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11/8/12	
  




       Transit Oriented Development 

                                                  in new cities of India !

                                                                      November, 2012 !
                                                                           !
                                                                           !
                                                                           !
                                                                      EMBARQ India "




Our Challenge"

If	
  we	
  want	
  to	
  achieve	
  the	
  2	
  degree	
  target	
  …	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  …	
  we	
  need	
  to	
  limit	
  per	
  capita	
  emission	
  to	
  2t	
  CO2	
  eqv.	
  (IPCC	
  2007).	
  




Transport	
                                                                                         460	
  kg	
  CO2	
  per	
  capita/year	
  




           Source:	
  Bongardt	
  2010	
  




                                                                                                                                                                1	
  
11/8/12	
  




Our Challenge"
"




    Urban mode share is not coupled with
            economic growth"




                                                   2	
  
11/8/12	
  




1999,	
  Bogota	
  Columbia	
  




2009,	
  Ahmedabad	
  -­‐	
  India	
  
                                         6	
  




                                                         3	
  
11/8/12	
  




                                        Cities	
  with	
  BRT/Bus	
  Corridors
25                                                                                                                                         125
                                   Guanghzhou,	
  Hefei,	
  Yancheng,	
  Zaozhuang -­‐China
                              Jaipur	
  -­‐ India;	
  Pelembang,	
  Gorontalo,	
  Surakata	
  -­‐ Indonesia
20                                       Bangkok	
  -­‐ Thailand;	
  East	
   London	
  Transit	
  -­‐ UK                                  100
                             João	
  Pessoa	
  -­‐ Brazil;	
  Barranquilla,	
  Bucaramanga	
  -­‐ Colombia                       17
                               Estado	
  México	
  -­‐ México;	
   Lima	
  -­‐ Perú;	
  Brampton	
  -­‐ Canada                     16
15                                                                                                                                         75
                                                                                                                              13
                                                      Bogotá	
  TransMilenio
                                                     Los	
  Angeles	
   Metrorapid
10                                                                                                                                         50
                                                                                                                8       888
        Curitiba                                                                                                    7
                                                                                          5             5
5                                                                                                           4                              25
                         2                                  2                    2                  2
            1        1         1         11          1                1      1       11       11
                                   0
0                                                                                                                                          0
     1970        1975          1980            1985             1990             1995           2000                2005           2010



                                                                     Source:	
  EMBARQ	
  BRT/Bus	
  Corridors	
  Database,	
  January,	
  2011	
  




                The “Avoid-Shift-Improve” Strategy"

                                                             SHIFT	
  
                                                     towards	
  lower	
  
                                                     emiVng	
  modes	
  
                                                      of	
  transport	
  
                                                                                                     IMPROVE	
  
                   AVOID	
                                                                         technological	
  
            the	
  distance	
  or	
                                                               and	
  operaWonal	
  
            number	
  of	
  trips	
                                                                 efficiency	
  of	
  
                                                                                                      vehicles	
  

                                                               BENEFITS	
  
                                                       Air	
  quality,	
  health,	
  
                                                        safety,	
  climate,	
  
                                                               economy,	
  
                                                       development,	
  etc.	
  




                                                                                                                                                              4	
  
11/8/12	
  




 Avoid: Transit Oriented Development"                                                               Image	
  Source:	
  CTS	
  Mexico	
  



                     NON-­‐MOTORISED	
  TRANSPORT	
  


                     PUBLIC	
  TRANSPORT	
  	
  



                     PUBLIC	
  SPACES	
  


                     DENSITY	
  AND	
  MIXED	
  USES	
  


                      URBAN	
  FORM	
  


                      PARKING,	
  DEMAND	
  MANAGEMENT	
  AND	
  ROAD	
  SAFETY	
  



                      PARTICIPATORY	
  PLANNING	
  	
  




Avoid Strategy: Integration of Transport & Landuse in
Master Plans	
  


                                     Today                                   2041
                                                            Automobility              Sustainable	
  Transport




Population	
   (millions)             5.4                       13.2                            13.2
Trips (millions/yr)                   5.6                      39.75                           39.75
Area	
  (Sq.	
   Km.)                1330                       6484                           3242
Emissions
(million	
  Tons	
   CO2/yr)         0.33                      12.32                            1.97
Traffic	
   Fatalities	
  
(per	
  yr)                          175                       5,232                           1,225




                                                                                                                                                    5	
  
11/8/12	
  




1.	
  Hubli-­‐Dharwad|	
  TOD	
  along	
  BRT	
  
Corridor	
  |	
  Karnataka	
  -­‐	
  India	
  




Hubli-Dharwad BRT Corridor "



                                          Dharwad!


