Smart Growth Climate Change and Prosperity

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By Chuck Kooshian, Center for Clean Air Policy. Transforming Transportation 2011. Washington, D.C. January 27, 2011.

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  • Introductions
  • There was a need for broader and deeper research on the economic and livability benefits of smart growth. Help folks find their (economic) self interest in smart growth policies to inspire and motivate them to try hard on implementation.
  • It boils down to a vision of the future. As we emerge from the recession it is clear that the old patterns are not going to continue.
  • And GDP includes many of the negative impacts of motorized driving: collision costs, fuel consumption, oil spills, health impacts…
  • Let’s look at the effect on American households. We know more household members are driving and they are driving longer distances. In fact since 1967 miles driven per household went up over 60%. Yet at the same time median income, a statistic that cancels out the effect of very high earners, only rose 25%. The experience for most households was one of driving substantially more but not seeing their income rise proportionately. CCAP thinks this means we are driving “empty miles”
  • We can all think of examples: driving 10 miles to the grocery store for a loaf of bread, driving the kids to trick or treat, school or playdates, driving to the gym or driving to park to walk the dog.
  • We should ask ourselves how much of VMT growth is empty miles. Caltrans also realized that not all miles are equal
  • We don’t know how much travel is empty miles but we can see that some places are doing well with far fewer miles of travel.
  • The explanation is accessibility. This is not the same as mobility. Mobility is driving a fast car on an empty desert highway, nothing hinders you from moving rapidly. Accessibility is having a grocery store two blocks away. When you want something, there it is. Communities are accessible if they are created by following simple development principles.
  • You’ve heard of smart growth, but let’s consider the actual principles. Walkability, mixed use, transportation choices. These are tried and true common sense principles. We know the kind of communities they build because America has been here before and these images live on in popular culture. In other words think “Back to the Future” not the Jetsons.
  • But wait, there’s more…
  • We already mentioned accessibility. When stuff is closer together you travel less to meet your daily needs
  • Trains, busses, bikes and walking use less energy than cars and trucks
  • Shorter roads, sewer lines, garbage pickup routes all can cost less.
  • Compact mixed use buildings save on energy, including gasoline for travel
  • Preserving the right natural areas can allow nature to provide services instead of requiring gray infrastructure
  • Community planning is a form of market research for both developers and governments.
  • Quality lasts – when you build for the future, you’re building wealth.
  • We tried to tease apart these benefits and find examples of how they can be quantified.
  • We found a range of benefits across a spectrum of stakeholders.
  • These are some measurable ways to look at quality of life but its really all about what people want. And that is changing.
  • It’s not just smart, it’s what people want
  • How do we get there? Room to experiment, more tools. Policy that rewards performance. Assessing state & local capacity needs Livability & the Economy workshop
  • Smart Growth Climate Change and Prosperity

