two-wheeler ownership, motivations of users? •What is the demographic of two-wheeler users? What effect does income have on two-wheeler ownership? •What are some of the issues and challenges for Indian cities with the rapid growth of two-wheelers? •Do two-wheelers have a role in sustainable urban mobility in the Indian context? If so, what policy options are available to best manage them, based on international experience? Objectives and Research Questions
  5. 5. Motorization Rates
  6. 6. Growth Trends: Two-wheelers, Cars in India •March 2012: 115.4 million registered two-wheelers in India ~ 72% of all vehicles, compared to 13% of cars •Motorization Rate: 96 two-wheelers to 15 cars / 1000 persons Source: Road Transport Year Book (2011-12) 2011-12: 13.5 million two- wheelers sold > 5x cars 2002-2012: CAGR Four-wheelers: 11% Two-wheelers: 10.7% 7x 16x
  7. 7. Mode Shares in Indian Cities, 2006 Source: iTrans 2009 Higher Motorization Decline in PT Mode Share = More pollution, congestion, travel times, safety issues and loss in worker productivity Co-relation between motorized mode shares of public transport and two- wheelers
  8. 8. Two-wheelers: A Step Towards Cars?
  9. 9. Two-wheelers: A Step Towards Cars? Cars Motorized Two- wheelers Public Transport/Cycling •Share of personalized modes have grown by leaps and bounds in recent decades, while transit numbers have generally dwindled •Income Threshold: $ 8000 capita p.a. •2015: Average Income - $1700 capita p.a. 20 cars/ 1000 p, and 100-150 cars/ 1000 p in richer cities •Two-wheeler Sales : Car Sales ~ unlikely to change much •With higher two-wheeler ownership levels, car ownership levels tend to decrease •11 of 12 Indian cities studied have higher two-wheeler motorization and lower car motorization than average middle-income Asian cities •Two-wheeler ownership ~ monthly household income, often not co- related
  10. 10. •Since 1960’s population grew 4x, vehicles 87x •2002-2012: highest CAGR of motor vehicles 13.2% p.a.; over 2.3 million •2010-2013: 20% decrease in public transport ridership Case Study : Pune Profile •8th largest city in India and fast growing •Population (2011): 3 million, students > 0.5 million •Large student and working population ~ 62% under the age of 30, median age 24 years •6th largest metropolitan economy in India, 2nd highest per capita income Source: RTO, Pune
  11. 11. •Historically ‘Cycle City of India’, now a city of two-wheelers •2005: More than 53% of households, 30% of population owned a two- wheeler •2011: two-wheelers 77% of registered vehicles, compared to 19% cars Case Study : Pune
  12. 12. •Objectives: Understand reasons for two-wheeler use, demographics of users and usage patterns, economic factors and propensity to switch to other modes. •Intercept survey of 1000 two-wheeler users in 2012 ~ 72% males, 28% females ; household members ~ 51% males, 49% females •10 stakeholder interviews: govt. officials, politicians, activists, corporates Two-Wheeler Users Survey Average Max Min Household size 3.7 persons 8 1 Number of adults 3 8 1 Number of children 0.6 3 0 Monthly household income (% of respondents) Rs. 25,000--50,000 (33%) More than Rs.100,000 (12%) Less than Rs 10,000 (5%) Number of motorized vehicles 1.9 10 1 Number of motorized two-wheelers 1.5 5 1 Number of cars 0.4 8 0 Number of bicycles 0.4 3 0
  13. 13. Reasons for Two-Wheeler Use
  14. 14. Reasons for Two-Wheeler Use •Convenience and affordability + lack of good public transport
  15. 15. Willingness to Shift Switch to Public Transportation •Won't use PT (20%) •Reliable/Regular (16%) •Less crowded (13%) •More frequent (10%) •Clean/neat (10%) •Better buses (9%) •Safer for women (6%) •Conductor/driver behavior (4%) •Reserved seats (5%) •Air-conditioned (3%) •Door-to-door-service (1%) •Information system (1%) •Metro/tram (1%) Switch to Cycling •Won't cycle (44%) •Small distance (16%) •Recreation/exercise (15%) •Cycle track (9%) •Compulsory/law (5%) •Greater cycle use (4%) •Very high petrol price (4%) •Can't ride cycle (1%) •Old age (1%) Switch to Walking •Small distance (50%) •Exercise (25%) •Won't walk (13%) •Better footpaths (8%) •Last option (4%)