                                          Navanagar!


                                          Hubli!




                                                               6	
  
11/8/12	
  




Navanagar: Proposed Landuse in Master Plan"
 STUDY AREA BOUNDARY	
  


     BRT BUS STOP


      KHB LAYOUT


     GOVT. OFFICES


       TECH PARK


   NAVANAGAR TOWN


         APMC


   CANCER HOSPITAL


   AMARGOL VILLAGE


  PRIVATE PROPERTIES


  COMMERCIAL AREAS


     OPEN SPACES




TOD Workshop – Discussing Opportunities for Navanagar"




                                                                 7	
  
11/8/12	
  




Promoting public life and social interactions through safe
and attractive public spaces"
                                 5.2	
  
  Proposed land use zoning	
  




Increase BRT ridership through

Multi-modal Integration and Station Area Design"




                                                                     8	
  
11/8/12	
  




   Safe and seamless movement of people through 

   Complete Streets and Mobility Networks"




TOD	
  Principles	
      ExisTng	
  SituaTon	
           Notes	
  	
  
Transit!                 BRT proposed along Pune-        Need for feeder service to increase
                         Bangalore Road!                 accessibility to & from BRT!

NMT!                     Navanagar has no pedestrian &   Continuous barrier free NMT
                         bicycle infrastructure!         network with pedestrian priority
                                                         zones.!

Public Spaces!           Public spaces allocated in      Interconnected public spaces with
                         housing layouts and along the   pedestrian walkways & bicycle
                         corridor. !                     lanes!
Density!                 Low residential density with   Gradation of density proposed.!
                         FAR consumed less than half of
                         permissible limit. !
Mixed Use!               Single use generally observed. ! Mixed use encouraged. !

Demand Management,       Very low traffic volumes. !      Utilizing RoW effectively to achieve
Parking & Road Safety!                                   complete streets. !

Participation!           No participation.!              Arrived at multiple design proposals
                                                         with multiple stakeholders. !




                                                                                                        9	
  
11/8/12	
  




     2.	
  Sector	
  Design	
  |Bus	
  Rapid	
  Transit	
  |	
  
     Naya	
  Raipur	
  




   Naya Raipur"




Naya Raipur would be a planned and designed new city of the 21st century
to be a focus of socioeconomic and cultural life of the state of Chhattisgarh
having its role and recognition at national and international levels.!
!
Important components include: !
Modern mass transit system, coupled with a city wide pedestrian corridor
linking all major urban activities.!
A visually pleasing cityscape in tune with the aesthetic principles of urban
design and landscaping, Pedestrian friendly neighbourhoods !




Source: NRDA!




                                                                                       10	
  
11/8/12	
  




TOD in Naya Raipur"
 Various parameters of analysis of an existing sector to understand strengths / weaknesses "




 FSI and densities "   Road network and hierarchy"     Urban Form "




 Land use "                Open space/ public space"      Dwelling unit density "   Junction hierarchy "




  TOD in Naya Raipur"



                                m	
  	
  
                             800                           800
                                                              m	
  	
  




EXISTING SECTORAL DIVISION




                                                                                                                  11	
  
11/8/12	
  




  TOD in Naya Raipur"




LOCATION OF BRT STATION WITH RANGE OF PROXIMITIES




  TOD in Naya Raipur"




LAYING THE PEDESTRIAN GRID AND EXISTING NATURAL FEATURES




                                                                  12	
  
11/8/12	
  




  TOD in Naya Raipur"




HIGHEST DENSITY CLOSEST TO BRT STATION




  TOD in Naya Raipur"




GRADATION OF DENSITY FROM THE TRANSIT POINT




                                                     13	
  
11/8/12	
  




 TOD in Naya Raipur"




GREEN CORRIDOR ALONG NATURAL FEATURES




 TOD in Naya Raipur"




DEMARCATING OPEN SPACE HIERARCHY AS PER NATURAL FEATURES




                                                                  14	
  
11/8/12	
  




 TOD in Naya Raipur"




DEMARCATING CROSS SPINES WITH THE BUILT EDGE




 TOD in Naya Raipur"




DEMARCATING SECTOR EDGES AND CORNERS WITH MEDIUM DENSITY




                                                                  15	
  
11/8/12	
  




 TOD in Naya Raipur"