    1. 2. Smart Growth, Climate Change and Prosperity Transforming Transportation January 27, 2011 Chuck Kooshian
    2. 3. Transportation Program What We Do Research Technical assistance Policy proposals Dialogues Key Products Transportation and GHG Trading paper State Climate Plans Transportation Emissions Guidebook Growing Cooler Dollar per Ton study Data & Capacity Needs for Transport NAMAs
    3. 4. <ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Inform </li></ul><ul><li>Inspire </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate </li></ul>Why Growing Wealthier ?
    4. 5. What could the new economy look like? Metropolitan Easy Access (less driving) Prosperous
    5. 6. Why should there be accessibility with less driving? Mitigating climate change is one reason.
    6. 7. Transportation climate targets can be met…
    7. 8. By driving 2 ½ miles less per person per day VMT/Capita -9%
    8. 9. Doesn’t driving make us prosperous?
    9. 10. Doesn’t driving make us prosperous? Not like it used to.
    10. 11. By 1996 economic growth began to outpace driving growth.
    11. 12. It takes fewer miles to make a GDP dollar than it used to. US Vehicle Miles Traveled per $1000 GDP
    12. 13. And consider….
    13. 15. Travel that contributes little or nothing to households and local economies might be called “empty miles”
    14. 16. How much VMT growth in the past 50 years has been “empty miles”?
    15. 17. States with high per capita GDP tend to drive less, not more
    16. 18. Mobility – the ability to move Accessibility – the ability to get where you want to go
    17. 19. These are common sense development principles.
    18. 20. More like “ Back to the Future” than “The Jetsons”
    19. 21. These principles can improve accessibility and reduce the need for driving.
    20. 22. Smarter development patterns can also:
    21. 23. <ul><li>Smarter development patterns can also: </li></ul><ul><li>make money </li></ul>
    22. 24. <ul><li>Smarter development patterns can also: </li></ul><ul><li>make money </li></ul><ul><li>save on costs </li></ul>
    23. 25. <ul><li>Smarter development patterns can also: </li></ul><ul><li>make money, </li></ul><ul><li>save on costs </li></ul><ul><li>improve quality of life </li></ul>
    24. 26. <ul><li>Smarter development patterns can also: </li></ul><ul><li>make money </li></ul><ul><li>save on costs </li></ul><ul><li>improve quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>- for households, businesses and governments. </li></ul>
    25. 27. How does it happen?
    26. 28. How does it happen? Improved accessibility
    27. 29. How does it happen? Improved accessibility More efficient travel
    28. 30. How does it happen? Improved accessibility More efficient travel More efficient services
    29. 31. How does it happen? Improved accessibility More efficient travel More efficient services Lower energy costs
    30. 32. How does it happen? Improved accessibility More efficient travel More efficient services Lower energy costs Use natural services
    31. 33. How does it happen? Improved accessibility More efficient travel More efficient services Lower energy costs Use natural services Inclusive planning
    32. 34. How does it happen? Improved accessibility More efficient travel More efficient services Lower energy costs Use natural services Inclusive planning Quality design
    33. 35. How does it happen? Improved accessibility More efficient travel More efficient services Lower energy costs Use natural services Inclusive planning Quality design
    34. 36. Return on Investment Business Household Municipal and Region Nation Savings on Expenditures Business Household Municipal and Region Nation Improved Quality of Life Business Household Municipal and Region Nation
    35. 37. Return on Investment Municipal and Region
    36. 38. Dallas, Texas – In the first year after the light rail system began operation downtown retail grew 33 percent Portland, Oregon – Investment of $103 million in streetcar attracted $3.5 billion in adjacent private investment. Silver Spring, Maryland - $360 million public/private partnership in mixed use shopping center drew 1 million square of office space raising annual property tax revenue 30% Return on Investment Municipal and Regional Municipal and Region
    37. 39. Return on Investment Business Municipal and Region
    38. 40. Properties with a high “Walk Score” value appreciated nearly 2% more annually than properties with low “Walk Score” $1 billion in stimulus money spent on transit created 16,419 job months while $1 billion spent on highways created only 8,781 job months A Federal Reserve study found that a metro area twice as dense as another tends to create 20-30% more patents. Return on Investment Business Municipal and Region
    39. 41. Return on Investment Business Households Municipal and Region
    40. 42. Denver households within ½ mile of light rail line rose in value by 18% between 2006 and 2008; other Denver homes lost 7.5% value on average. Return on Investment Households Municipal and Region
    41. 43. Savings on Expenditures Household
    42. 44. In the Washington, DC metro area households in central jurisdictions spent about 30% of their incomes on housing plus transportation; in outer suburbs they spent about 40% Sacramento’s Blueprint plan would lower future regional infrastructure costs by approximately $18,000 per household, reducing tax burdens. Bay Area Metropolitan Transportation Commission calculated vehicle travel reduction resulting in 15% less GHG would also generate $140 million in healthcare savings by 2035. Savings on Expenditures Household Savings on Expenditures Household
    43. 45. Savings on Expenditures Municipal and Region
    44. 46. Kentucky study found new central city households paid $1 more in annual taxes than services cost; in suburban areas costs were as much as $1,222 more than tax revenue per household. Sarasota, FL comparison showed a downtown development cost city $5 million in infrastructure while paying almost $2 million in taxes; a similar suburban development cost $10 million in infrastructure and only generated $250 thousand in tax revenue. Garland, Texas tree canopy is credited with diffusing 19 million cubic feet of runoff per storm, that additional water would require $38 million in retention infrastructure to handle it. Savings on Expenditures Municipal and Regional Savings on Expenditures Municipal and Region
    45. 47. Savings on Expenditures Nation
    46. 48. The Victoria Transportation Policy Institute calculated that for each trip not driven, i.e. taken by a mode other than car, society saves $1 to $3.50. TRB study concluded that shifting 15% of new growth into more developed areas by 2025 could save the nation $105 billion in road infrastructure costs. Households that travel fewer vehicle miles daily are less vulnerable to gasoline price variations. Savings on Expenditures National Savings on Expenditures Nation
    47. 49. Improved Quality of Life Municipal and Region
    48. 50. Quality of life was found to be a top reason for Colorado business location decisions with parks and open space the key attribute. Attractive placemaking efforts in Ohio, Kentucky, Washington, DC and other locations have consistently attracted new businesses and increased visitors to formerly depressed areas. Residents in King County, Washington were found to get out and walk more in neighborhoods that provided a wide variety of retail services. Improved Quality of Life Municipal and Regional Improved Quality of Life Municipal and Region
    49. 51. Improved Quality of Life Household
    50. 52. An analysis found a lower rate of pedestrian fatalities in compact urban areas and higher rates in sprawling areas. In Seattle, increase in neighborhood walkability was associated with more time spent walking and lower body-mass-index. Public participation in community planning in Sacramento was increased by going through the visioning process and letting residents create their own scenarios. Improved Quality of Life Household Improved Quality of Life Household
    51. 53. Surveys by real estate advisor RCLCO reveal that up to 88% of Gen Y (80 million born between 1979 and 1996) prefer to live in an urban setting. One-third are willing to pay for walkability.
    52. 54. Recommendations <ul><li>Do Measure Learn </li></ul><ul><li>Equip and Empower </li></ul>

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