  16. 16. Demographics of Two-Wheeler Users •Primary mode for all household members: •Two-wheelers: 55% •Cars: 19% •Public Transport: 15% •Majority of two-wheeler and car drivers male; but notable number of female two-wheeler drivers between ages 18-50 •Increasing role of women in two-wheeler ownership •Majority of two-wheeler/ car passengers and public transport users were female
  17. 17. •After age 50, the number of men and women driving two-wheelers dropped drastically; shifting to cars or public transport ~ safety concerns, lower comfort, improved purchasing power being possible reasons Demographics of Two-Wheeler Users •For half of those whose household owned a car, the two-wheeler was their primary mode of transport, while others relied on the car. •Average age to begin riding a two-wheeler: 20 (men), 21.5 (women)
  18. 18. •78% used the two-wheeler more than 10 times a week •27% of riders used the two-wheeler with another mode of transport ~ 43% with bus, 33% with autorickshaws, 20% with walking Usage Patterns
  19. 19. •Monthly household income of majority (33%) users between Rs 25,000-50,000 ; an equal third below and above •Ownership seen to increase with household incomes Economic Factors •Wider income distribution among users than typically perceived
  20. 20. •Relatively low capital, operational and maintenance costs. Users reported spending: •Rs 40,000-60,000 for new vehicles ; Rs 20,000-40,000 or less for second- hand vehicles •86% of users spent less than Rs 2000 a month on fuel+maintenance Economic Factors •1/3rd of surveyed riders also owned a car in household; average monthly household income Rs 65,650 •80% of those not owning a car interested in purchasing one in the future ~ primary impetus higher income (76%), marriage and children •1/3rd of respondents with children, also owned a car
  21. 21. Challenges •Growth in two-wheeler use ~ decline of non-motorized and public transport mode shares •Two-wheeler use can engender continued preference for private motorized mobility ~ lead to car ownership as income levels rise •Rising income levels and car ownership do not necessarily lead to a decline in the role or mode share of two-wheelers ~ similar trends forseen by stakeholders interviewed in Pune •cars still unaffordable by the masses •continued use of two-wheelers ~ congestion, parking problems, cost- effectiveness, etc •some regular car users may even shift to two-wheelers
  22. 22. •Private motorized vehicles ~ numerous external costs •Parking •Congestion •Traffic Management •Road Safety •Air and Noise Pollution Challenges
  23. 23. •Parking fees repealed in Pune ~ undue hardship on users, mostly from lower income bracket; survey results and studies present a different picture •Over 50% respondents felt that parking should be free •54% said parking was not a problem ~ presumably due to few restrictions and no cost Challenges: parking problems •Growing traffic congestion and parking issues ~ prompting authorities to study trends, frame policy and find solutions
  24. 24. •Pune Municipal Corporation’s Traffic Department (2009): •levy higher parking and congestion charges in city’s core areas •ban on two-wheelers entering some parts •Ambiguity regarding the congestion impacts of two- wheelers; infact bicycles and two-wheelers are a relatively efficient use of road space Challenges: congestion and restrictions •Rather than outright bans, consider appropriate management strategies
  25. 25. •Safety a significant concern with two-wheelers ~ vulnerable in mixed traffic, add to unsafe driving conditions •Pune (2010-11): 50% of all traffic accident deaths were two-wheeler riders; only 1% wearing helmet •20% of surveyed riders reported being in an accident; average number of accidents 1.2 •Wearing helmet: 43% regularly, 24% occasionally, 33% never •64% favor compulsory helmet laws Challenges: safety issues Source: Ruikar 2013
  26. 26. Lessons from the Experience of Taipei, Taiwan Source: Chang, 2012
  27. 27. Lessons from the Experience of Taipei, Taiwan •Two-stage left turn at major intersections •Waiting zone in front of other traffic •Separate two-wheeler lanes on major roads, not allowed on expressways Source: Chang, 2012
