Strategic participationfor sustainable transportLake Sagaris, MSc., PhD (c) Planning andCommunity DevelopmentCiudad Viva, Santiago, Chile.Transforming Transportation, Washington 2012Overcoming the challenges of integrating urban transportationsystems
The University of Life: It started with a march and...Ciudad Viva (Living City) wasborn in the fight of 25community organizationsagainst a major urban highwayconcession, Chile’s first, theCostanera Norte (1996-2000).We saved our neighbourhoodsfrom destruction and voted tocontinue with new proposals.
...became citizen-led planning. Practical, real- world experience and the reflection and theoretical development of MSc. and PhD. studies (urban planning) Citizens and government celebrating pro- cycling roundtable, Santiago 2007- 2010.
New living systems require:• A new equation:• Citizens x (widespread understanding + articulate demand) = political will to change. Academic Experiential Participatory institutions for knowledge: knowledge: bridging: sustainable transportbridging across Recognition of equivalent of Chambers of silos value added Commerce.
THE (FATAL) ATTRACTIONS OF AUTOMOBILITY... •100 years, billions of dollars in advertising… •Main product (after mortgages) in the financial industry.•Forusers, cars (like cigarettes) promise “freedom”:door-to-door service, user-defined timing, ability to carry cargo (especially children and groceries) HOW CAN WE CURB THE CAR?
Strategic participation1. Fundamental 1: Making PARTICIPATION strategic2. Fundamental 2: POLICY STREAMS AND ENTREPRENEURS3. Fundamental 3: POLICY TRANSPLANTS4. Planning and implementation: starting from people5. Putting it together, sustainable transport as part of new systems for living
Well-planned, well-integrated participation buildsconnections among disparate groups and players,tuning individual voices by providing them withinformation and incentives to sing out, but aboveall connecting them, so they function with all thepower, inspiration and effectiveness of a well-trained choir.
Mobilizing “ecologies of actors”(or “policy entrepreneurs”) much Co-operate Involve Partners Opponents Influence Fans Outsiders Source: Tom little Godefrooij, I- positive Attitude on the issue negative CE/Brabant Utilise Inform planners, The Netherlands
TIME is an issue: the one-two rule of policy innovation•20- to 30-year cycle for significant policy change, •roughly four stages.1. Small innovations, often erroneous and/or imperfect2. Contagion: problem-solution-crisis3. “Sexy city”, crisis, or other catalyst4. Exponential growth, often from one-city level to national policy
The one-two rule:maintain the movement2/3Experts (technical staff, academics, NGOs, operators, others)
create pro’s, toThe one-two rule:counter the contras 3/3 CREDIBILITY DEPENDS ON Knowledge Skills Connections Independence
Individuals are good,organizations betterContinuity beyond government turnoverIndependent monitoring and evaluation that otherpeople value, credibilityInstant data, which can replace, supplement orcomplement expensive studiesOptimal conditions for successful pilotsAccumulate: Skills, knowledge, capacity,relationships, networks.
Connecting PROBLEM and POLICY streams How can we resolve Who’s asking?Congestion, road safety City and regional governments, citizensAir pollution Governments at all levels, especially regional (metropolitan), CSOs, health actorsObesity/sedentarism, non-communicable Governments, WHO (urban, transport and education systemsdiseases, social determinants of health highly relevant)Inclusion: access to the city’s benefits (jobs, International agencies, policy makers, individuals, families andculture, education, etc.) neighbourhoodsImprovement to public spaces, children Cities, neighbourhoods, people, especially children (nowhere to play), public health especially US)Social justice -- human, social, economic, Women, disabled, elderly, children, full inclusion -- internationalenvironmental rights agencies, policymakers, citizens.Global warming/climate change, especially International agencies, lead cities, environmental and otherheat island, transport energy citizens’ groupsPeak oil Public policy makers, leading edge academics and thinkers (business, media)Loss of biodiversity International agencies, environmental groups, biologistsWater quality International agencies, policy makers, lead cities, environmental and other citizens’ groups
Fundamental 3: Gettingthe most out of policytransplants
Leverage points Where change happensLevel of action Formal relations Informal practicesConstitutional level Legal systems Value orientations(ground rules)Policy area level Formal regulations Informal codes(relations betweengovernmental bodies)Operation level (daily Proceduresactivities) RolesDe Jong et al. The Theory and Practice of Institutional Transformation
Who does theleveraging? Our policyentrepreneurs (Kingdon),mavens, connectors(Gladwell and others), “owners”
4. Planning andimplementation:starting with the rightpeople (the choirdirector)
Bringing peopletogether: deliberationSmall groups and largeOngoing and one-offMultiple feedback mechanismsGenuine integration: of people into processes, ofwalking and cycling into public transport, ofdifferent transport layers within the city, withrespect for public spaces.