DEMARCATING SECTOR EDGES WITH MEDIUM DENSITY




 TOD in Naya Raipur"




MEDIUM DENSITY RESIDENTIAL TOWARDS THE BRT CORRIDOR




                                                             16	
  
11/8/12	
  




     TOD in Naya Raipur"




LOWEST DENSITY RESIDENTIAL AWAY FROM THE BRT CORRIDOR




Naya Raipur – Comparative Indicators"
Original	
  	
  Design	
  	
                            Proposed	
  	
  Design	
  	
  




                    BRT                                                     BR
                        	
     Sto                                            T	
  S
                                  p	
                                               top
                                                                                       	
  




    Criteria "                                Original Design"                                Proposed Design "
    Transit station adjacent density !        100 ppH!                                        600 ppH!
    Transit corridor density !                300 ppH!                                        500 ppH!
    Transit adjacent mixed use !              20%!                                            50%!
    5 min walk distance to transit stop !     30% population!                                 50% population !
    Walk trip distance to amenities !         5 to 10 mins!                                   2 to 5 mins !
    Hierarchy of greens !                     Centrally concentrated !                        Well distributed !
    Natural features and contour conservation! 50% !                                          80% !
    Population accommodated in sector!        11,000!                                         15,000!
    Connectivity across quadrants !           Poor !                                          Good !
    Legibility of urban form !                Poor!                                           Good!




                                                                                                                          17	
  
11/8/12	
  




TOD Principles"                           Existing Situation"                                   Notes "
Transit!                                  Bus Rapid Transit corridor                            Sector designed to provide direct
                                          proposed along Sector .!                              access to BRT station. !
NMT!                                      Poor access to the BRT station.                       Continuous barrier free pedestrian
                                          No physical planning for                              and bicycle pathways towards BRT
                                          transfer to feeders. No special                       station.!
                                          treatment / lanes for bicycles.!
Public Spaces!                            Centrally planned and not                             Well distributed hierarchy of public
                                          evenly distributed.!                                  spaces. Utilize existing natural
                                                                                                features and contours. !
Density!                                  Density does not correspond                           Gradation of density proposed. !
                                          with proximity to the BRT
                                          corridor. !
Mixed Use!                                Limited mixed use permitted but Suggest type and increase in mixed
                                          allocation not specified. !      uses close to the BRT station and
                                                                          along intersectoral roads.!
Demand Management,                        1.67 ECS per 100sqm. No                               DCRs assessed and
Parking & Road Safety!                    strategy for demand                                   recommendations suggested.
                                          management. !                                         Improve safety through street
                                                                                                design. !
Participation!                            No participation. !                                   Arrived at multiple design proposals
                                                                                                with multiple stakeholders.!




                                THE EMBARQ NETWORK"




 “The	
  EMBARQ	
  global	
  network	
  catalyses	
  environmentally	
  and	
  financially	
  sustainable	
  transport	
  solu?ons	
  to	
  improve	
  
                                                          quality	
  of	
  life	
  in	
  ci?es.”	
  




                                                                                                                                                                18	
  
11/8/12	
  




 Thank you"                                                                                         CiTes	
  

1.  Navanagar, Hubli Dharwad –
    Transit Station Area Masterplan!
2.  Indiranagar, Bangalore –
    Metro Accessibility!
                                       Ahmedabad	
  
3.  MIDC, Mumbai – Improving
                                                                               Naya	
  Raipur	
  
   Quality of Built Environment!
                                          Mumbai	
  
4.  Adarsh Palm Retreat, Godrej
   Garden City - Residential
                                                 Hubli	
  -­‐	
  Dharwad	
  
   Townships!
                                                            Bangalore	
  
5.  Sector 30, Naya Raipur –
   Greenfield Sector Planning!




                                                                                                                       19	
  

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Transit Oriented Development In New Indian Cities