  28. 28. •Trial Helmet Law (1994) ~ helmet use went from 21% to 79% and motorized vehicle-related fatalities reduced by 56%. •National Helmet Law (1997) •Two-wheeler fatality rate in Taipei is 54% compared to 80% across Taiwan (MOTC 2011) ~ speed limit, and lane regulation, traffic management, public education and enforcement. Lessons from the Experience of Taipei, Taiwan •Road design and traffic engineering along BRT corridor ~ 85% reduction in two-wheeler accidents •Two-strokes stopped since 2004 ; introduction of electric two- wheelers in certain areas Source: Chang, 2013
  29. 29. •Still, two-wheeler users pay about 40% of real costs •Gradually charge full cost of use, while simultaneously improving public transport systems Lessons from the Experience of Taipei, Taiwan •Parking management ~ Source: Chang, 2013 dedicated curbside parking and parking fees
  30. 30. Inadequate, poor quality PT systems and NMT infrastructure: don’t meet needs Cars still unaffordable by the masses: but aspire to own Two-wheelers affordable and convenient: unmatched benefits RAPID GROWTH AND HUGE VOLUMES Managing Two-Wheeler Numbers/Use: Policy Implications and Options of Indian Cities •Need a good, fully-equipped public transport system, before restricting or discouraging two- wheelers •If public transport systems are improved, some or many would shift from private vehicles •Vehicle-free days in campuses, restriction along BRT
  31. 31. Policy Implications and Options of Indian Cities •Private sector initiatives to encourage sustainable mobility: ~ reserve parking space for car-poolers and bicyclists ~ charge parking fees for private vehicles, where special facilities are provided ~ stop incentives to acquire personal vehicles, incentivize travel by non- motorized or public transport and company buses ~ actively support initiatives like Bus or Cycle Days ~ provide technical/financial support and work with local authorities to address and solve traffic/transport issues in city Source: www.utilitycycling.org Source: www.youtube.com
  32. 32. Charging Real Costs of Use: •Higher taxes •Higher fuel prices •Parking fees •Congestion charges Policy Implications and Options of Indian Cities •Necessity, not luxury ~ unfair •Why restrict facilities, restrict ownership •Politically difficult to implement •May not prove to be enough disincentive PUSH STRATEGIES - Price mechanisms - Demand management PULL STRATEGIES - Improving PT services - Improving NMT infrastructure - Appropriate policies, investment, subsidies •Integrating two-wheelers with mass transit systems
  33. 33. Safety Issues: •License age reduced from 18 to 16 yrs ~ youngsters driving illegally •Strongly for helmet law ; compulsory on highways, voluntary within cities Policy Implications and Options of Indian Cities •Helmet use → Reduced severity of head injury and fatality •Indian MV Act has mandatory helmet legislation ~ not notified by many states, or partial in nature eg: for men and not women •Effectiveness ~ helmet quality, public education, enforcement •Proper pricing of fines
  34. 34. Policy and Planning Action Areas: •Improving and integrating with public transport systems •Demand management and pricing mechanisms, incentives to influence user behavior •Improved infrastructure design and management ~ roads, traffic, parking •Two-wheeler-specific traffic regulations ~ speed, lanes, etc •Implementation of helmet law •Public education and enforcement •Improved vehicle design/technology ~ safety, environmental perspective Policy Implications and Options of Indian Cities MAXIMISE ADVANTAGES MINIMISE COSTS
  35. 35. Thank You! QUESTIONS? Find the Full Working Paper Here: http://embarqindia.org/Motorized_Two_Wheelers_in_Indian_Cities_A_Case_Study_of_ the_City_of_Pune http://www.embarq.org/research/publication/motorized-two-wheelers-indian-cities •Anjali Mahendra, Strategy Head, Research and Practice amahendra@embarqindia.org •Radha Chanchani, Associate, Research and Practice rchanchani@embarqindia.org •Nick Ferenchak Nicholas.Ferenchak@ucdenver.edu

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