Don’t call a vet when youneed a doctor...Not communications, marketing, sociology...We need experts in URBAN SYSTEMS (the spatialdimension) and PEOPLE. INTERACTIONS andRELATIONSHIPS. DIVERSITY. INCLUSION.EMPOWERMENT.Wholistic, bridge-builders, strong participatory skills.Most common in NGOs and CSOs (civil societyorganizations), adult education, some health, urbanplanners (north), anthropologists, humangeographers, mediation (law, women’s studies).
Civil society actors KEYExtensive networking, diverse relationships (internal,external), multiple skills.Horizontal relationships: governments set rules andgive orders, the private sector sells, civil societyeducates and invites people to change.Low-risk experimentation, small-scale to mid- tolarge.CREDIBLE, autonomous, transparent, communicateOutsiders, effective innovators (Jane Jacobs:innovation comes from outside the system).
All over the world... Global CSOs sowing grassroots change: bottom up, but also middle out, andreaching through the top, down. Interface for Cycling Expertise, ITDP, Embarq...
5. Putting it together...by focusing on people
Remember thatsustainable transportis the answer: what ifthe question is how tolive happier, healthier,more socially inclusivelives?
WHO - Public health:new priorities everywhereSocial determinants of healthObesity epidemic, under- and over-nutritionMainstreaming health into every policy area WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, HEALTH NGOS AND HEALTH AUTHORITIES, EG. KENYA, CHILE, INDIA, US, CANADA.
Obesity epidemic, under- and over-nutrition The main challenge in public health for the 21st century, in both developed and developing countries Associated with high-calorie, low-nutrient foods And car-based urban (not only transport) systems. EG. THE ACTIVE LIVING CENTER, US, FINANCING CIVIL SOCIETY AND RESEARCH, PUBLISHING URBAN DESIGNAND OTHER MANUALS TO FIGHT THE OBESITY EPIDEMIC.
OVERWEIGHT & OBESE ADULTS 38%HEALTHY 62 %ADULTS ACTIVE LIVING RESOURCE CENTER
OBESITY RATES IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1989 LESS THAN 10% OBESE 15-20% OBESE 10-14% OBESE MORE THAN 20% OBESE NO DATA ACTIVE LIVING RESOURCE CENTER
OBESITY RATES IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1993 LESS THAN 10% OBESE 15-20% OBESE 10-14% OBESE MORE THAN 20% OBESE NO DATA ACTIVE LIVING RESOURCE CENTER
OBESITY RATES IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1997 LESS THAN 10% OBESE 15-20% OBESE 10-14% OBESE MORE THAN 20% OBESE ACTIVE LIVING RESOURCE CENTER
OBESITY RATES IN THE UNITED STATES IN 2000 LESS THAN 10% OBESE 15-20% OBESE 10-14% OBESE MORE THAN 20% OBESE ACTIVE LIVING RESOURCE CENTER
OBESITY RATES IN THE UNITED STATES IN 2001 LESS THAN 10% OBESE 15-20% OBESE 10-14% OBESE MORE THAN 20% OBESE MORE THAN 25% OBESE ACTIVE LIVING RESOURCE CENTER
Developing SOBREPESO, OBESIDAD Ycountries too OBESIDAD MÓRBIDA NACIONAL: 89.4% HOMBRES: 87.9% MUJERES: 90.8%Sedentarismo en Chile Sobrepeso 43% > en Hombres Obesidad 25% > en Mujeres Ob.Mórbida 2.3% > en Mujeres FUENTE : ENCUESTA NACIONAL DE SALUD 2003
Health measures: Bans on pro-car advertising Health warnings on cars: “Driving causes cancer,obesity, heart attacks, diabetes 2 and other disablingand fatal conditions.” Ban on cars in “sensitive” areas:• congested, polluted, vulnerable population (residential, commercial)• needy population, especially children, desperate for places to play and move,• low-income and high-density living spaces... Healthy transport-only roads and districts: Imagine thesavings in infrastructure if ST has its own roads!