  • 1. 11/8/12   Transit Oriented Development 
 in new cities of India ! November, 2012 ! ! ! ! EMBARQ India " Our Challenge" If  we  want  to  achieve  the  2  degree  target  …                      …  we  need  to  limit  per  capita  emission  to  2t  CO2  eqv.  (IPCC  2007).   Transport   460  kg  CO2  per  capita/year   Source:  Bongardt  2010   1  
  • 2. 11/8/12   Our Challenge" " Urban mode share is not coupled with economic growth" 2  
  • 3. 11/8/12   1999,  Bogota  Columbia   2009,  Ahmedabad  -­‐  India   6   3  
  • 4. 11/8/12   Cities  with  BRT/Bus  Corridors 25 125 Guanghzhou,  Hefei,  Yancheng,  Zaozhuang -­‐China Jaipur  -­‐ India;  Pelembang,  Gorontalo,  Surakata  -­‐ Indonesia 20 Bangkok  -­‐ Thailand;  East   London  Transit  -­‐ UK 100 João  Pessoa  -­‐ Brazil;  Barranquilla,  Bucaramanga  -­‐ Colombia 17 Estado  México  -­‐ México;   Lima  -­‐ Perú;  Brampton  -­‐ Canada 16 15 75 13 Bogotá  TransMilenio Los  Angeles   Metrorapid 10 50 8 888 Curitiba 7 5 5 5 4 25 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 11 11 0 0 0 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Source:  EMBARQ  BRT/Bus  Corridors  Database,  January,  2011   The “Avoid-Shift-Improve” Strategy" SHIFT   towards  lower   emiVng  modes   of  transport   IMPROVE   AVOID   technological   the  distance  or   and  operaWonal   number  of  trips   efficiency  of   vehicles   BENEFITS   Air  quality,  health,   safety,  climate,   economy,   development,  etc.   4  
  • 5. 11/8/12   Avoid: Transit Oriented Development" Image  Source:  CTS  Mexico   NON-­‐MOTORISED  TRANSPORT   PUBLIC  TRANSPORT     PUBLIC  SPACES   DENSITY  AND  MIXED  USES   URBAN  FORM   PARKING,  DEMAND  MANAGEMENT  AND  ROAD  SAFETY   PARTICIPATORY  PLANNING     Avoid Strategy: Integration of Transport & Landuse in Master Plans   Today 2041 Automobility Sustainable  Transport Population   (millions) 5.4 13.2 13.2 Trips (millions/yr) 5.6 39.75 39.75 Area  (Sq.   Km.) 1330 6484 3242 Emissions (million  Tons   CO2/yr) 0.33 12.32 1.97 Traffic   Fatalities   (per  yr) 175 5,232 1,225 5  
  • 6. 11/8/12   1.  Hubli-­‐Dharwad|  TOD  along  BRT   Corridor  |  Karnataka  -­‐  India   Hubli-Dharwad BRT Corridor " Dharwad! Navanagar! Hubli! 6  
  • 7. 11/8/12   Navanagar: Proposed Landuse in Master Plan" STUDY AREA BOUNDARY   BRT BUS STOP KHB LAYOUT GOVT. OFFICES TECH PARK NAVANAGAR TOWN APMC CANCER HOSPITAL AMARGOL VILLAGE PRIVATE PROPERTIES COMMERCIAL AREAS OPEN SPACES TOD Workshop – Discussing Opportunities for Navanagar" 7  
  • 8. 11/8/12   Promoting public life and social interactions through safe and attractive public spaces" 5.2   Proposed land use zoning   Increase BRT ridership through
 Multi-modal Integration and Station Area Design" 8  
  • 9. 11/8/12   Safe and seamless movement of people through 
 Complete Streets and Mobility Networks" TOD  Principles   ExisTng  SituaTon   Notes     Transit! BRT proposed along Pune- Need for feeder service to increase Bangalore Road! accessibility to & from BRT! NMT! Navanagar has no pedestrian & Continuous barrier free NMT bicycle infrastructure! network with pedestrian priority zones.! Public Spaces! Public spaces allocated in Interconnected public spaces with housing layouts and along the pedestrian walkways & bicycle corridor. ! lanes! Density! Low residential density with Gradation of density proposed.! FAR consumed less than half of permissible limit. ! Mixed Use! Single use generally observed. ! Mixed use encouraged. ! Demand Management, Very low traffic volumes. ! Utilizing RoW effectively to achieve Parking & Road Safety! complete streets. ! Participation! No participation.! Arrived at multiple design proposals with multiple stakeholders. ! 9  
  • 10. 11/8/12   2.  Sector  Design  |Bus  Rapid  Transit  |   Naya  Raipur   Naya Raipur" Naya Raipur would be a planned and designed new city of the 21st century to be a focus of socioeconomic and cultural life of the state of Chhattisgarh having its role and recognition at national and international levels.! ! Important components include: ! Modern mass transit system, coupled with a city wide pedestrian corridor linking all major urban activities.! A visually pleasing cityscape in tune with the aesthetic principles of urban design and landscaping, Pedestrian friendly neighbourhoods ! Source: NRDA! 10  
  • 11. 11/8/12   TOD in Naya Raipur" Various parameters of analysis of an existing sector to understand strengths / weaknesses " FSI and densities " Road network and hierarchy" Urban Form " Land use " Open space/ public space" Dwelling unit density " Junction hierarchy " TOD in Naya Raipur" m     800 800 m     EXISTING SECTORAL DIVISION 11  
  • 12. 11/8/12   TOD in Naya Raipur" LOCATION OF BRT STATION WITH RANGE OF PROXIMITIES TOD in Naya Raipur" LAYING THE PEDESTRIAN GRID AND EXISTING NATURAL FEATURES 12  
  • 13. 11/8/12   TOD in Naya Raipur" HIGHEST DENSITY CLOSEST TO BRT STATION TOD in Naya Raipur" GRADATION OF DENSITY FROM THE TRANSIT POINT 13  
  • 14. 11/8/12   TOD in Naya Raipur" GREEN CORRIDOR ALONG NATURAL FEATURES TOD in Naya Raipur" DEMARCATING OPEN SPACE HIERARCHY AS PER NATURAL FEATURES 14  
  • 15. 11/8/12   TOD in Naya Raipur" DEMARCATING CROSS SPINES WITH THE BUILT EDGE TOD in Naya Raipur" DEMARCATING SECTOR EDGES AND CORNERS WITH MEDIUM DENSITY 15  
  • 16. 11/8/12   TOD in Naya Raipur" DEMARCATING SECTOR EDGES WITH MEDIUM DENSITY TOD in Naya Raipur" MEDIUM DENSITY RESIDENTIAL TOWARDS THE BRT CORRIDOR 16  
  • 17. 11/8/12   TOD in Naya Raipur" LOWEST DENSITY RESIDENTIAL AWAY FROM THE BRT CORRIDOR Naya Raipur – Comparative Indicators" Original    Design     Proposed    Design     BRT BR   Sto T  S p   top   Criteria " Original Design" Proposed Design " Transit station adjacent density ! 100 ppH! 600 ppH! Transit corridor density ! 300 ppH! 500 ppH! Transit adjacent mixed use ! 20%! 50%! 5 min walk distance to transit stop ! 30% population! 50% population ! Walk trip distance to amenities ! 5 to 10 mins! 2 to 5 mins ! Hierarchy of greens ! Centrally concentrated ! Well distributed ! Natural features and contour conservation! 50% ! 80% ! Population accommodated in sector! 11,000! 15,000! Connectivity across quadrants ! Poor ! Good ! Legibility of urban form ! Poor! Good! 17  
  • 18. 11/8/12   TOD Principles" Existing Situation" Notes " Transit! Bus Rapid Transit corridor Sector designed to provide direct proposed along Sector .! access to BRT station. ! NMT! Poor access to the BRT station. Continuous barrier free pedestrian No physical planning for and bicycle pathways towards BRT transfer to feeders. No special station.! treatment / lanes for bicycles.! Public Spaces! Centrally planned and not Well distributed hierarchy of public evenly distributed.! spaces. Utilize existing natural features and contours. ! Density! Density does not correspond Gradation of density proposed. ! with proximity to the BRT corridor. ! Mixed Use! Limited mixed use permitted but Suggest type and increase in mixed allocation not specified. ! uses close to the BRT station and along intersectoral roads.! Demand Management, 1.67 ECS per 100sqm. No DCRs assessed and Parking & Road Safety! strategy for demand recommendations suggested. management. ! Improve safety through street design. ! Participation! No participation. ! Arrived at multiple design proposals with multiple stakeholders.! THE EMBARQ NETWORK" “The  EMBARQ  global  network  catalyses  environmentally  and  financially  sustainable  transport  solu?ons  to  improve   quality  of  life  in  ci?es.”   18  
  • 19. 11/8/12   Thank you" CiTes   1.  Navanagar, Hubli Dharwad – Transit Station Area Masterplan! 2.  Indiranagar, Bangalore – Metro Accessibility! Ahmedabad   3.  MIDC, Mumbai – Improving Naya  Raipur   Quality of Built Environment! Mumbai   4.  Adarsh Palm Retreat, Godrej Garden City - Residential Hubli  -­‐  Dharwad   Townships! Bangalore   5.  Sector 30, Naya Raipur – Greenfield Sector Planning! 19