Not as crazy as youmight think After all, as Peñalosa reminds us, we’re building our cities for a hundred years Some cities have already started, and They are succeeding with cigarettes...
Transport/land use/public spaceTake short trips OFF buses and metros and improve comfortLimit space on roads, discourage car use for short journeys, give whole roads to buses and active transport, improve walking and cycling access as part of projects Improve quality, expand catchment area: walking 1 km in 15minutes, cycling or cycling-rickshaw-taxi 5 km, added comfort (loads), reduced costs (stations more spaced out) Add green: to corridors, bus-ways, access ways, roofs of stops and service buildings. Think water.
We are already seeing(relatively) isolatedexamples of theseshifts. We need to mobilize them more often, more coherently, in more diverse spaces...
Arguments for reducedcar useIncreasingly cars are used for short trips (under 5 km)– from 41% (Santiago) to as much as 75% (New York-Manhattan).Drivers at high risk for heart attacks, road rage andother physical and mental health problemsChildren spend long hours being shunted from oneplace to another by car, limiting their physical, mentaland social development
Arguments for WomenTrip-chaining makes public transit expensiveMultiple roles, particularly shopping and children, makepublic transit very uncomfortable for tasks involvingcargoDouble duties leave little time for health-relatedactivities.
To foster cycle usePublic transit as “back-up” for bad weather, ill health,cycle breakdown, getting over physical barriers (hills,highways).Saves money – makes car ownership unnecessaryand can save on feeder services and station costsMultiple health benefits from both cycling and publictransit use.
For Social Justice and Inclusion FOTO JOSÉ IGNACIO MOLINA
Learning to see the whole picture: Fitting the pieces together Walking and cycling:short distances from 0- 7 km, including transport ingress and egress trips Car: Long Public transport: distances, low medium to long density distances, medium to high density, concentrated concept: Tom destinations Godefrooij, I-CE.
•A Powerful Alliance is possible Modal share local trips in Selected Cities (%) Sustainable Pub. Tr. Walking Cycling Car/ mot, Transport City (PT) (W) (C) cycle (PT + W + C) Hong Kong 84 46 38 0 16 Santiago 73 33 37 3 27Amsterdam 67 15 26 26 34 Sao Paulo 66 29 37 0 34 New York 62 54 8 0.4 32 Berlin 61 25 26 10 39 Delhi 57 42 n.d. 15 29Copenhagen 51 12 19 20 49 London 50 19 30 1 50 Toronto 44 35 9 55 Stuttgart 40 15 21 4 59 Chicago 12 6 5 1 88
When will we see these kinds of movements advocating for public transport too?
When we work together!Walking, cycling, public transit are complementarymodes.Better conditions for all three offer potential forstrong, complementary effects – and better reviewsfrom the public.Campaigning and design information fromwalking- and cycling-inclusive planners cansignificantly improve public transit’s image andfacilities. Participation by active, well organized citizens andtheir organizations is a STRATEGIC NECESSITY
We live the city of our dreams, from the first moment we dare to dream and build it, together.